The extent of what a mother goes through to reach the absolute best is the physical and the emotional preparation that she renders upon herself as she awaits for the birth of her child. One of the preparations is mmunization of tetanus toxoid among pregnant mothers to alleviate neonatal and maternal tetanus. (Stanfield, 2000) According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2007) Tetanus commonly known as lockjaw, is a disease particularly more common and serious in newborn babies (“neonatal tetanus”). Neonatal tetanus, which is mostly fatal, is particularly common in rural areas where deliveries are at home without adequate sterile procedures. It is acquired from spores of the bacterium Clostridium Tetani that infects a wound or the umbilical stump.
It can be acquired through spores that can be found in soil, dust and animal wastes. World Health Organization has estimated that neonatal tetanus killed about 180,000 babies in 2002. Neonatal tetanus can be prevented through immunizing women of childbearing age with tetanus toxoid vaccine, either during pregnancy or outside 2 of pregnancy. It protects mothers and also the infant, through a transfer of tetanus antibodies. Clean practices during delivery are also important to prevent neonatal and maternal tetanus. The World Health Organization also cited that once infected with tetanus, mortality rates are extremely high, especially in areas where appropriate medical care is not available.
However, these deaths can be easily revented by either improving the hygienic conditions of the delivery and/or by immunizing the mothers. In the Philippines, Tetanus toxoid immunization to pregnant women is one of the maternal care programs of Department of Health to protect newborn babies from neonatal tetanus since it is one of the major causes of neonatal deaths. The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in the Philippines began in July 1979. In 1986, made a response to the Universal Child Immunization goal, In June 2000, the 57 countries that have not yet achieved elimination of neonatal tetanus were ranked and the Philippines was listed together with 22 other countries n Class A, a classification for countries close to maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination. Flores, 2011) This study is significant to all the people especially to the women for them to know the importance of tetanus toxoid to the mother’s health and to the baby as well. Thus, the researchers aimed to determine the level of awareness of the mothers in Purok 1 Bancasi, Butuan City on the Tetanus Toxoid Immunization for Women Program. The study is based on Rogers’ (2005) Protection Motivation Theory was developed as a fear driven model. It is proposed that a perceived threat to health activates hought processes regarding the severity of the threaten event, the probability of its occurrence and coping mechanism. The motivation to protect, results from the perception of the threat and the ability or self-efficacy for coping.
This theory is orientated more toward disease prevention that health promotion such as in the case fatality will then think of ways to protect themselves and their children from that illness. (O’Keefe, 2002) This showed the independent variables which consists of doses of tetanus toxoid immunization for women which are the TTI, TT2, TT3, TT4, TT5 that result to the ependent variable which is level of awareness of the mothers of Purok 1, Bancasi, Butuan City on Tetanus Toxoid Immunization for Women Program. Figure 1: Independent and Dependent Variables of the Study Statement of Problem The main problem of the study is to determine the level awareness of the mothers of Purok 1, Bancasi, Butuan City on Tetanus Toxoid Immunization for Women Program.
Specifically it geared to answer the following research questions: 1 . What is the level of awareness of the mothers in Purok 1 Bancasi, Butuan City on the Tetanus Toxoid Immunization for Women Program in terms of: 1. 2 TT2 1. 3 TT3 1. 4 TT4 . 5 TT5 The finding of this study is important and beneficial to the following concern: Mothers – The study help the mothers realize the value tetanus toxoid vaccine. Thus, they will comply with the tetanus toxoid immunization for women program. Health Workers. This will lead them to assess the level of awareness of the mothers in tetanus toxoid immunization for women program. researches, thesis or studies related to breastfeeding. Scope and Limitation of the study Content.
The study focused on the level of awareness of the mothers in Purok 1 Bancasi, Butuan City on the tetanus toxoid immunization for women program. There were two main variables involved in the study, the independent variables and the dependent variable. The independent variables were the TT! , TT2, TT3, TT4 and TT5. The dependent variable was the well informed mothers on tetanus toxoid immunization program. Respondents and Place. The respondents of the study were the mothers who presently residing at Purok 1, Bancasi, Butuan City. Period. The researchers conducted the survey in the second semester collegiate year 2001 – 2012. The following terms were operationally defined by the researchers to facilitate an effective discussion of the problem.
Mother – a woman who had at least one baby either married or not.. TTI – tetanus toxoid first dose. TT2 – tetanus toxoid second dose. TT3 – tetanus toxoid third dose TT4 – tetanus toxoid fourth dose TT5- tetanus toxoid fifth dose The study utilized a descriptive method. This research study determined the level of awareness of the mothers in Purok 1, Bancasi, Butuan City on Tetanus Toxoid Immunization for Women Program. It was based on the doses of the immunization such as TTI, TT2, TT3, TT4 and TT5. This study was conducted at Purok 1, Bancasi, Butuan City. Barangay Bancasi is a rural barangay, among 59 rural of 86 Barangay of Butuan City. It is 7 kilometers away from the city proper.
Basically, it is an agricultural area. It has a land area of approximately 565 hectares of which 428 hectares are agricultural lands, 60 hectares is forestall, 4 hectares are swampy, 63 are residential and 10 hectares is idle or marginal lands. Bancasi is bounded in the north by the Municipality of Buenavista,on the east by Barangay Libertad, on the south by Barangay Pinamanculan, and on the west by Barangay Dumalagan. Its topography is flat to hilly. It has 12 puroks and a population of 4036 people. In Purok 1, it is populated wioth 325 residents, with 57 mothers. It is in front of Basketball Court,and Barangay hall and Health center. It has a chapel and two waiting shed.
Respondents and Sampling Procedure The respondents of the study were composed of 45 mothers from 57 mothers permanently living at Purok 1, Bancasi, Butuan City. The researchers made use of the Sloven’s Formula with a 5% margin of error in finding the sample size of the population of the mothers. Random sampling was used by the researchers in selecting the respondents. Sloven’s Formula: 1 + Ne2 Where: N = population size e = margin of error n = sample size In gathering data, the researchers utilized a survey questionnaires based on the Department of Health Guidelines on Tetanus Toxoid Immunization for Women Program. The respondents rated their responses according to: 5- strongly agree, 4- agree, 3- uncertain, 2 – disagree and 1 – strongly disagree.
The questionnaire sought to evaluate the level of awareness of the mothers in Purok 1, Bancasi Libertad Butuan City on the program as to the following: TTI, TT2, TT3, TT4, and TT5 Data Gathering Procedure The following strategies were implemented in gathering data: Request for Approval. The researchers gathered information by asking permission from the Barangay Captain of Bancasi, Butuan City Hon. Fidel G. Ceniza Jr. The researchers were also assisted by the Purok 1 President, Mrs. Chona L. Gallos. Distribution and Retrieval of Questionnaires. The questionnaires were distributed to the respondents. The researchers visited the respondents house to house and they were oriented as to the purpose of the study and assured of confidentiality of their answers Consolidation of Data.
The data was collected and accumulated were reviewed, checked, tallied, analyzed, interpreted, and presented with the application of the appropriate statistical tool. Statistical Technique In order to arrive at a valid interpretation of data and have a better analysis of the ollected data, the following statistical technique was used: Weighted Mean. This was employed to determine the central location of the distribution of scores in the responses using Likert five- point continuum scale with the following numerical and verbal rating scale below. Table 1 Likert Scale and Verbal Rating Numerical Rating Rating of Means Verbal Description 4. 21 – 5. 00 Strongly Agree 3. 41 -4. 20 Agree 2. 61 – 3. 40 Uncertain 1. 81 -2. 60 Disagree 1. 00-1. 0 Strongly Disagree The following are reviews from famous authors and researchers which contribute significant learning to the study. Related Literature Local Tetanus Toxoid vaccination for women is important to prevent tetanus in both mother and the baby. When two doses of TT injection given at one more month interval between each dose during pregnancy or even before pregnancy period the baby is protected against neonatal tetanus. Completing the five doses following the schedule provide lifetime immunity. The countrys neonatal tetanus rate is between 1/1,000 live births. There are few cities and provinces remained to have high neonatal tetanus rates.
The focus of neonatal tetanus elimination was in areas with low TT coverage and poor delivery are of babies but with continuing TT routine vaccination in areas with good coverage and Tetanus Elimination Plan has been developed for appropriate sourcing of funds and implementation for neonatal tetanus elimination. When given to women of childbearing age, vaccines that contain tetanus toxoid (TT or Td) not only protect women against tetanus, but also prevent neonatal tetanus in their newborn infants. The Tetanus Toxoid Immunization Schedule for Women is found in the table below. (Cuevas, 2007) Vaccine Minimum Age/lnterval Percent Protected Duration of Protection TTI As early as possible during pregnancy