Brief course on lexicology
Brief COURSE ON LEXICOLOGY
is the scientific discipline of the word and distinguished in:
– General and particular
– Contrastive and comparative
– Descriptive ( the synchronic attack ) and historical ( the diachronic attack ) .
Contrastive and comparative, descriptive and historical are closely connected.
Lexical units are morphemes, words, word-groups, phraseological units.
& # 8211 ; the system demoing a word in all its word-forms. The lexical significance is the same ; the grammatical significance varies from one signifier to another ( to take, takes, taken, took, taking ) .
& # 8211 ; the subdivision of lexicology that is devoted to the survey of the significance. There are 2 schools with their ain attacks to the job of the words significance:referential and functional.
Types of the significance
– Grammatical significance
– Part of address significance
– Lexical significance & # 8211 ; may be denotational
( doing the communicating possible ) and connotative of
( the affectional charge and the stylistic value ) .
Stylistic value is subdivided into impersonal, studious and conversational.
The last may be pointed out like slang, common colloquial, obscenities, dialectical words, professionalisms, jargonisms.
is the interior aspect of the word, inseparable from its outer aspect ( sound signifier ) which is indispensable to the being of significance and to intercommunication.
Morphological ( -able, -less, re- , anti- )
Phonetical ( roar, splash, fathead, pooh! )
Change of significance
Word-meaning is apt to alter in the class of the historical development of linguistic communication.
Causes of semantic alteration
– Linguistic ( eclipsis, favoritism of equivalent word, lingual analogy )
Thesorts of association
involved in semantic alterations are:
1. similarity of significances
2. adjacency of significances
Consequences of semantic alteration:
1. alterations in denotational significance ( specialisation, extension ( generalisation [ specialized, common ] ) )
2. alterations in connotative of significance:
– pejorative development ( derogative affectional charge )
– ameliorative development ( the betterment of the con. constituent )
Causes, nature and consequence of semantic alterations should be regarded as 3 basically different but closely affiliated facets of the same lingual phenomenon.
The chief job is the job of interrelatedness and mutuality of the assorted significances of the same word.
it is ahistorical alteration in the semantic construction ensuing in disappearing of some significances or/and in new significances being added to the 1s already bing besides in the rearrangement of these significances in its semantic construction.
it is co-existence of the assorted significances of the same word at a certain historical period and the agreement of these significances in the semantic construction of the word.
primary ( original ) and secondary ( derived ) significances viewed inveterate.
cardinal ( basic ) and fringy ( minor ) significances harmonizing to their comparative frequence in address.
The semantic construction is ne’er inactive. The relationship between the diachronic and synchronous rating of single significances of the same word may be different in different periods of the historical development of linguistic communication.
The whole of the semantic construction of correlative polysemous words of different linguistic communications can ne’er be indistinguishable. Wordss are felt as correlated if their BASIC ( cardinal ) significances coincide.
& # 8211 ; of words belonging to the same portion of address.
& # 8211 ; of persons word-forms of different portion of address.
– lexical ( differ in lexical significance )
– lexico-grammatical ( both in lexical and grammatical )
– grammatical ( in grammatical intending merely )
may be classified on the footing of 3 facets every bit good:
1. sound signifier
2. in writing signifier
3. significance ( dew to the significance they are derived into homograpgs, homophones, perfect ( absolute ) homonyms )
– diverging significance development of a polysemous word
– convergent sound development of 2 or more different words ( most powerful factor )
The standards used in the synchronous analysis of homonyms:
1. semantic 2. spelling 3. distribution
The job of know aparting between lexical ambiguity and homonymy in theoretical linguistics is closely connected with the job of the basic unit at the semantic degree of analysis.
Word-meaning in syntagmatics and paradigmatics
Intralinguistic dealingss of words are fundamentally of2 types
: syntagmatic and paradigmatic.
specify the intending the word possesses when it is used in combination with other words in the flow of address.
are those that exist between single lexical points which make up one of the subgroups of vocabulary points ( sets of equivalent word, lexico-semantic groups, etc. ) .
He got a missive.
I received a note.
She obtained an epistle.
may be regarded in facets as followers:
– extra-linguistic ( of state of affairs )
Conceptual ( semantic ) Fieldss.
Hoponymic ( hierachia ) structures.
Categorization of vocabulary into thematic groups is based on common contextual associations
( the consequence of regular accompaniment of words in similar, repeatedly used contexts ) .
The chief standard underlying semantic categorization of vocabulary points on the paradigmatic axis is type of intending relationships between words.
The standard of common construct serves to sort words into semantic Fieldss and lexico-semantic groups.
Semantic relationship of inclusion is the chief characteristic of hyponymic hierarchal construction. Semantic similarity and semantic contrast is the type of relationship which underlies the categorization of lexical points into synonymic and antonymic series.
Synonymy and antonymy
are correlate and sometimes overlapping impressions. Synonymous relationship of the denotational significance is in many instances combined with the difference in the connotational ( chiefly stylistic ) constituent.
– words different in sound-form but similar in their denotational significance or significances and interchangeable at least in some contexts.
– words different in sound-form characterized by different types of semantic contrast of the denotational significance and interchangeable at least in some contexts.
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& # 8211 ; words put together to organize lexical units make up phrases or word-groups. Come dew to lexical and grammatical valency of the constituents. – words put together to organize lexical units make up phrases or word-groups. Come dew to lexical and grammatical valency of the constituents.
is the propensity of a word to look in assorted collocations. Restriction of the lexical valency are to be accounted for by the interior construction of the vocabulary of the English linguistic communication.
Different significances of a polysemous word may be described through its lexical valency.
is the propensity of a word to look in assorted grammatical constructions. Restriction of the grammatical valency are to be accounted for by the grammatical construction of the linguistic communication. The scope of the grammatical valency of the word is delimited by the portion of address the word belongs to.
word-groups may be classified by the standard of distribution into exocentric
( they harmonizing to the head-word are distinguished nominal, adverbial, verbal, adjectival )
word-groups may be classified into motivated
( phraseological units )
Phraseological units & # 8211 ;
non-motivated word-groups that can non be freely made up in address but are reproduced as ready made units.
1. phraseological mergers & # 8211 ; wholly non-motivated
2. phraseological integrities & # 8211 ; partly non-motivated
3. phraseological collocations & # 8211 ; motivated but made up of words possessing specific lexical valency. That & # 8217 ; s why there is a certain grade of stableness in such group.
The standard of idiomaticity ;
The standard of map ;
The standard of context ;
might besides be shared to:
& # 8211 ; two-member word-groups in which one of the members has specialized intending dependant on the 2nd constituent: & # 8220 ; little hours & # 8221 ; .
& # 8211 ; the idiomaticity of the whole word-group ; unusualness of collocability or logical incompability of member-words ; normally homonymic with matching variable word-groups: ruddy tape, to allow the cat out of the bag.
The distinguishing characteristic of the new attack is that wording is regarded as a self-contained subdivision of linguistics and non as a portion of lexicology. Harmonizing to this attack wording trades with all types of set looks which are divided into 3 categories
1. phraseological units
2. phraseomatic units
3. border-line instances
There are 2 degrees of attack to the survey of word-structure:
– the degree of morphemic analysis
– the degree of derivational or word-formation analysis
The basic unit of morphemic degree is the morpheme
defined as the smallest indivisible two-facet linguistic communication unit.
of morphemic segmentability of words are distinguished:
& # 183 ; complete
& # 183 ; conditional
& # 183 ; faulty
Wordss of conditional and faulty
segmentability are made up of full morphemes and imposter ( quasi ) morphemes. The latter do non lift to the position of full morphemes either for semantic grounds or because of their alone distribution.
morphemes fall into:
morphemes fall into:
semi-free ( semi-bound )
The structural types of words at the morphemic degree are described in footings of the figure and type of their ICs ( immediate components ) as monomorphic and polymorphous words.
Derivational degree of analysis purposes at happening out the derivative types of words, the interrelatedness between them and at happening out how different types of derived functions are constructed.
Derivationately all words form 2 structural categories:
1. simplexes ( non-derived )
2. composites ( derived functions ) which in their bend may be divided into:
& # 183 ; sufficial
& # 183 ; prefixal
& # 183 ; transitions
& # 183 ; compounds
Each structural type of composite shows penchant for one or another portion of address. Within portion of address derivative constructions are characterized by a set of derivational forms.
Derivational footing differ from stems both structurally and semantically. Derivational bases are built on the undermentioned linguistic communication units:
& # 183 ; roots of assorted construction
& # 183 ; word-forms
& # 183 ; word-group or phrases
Each category and subset bases has its ain scope of collocability and shows curious ties with different parts of address.
Derivational affixes form derived roots by repattering derivational bases. Semantically derivational affixes present a integrity of lexical significance and other types of significance: functional, distributional and differential unlike non-derivational affixes which lack lexical significance.
Derivational forms ( DP ) are meaningful agreements of assorted types of ICs that can be observed in a set of words based on their common mutuality. DPs can be viewed in footings of collocability of each IC.
There are2 types of Displaced person:
1 ) structural
that specify base categories and single affixes.
2 ) structural-semantic
that specify semantic distinctive features of bases and the single significance of the affix.
DPs of different degrees of generalisation signal:
& # 183 ; the category of beginning unit that motivates the derivative and the way of motive between different categories of words.
& # 183 ; The portion of address of the derivative.
& # 183 ; The lexical sets and semantic characteristics of derived functions.
Wayss of organizing words ( harmonizing to A.I. Smirnitskiy ) :
is the system of derivative types of words and the procedure of making new words from the stuff available in the linguistic communication after certain structural and semantic expressions and forms.
As a topic of survey English word-formation is that subdivision of English lexicology which surveies the derivative construction of words and the forms on which the English linguistic communication builds new words. Like any other lingual phenomenon, word-formation may be studied synchronically and diachronically.
There are 2 types
of word-formation in Modern English
being of 2 sorts like affixation and transition
There is every ground to except the shortening of words, lexicalisation, blending, acronymy from the system of word-formation and see them and other word-forming procedures as specific agencies of vocabulary refreshment. Sound-and-stress interchange in Modern English are a agencies of separating between different words, chiefly between words of different pa5rts of address.
The grade of productiveness and factors favoring it do an of import facet in synchronous description of every derivational form within the 2 types of word-formation.
Three grades of productiveness
are distinguished for derivational forms and single derivational affixes:
1. extremely productive
2. productive or semi- productive
3. non- productive