Bribery

The country has had a consistently or ranking on the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, with scores of 2. 5 in 2011, 2. 3 In 2010, and 2. 5 in 2009, out of 10.

In 2011, Pakistan ranked 134 on the index with 42 countries ranking worse. In 2012, Pakistanis ranking dropped even further from 134 to 139, making Pakistan the 34th most corrupt country in the world, tied with Azerbaijan, Kenya, Nepal, and Nigeria. According to calculations performed by Transparency International, Pakistan has lost an unbelievably high amount, more than RSI. Trillion (US $94 billion), in corruption, tax vision and bad governance during the last four years of ex-Prime Minister Wausau Razz Gallant tenure. An adviser of Transparency International acknowledged that “Pakistan does not need even a single penny from the outside world If It effectively checks the menace of corruption and ensures good governance”. The Transparency International also noted that the four and half years of the past regime under Gillian had been the worst in terms of corruption and bad governance in the country’s history.Recently NAB chairman, a very respected and fair individual, declared that irruption to the tune of 40 billion US dollars was being done annually in the country.

Not surprisingly, every noble profession in Pakistan is reduced to two syllables of unadulterated shame: Richest. Police officers have greased hands, lawyers are corrupt, and bureaucrats are wont to gratuity. There are websites dedicated to spinning yarns of bureaucratic delays with an extra dose of Quad-e- Scam laced balls. On December 5th, an owner of a textile mill posted his story.The owner bribed a government representative for falling to have paid Income taxes for the past couple of years. He writes: “l paid bribe too representative of revenue department. And I paid a cheap amount as income tax.

” But that shouldn’t come as a surprise. Tax evasion is second only to cricket as our national pass-time, only 260,000 Pakistanis have paid income taxes for three consecutive years. Bribery is clearly widespread, and that the Pakistani government has a lack of arrows in its quiver to tackle this issue should be concerning. Len a column entitled “Ending Corruption in Pakistan,” Dry.Eczema Abraham analyzed the widespread effects of corruption in Pakistan, and concluded that the “country has reached the highest level of corruption et. He offered several policy prescriptions, but the apparent truth of the matter Is that the very essence of argument Is hinged on the same solutions that any person worth his name In Pakistani politics has called for. But few have acted on the claim, which Is why I doubt Miriam Khan will be any different.

Dry. Salk Bass, the Senior Vice President and Chief Economist of the World Bank, and former Chief Economic Adviser corruption using Game Theory.He is in favor of making bribery, the very foundation of corruption , “partially legal”. He argues that bribe givers should be given immunity or what he calls small scale ,though rampant and endemic, “harassment bribes. “The reasoning goes like this. Under the present circumstances, both the interests of the bribe giver and bribe taker are the same: to hide the fact that both parties were complicit in an illegal activity. When bribe giving is made legal, however, the bribe giver has an incentive to report the bribe taker.

This is so because any person that gives a bribe would rather prefer the task to have been completed without having to pay an additional cost. Now that the bribe giver can report with immunity, it creates a whistle blower protection system that Dry. Eczema Abraham wrote so eloquently of. The task completed, bribe taker caught, and the bribe returned. It’s a win-win-win for the bribe giver, and by-and-large, the Pakistani society. However, in the broad manner, the solution lies in the sole implementation of Islamic laws in true spirit, besides simplifying the office procedures.All complaints regarding bribery should be brought to light and cases must be decided within seven days.

If the concerned authorities take proper measures in this regard, this social evil will decrease definitely. Corporate Crime: The large practice of corporate crime in the gas and oil companies has damaged the amounts energy sector while setup of corporate crime control units in the gas and oil companies is straightaway required to save the sector and economy of the country as well. This is the time to restructure our energy policy.Pakistani natural gas supply is expected to decline from 4 billion cubic feet per day (BC) in 2010/11 to less than 1 BC by 2025/26. Pakistan can make Joint venture with Capron, worlds biggest gas firm, which has made massive profits for 2010 of over $35 billion. There is dire need to make one Unified Energy Ministry responsible for all energy issues to streamline the system. The Unified Energy Ministry needs to open gate for foreign qualified Pakistani.

This is the first time in history of Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources, Minister Dry Assam Hussein, took a very bold step and fired four Managing Directors of energy sector I. (USGS, SONGS, PL and GOGH) on the basis of poor performance. A Pakistani-American Oil and Gas Consultant Razz Mishear expressed these views on Sunday, while exclusively talking to The Nation. He has supervised various projects in oil and gas Industries as a Consultant, Regional/ Area Manager and Franchise Manager in different parts of North and Central America. He has also De a team of experts in LAP distribution to various part of Central America. He also helped and coordinated to hire qualified professionals to LONG projects funded by World Bank and third parties.Talking on the energy crisis, Mishear said that energy is key factor for the stability and prosperity of Pakistan; if our production units keep on shutting then unemployment will rise and hence street violence will rise.

Decision on energy projects should revolve around national interest rather than native political and personal gains. Energy offices should be run by the qualified, committed and deserving people equipped with due mandate. Unfortunately, Pakistani energy sector is in a state of crisis and over the past few years has negatively impacted the social and economic development of the country.Despite strong economic growth steps have been taken to install new capacity for generation of the required energy sources. Now, the demand exceeds supply and hence loading’s is a common phenomenon, he said. Talking about the root causes of the crisis, he said that Pakistan today is caught up in an acute energy crisis which has its roots in two distinct causes, including lack of Integrated Energy Planning and Demand Forecasting ND absence of central and focused entity responsibility for energy sector and imbalanced energy mix.He said, composition of energy mix includes oil, gas, hydro- electricity, coal, nuclear, LAP, imported electricity (Iran), wind, waste, solar power.

Oil contributes 29. 7 percent in Pakistan energy sector, gas 47. 7 percent, hydro-electricity 13. 3 percent, coal 7. 2 percent, nuclear 1. 3 percent, LAP 0. 6 percent, imported electricity (Iran) 0.

1 percent while wind, waste and solar power has 0. 0 percent role in this sector. Natural gas playing a dominating roll in Pakistan energy sector. Gas has total resource potential of 28.ETC, production of gas 4 BCC/Day; transmission network is 10,667 km; distribution network is 95,866 km; domestic customers are 5. 55 million; commercial customers are 76,169 and industrial customers are 9810. Oil and gas are the two major components of the energy mix contributing 77.

40 percent to the 63. 5 million TOE (tons oil equivalent) of energy requirement in Pakistan. There is concern over provinces involvement in oil and gas exploration. We have 18th amendment, article 172-73 sharing of hydrocarbon thermal between the province of federation, 18th amendment are dealt by the council of common interest.Currently the oil companies are paying more than 40 percent of income and other taxes. What we need is to bring back the petroleum policy of 1994, which had divided the country into three zones and the companies were offered 67. 5 percent of crude prices in zone three, 72.

5 percent in zone two and 77. 5 percent in zone one, without capable prices. At present Pakistan produces 4 BC gas but the gas materialized amount to between 3. 6 and 3. 7 BC gas shortage is becoming serious and leading to tension among the provinces. In last 10 years not a singles MM was added in energy sector.We spoil our resources, time and money on hundred of seminars, conference and events on energy crisis issue, but the outcome is zero.

Conversely, gas reserves of Pakistan are estimated at 28. 32 ETC whereas the crude oil recoverable reserves account for 303. 63 million barrels. The current production of oil is 65,531 barrels per day while gas production is at 4 billion cubic feet per day. Pakistan is a Gas dependent country possessing a well developed and integrated infrastructure for transporting, distributing and utilizing natural gas with 10,667 km of transmission and 95,866 km of distribution network.Pakistan at present is the largest CNN consumer in the world with 3116 operational CNN stations serving around 2 million vehicles. In the previous year, a total investment of $833 million has been made in the CNN sector of the country.

Primary energy consumption in Pakistan has grown by almost 80 percent over the past 1 5 years, from 34 million tons oil equivalent (TOES) in 1994/95 to 61 million TOES in 2009/10 and has supported an average GAP growth rate in the country of about 4. 5 percent per annum. However since 2006/07 energy supply has been unable to meet the country’s demand leading to shortages.Meanwhile per capita energy consumption in Pakistan at under 0. 5 TOEs/capita remains only one- third of world average. It is also unlikely that Pakistan will be able to substantially under current policies, and the energy import requirements of the country may grow from the present 30 percent to over 75 percent of the energy mix by 2025/26 costing over $50 billion per annum in foreign exchange. Talking about the short terms solution which can overcome energy crisis, he said that energy sector is backbone of the country and organizations under this ministry should work without any political influence.

In order to tackle the existing crisis and ensure a prosperous energy future, the backbone of the future energy policies would have to be reliance on domestic resource such as furnace oil, hydro project, coal reserved, wind turbines, bio-gas, nuclear energy. He pointed out that furnace oil plants are set suited in Karachi where the port and refinery facilities are available, saying Cyber Buckwheat should explore medium small and micro size hydro projects. He said that Kinds must use it coal reserves as a very little mount 7. 2 percent of coal reserved is being participated in total Pakistan energy mix.There is dire need to install Wind Turbines on coastal belt. Wind energy is the fastest-growing source of power in the world and its globally installed capacity has risen from 20,000 MM in 2001 to 80,MAW in year 2008. Pakistan has a huge potential to develop wind power.

The wind corridor in the coastal area of Kinds alone has the capacity to generate 50,MAW. It is important that the Government continues to provide incentives to private investors in the form of an attractive tariff. Federal Investigation Agency [edit] Main article: Federal Investigation Agency Federal Investigation Agency (VIA), the chief investigative agency of FederalGovernment and a department of Federal Interior Ministry. The VIA is charged with the investigation of violations of most Federal Criminal Laws from foreign intelligence and terrorist activities. It also provides services to other law enforcement agencies, including Fingerprint Identification, Laboratory Analysis of criminal evidence, Police training, and access to a Centralized Crime information database. Because of its broad mandate, the VIA is one of the most multidimensional and significant agency in the Government.The Agency traces its origins to 1974, when the Prime Minister Mr.

. Qualifier All Bout conceived and created a new Law Enforcement Agency on the pattern of American (FBI) Federal Bureau of Investigation. The old name of VIA was “Special Police Establishment” that traces its origin since 1947. The present name and formation came into being in 1974. Structure [edit] Federal Investigation Agency (VIA) has its Headquarter in Islamabad. The Chief Presiding Officer of the Agency is called the Director General, same is appointed by Ministry of Interior.The Headquarter provide support to 4 Provincial offices, ‘-e Kinds, Punjab, KIP, Balloonists & Federal Capital Islamabad.

The Provincial heads of Agency are called Directors. Further there are about (? ) smaller offices known as Wings or Circles e. G. Crime, Corporate Crime, Banking Crime and Anti-Human Trafficking Circles at provincial level, they are headed by Additional and Deputy Directors, these are helped by Investigation officers(l. O) like Assistant Directors, Inspectors, Sub-Inspectors and Assistant Sub-Inspectors etc. Or running of bureau Crime Wing, Immigration Wing, Technical Wing, Legal Wing and Administration Wing. Further there are branches working under the command of above-mentioned Wings biz Counter terrorism branch (GIG), Interpol branch, Legal branch, Crime branch, Economic crime branch, Intellectual Property Rights branch, Immigration branch, Anti-Human Smuggling branch, PISCES branch, Administration branch, Implementation and monitoring branch.

The VIA has its headquarters in Islamabad. The agency is led by the VIA Director General, who reports to the Interior Ministry of Pakistan.The Director General is nominated by Interior Ministry and confirmed by the Federal Government. The Director General may serve a term of three years or until the Government may require to serve. The VIA has (? ) field offices located in major cities. The VIA has about 3600 employees. Nearly 200 are special agents or embers from crime & GIG groups, who have the authority to make arrests and use firearms.

The rest are professional support personnel, a category that includes chemists, psychologists, language specialists, computer specialists, attorneys, clerical workers and many other types of employees.The Fib’s annual budget is approximately RSI. ???? And is appropriated by the Federal Government of Pakistan. VIA headquarters comprises the following segments down to provinces: the Administrative Services Division, the Counterintelligence Division, the Counterterrorism Division, the Criminal Investigative Division, the Cyber crime Division, the Finance Division, the Information Resources Division, the Investigative Technologies Division, the Laboratory Division, the Records Management Division, the Security Division, and the Training Division.A Deputy Director heads each division and executive assistant directors supervise groups of divisions. The headquarters also includes a number of offices, including the Office of Public Affairs, the Office of Professional Responsibility, the Office of the General Counsel, and the Office of Equal Employment Opportunity. Jurisdiction and Investigative Responsibilities [edit] Raids by the VIA Members are conducted with empty hands as they have no weapon to use for their protection in Crime Circles.

Only the GIG branch keeps weapon.The VIA has the broadest Jurisdiction (investigative authority) of all Federal Law Enforcement Agencies. It is authorized to investigate all Federal criminal violations that the Parliament of Pakistan has not specifically assigned to other Federal Agencies. It may investigate other matters at the orders of the President, Prime Minister, Attorney General and Provinces of Pakistan or if authorized under a law passed by Parliament. This mandate stands in contrast to other Federal law enforcement agencies, which have other missions to do.The VIA investigates hundreds of different Federal crimes, including organized crime, spurious drug trafficking, espionage, terrorism, bank robbery, extortion and kidnapping etc. The agency is responsible for investigating Federal civil rights violations, such as police brutality and racial violence (if assigned).

The VIA also investigates so-called white- collar crimes, such as money laundering, bank fraud, embezzlement and corruption of all Federal Government departments (excluded Armed Forces) election-law violations, environmental crimes, and computer-related crimes (some of them if signed).Additionally, it handles cases involving threats or actual violence against the President, Prime Minister and members of Parliament ; Senate (if assigned). Through Interior Ministry who decide whether to prosecute suspects in the law courts. In conducting investigations, the VIA frequently works with Local, Provincial, Federal and international law enforcement organizations. For example, the VIA works with the Local Police, Interpol and with other Military intelligence agencies to prevent foreign spies from obtaining Pakistan National Security secrets.Enquiring into rimming activities, the VIA can cross provincial and country borders. It investigates interstate criminal activity and can arrest fugitives who cross state lines to avoid prosecution.

Although the VIA is not usually authorized to make arrests in foreign countries but the agency works with law enforcement agencies abroad to apprehend suspects wanted in crimes. The VIA also conducts non-criminal inquiries. It researches the backgrounds of Pakistan Supreme Court nominees, Cabinet nominees, and other presidential appointees to help the federal Government so that these candidates be confirmed (if assigned).It also conducts background checks on people who apply for employment in the VIA, Justice Department, President House, Nuclear Commission and certain other government departments (if assigned). Finally, the VIA may collect evidence in civil suits involving Federal Government. Among functions of VIA specifically are investigations of counterfeiting and violations of Federal laws. Intelligence activities aimed at foreign countries, related to the National Security of Pakistan are generally carried out by the IS’.

However, the VIA does investigate terrorism outside of Pakistan when directed against Pakistan citizens or interests amp; embassies.Members [edit] Trainees at the VIA Academy (Members-in-training) Islamabad. New recruits at the academy undergo several weeks of professional training required by VIA special members. VIA members are responsible for conducting investigations. They perform their duties mainly from the field offices located around the country; they are guided by supervisors in the field offices and at headquarters. Members are responsible for gathering information and evidence about possible criminal activity that may be used by federal prosecutors in courts.To carry out their duties, VIA members are entrusted with some special powers.

They can place suspects under arrest with permission of the courts, they can eavesdrop on private phone conversations, videotape what goes on in people’s homes, open mailboxes and read mail and obtain telephone bills, income tax returns and other confidential documents. They can also subpoena witnesses to testify before a Jury. While pursuing suspects, they are authorized to break traffic laws by showing their credentials.If necessary, they can request to get help from the International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol), and foreign governments. But unless members are on bureau business and have proper authorization, they have no more power than any other citizens. People seeking employment as VIA members must be Pakistani citizens at least 21 years old but no older than 28. Applicants must have a degree from a college or university for officer rank.

The agency prefers those with law or other professional degrees because they can more easily understand federal criminal laws and financial crimes, respectively.It also admits applicants with expertise in languages and those with a bachelor’s degree and at least three years of relevant work experience. Applicants must also be in excellent in physical condition. New members undergo several weeks of intensive about federal laws, crime investigation, firearms use, defensive tactics, and other subjects. Law enforcement services [edit] As the sophisticated law enforcement agency in Pakistan, the VIA plays a central and indispensable role in assisting local, provincial, federal, and international law enforcement agencies.This assistance includes fingerprint identification, laboratory analysis of criminal evidence, criminal profiling, police training and maintenance of a central crime information database and publication of crime statistics. Fingerprint identification [edit] Fingerprint Analysis storing fingerprint records in computers have made it much easier for the VIA to identify latent fingerprints-?fingerprints left at the scene of a crime.

Every person has a unique set of fingerprints, a fact that allows police officers to identify suspected criminals from fingerprints found at a crime scene.The VIA serves as the central expert for fingerprint identification in Pakistan. Types of Human fingerprint patterns fall into three main groups: whorls, loops, and arches. Loops are the most common type, accounting for about 65 percent of all fingerprints. Whorls account for 30 percent of fingerprints, and arches for 5 percent. Despite these broad patterns, each individual has a unique set of fingerprints, which can be used as a means of personal identification. Police training [edit] The VIA Academy founded in 1975 and located in Islamabad.

The Academy, offers advanced trainings to selected and executive-level officers from VIA, Provincial Police, Armed Forces & various other departments of the government. All courses cover leadership and management skills, law, communications, forensic science, health and fitness. At VIA academy the officer from across the country are offered with hundreds f specialized courses on hostage negotiation, fingerprints, criminal psychology, computer crime, law and other topics. The VIA publishes VIA monthly Newsletter for information. The monthly magazine founded in 19?? Features information on the latest issues in law enforcement operations and administration achievements of officers are also highlighted to appreciate their hard work. Under Bout government [edit] Mr..

Qualifier All Bout was the founder of the VIA. He conceived the view that the Federal Government of the United States of America having a good law enforcement agency FBI which not only protects the country from internal crises but also from foreign suspected threats therefore he established the VIA on the same pattern. The VIA was empowered most during Bout government.VIA officers could also investigate issues, affairs and corruption of Politicians, Civil and Armed Forces officers. But during the government of General Aziza-LU-Has the VIA was used into political issues to subdue political rivals. This resulted in collateral damage of the Agency. Since the time of General Aziza-LU-Has the very powers of the agency have been curtailed.

Therefore corruption at the federal level increased too much. The actual concept of agency was fade. Whereas FBI is being delegated with more powers keeping the changing scenario of the world in view.Some officers and political personalities tired to lift up the VIA, keeping perspectives of the FBI but political hindrances, insufficiency of funds & shortage of required equipment made it impossible to stand with FBI of United States. September 11 attacks [edit] completely destroyed the World Trade Center Buildings and severely damaged the Pentagon, the U. S. Military headquarters outside of Washington, D.

C. More than 3,000 people died in the attacks. The FBI launched the largest investigation in its history and soon determined that the hijackers were linked to al-Qaeda, led by Saudi exiled Osama bin Laden.Later that year, the agency investigated the mailing of several letters containing potentially lethal anthrax bacteria to media companies and political offices, but it was unable to identify any suspects. Same as Just after September, 11 attacks the VIA also came into strict vigilance and launched huge operation in its history against suspected subjects. With the assistance of United States government the VIA Immigration wing was equipped with the most modern imputer software technology (PISCES) system. Through this high-tech computer devises, it is nearly impossible for delinquents to cross the boarders illegally.

VIA Immigration wing has also successfully decreased the ratio of illegal immigration which regarded it with appreciations from all the Nations of World. Drawbacks [edit] There is no general awareness in common people about the VIA some people frequently ask this question “Is there any department made to control corruption of federal departments? ” because the VIA did not advertise about its very existence for general awareness of common people, resulting the common people have no idea bout the VIA to redress their grievances against any federal department.Only educated people have knowledge about the VIA. There is also a solid reason about general ignorance of the common people that field offices of the VIA are situated in only major cities of the country so the people from remote areas have no or little approach to the Agency, in this concern the circles or the field offices may be extended to the district level for an easy approach of the common man. The VIA should also be equipped with latest technology according to needs and necessities of present time. Funds, equipment and training of the VIA members must be revamped.A great care should be given in selection of officers of the Agency because VIA has to perform sophisticated and technical type of task like FBI of United States of America.

Ordinary police officer cannot handle the technical and complex type of matters e. G. Enquiries & investigations regarding Banks, Corporations and immigration etc. Salaries Benefits and VIA employees draw very poor salaries and other benefits for them that’s why corruption cannot be controlled in Pakistan. Inter-Services Intelligence [edit] Main article: Inter-Services IntelligenceThe Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence (more commonly known as Inter- Services Intelligence or simply by its initials IS’) is Pakistanis premier intelligence agency. It is the largest of the three intelligence agencies of Pakistan. SIS was established as an independent intelligence agency in 1948 in order to strengthen the sharing of military intelligence between the three branches of Pakistanis armed forces in the aftermath of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, which had exposed weaknesses in intelligence gathering, sharing and coordination between the Pakistan Army, Air Force and Navy.

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