Brief History Of The Cold War Essay
, Research Paper
The Cold War is the term used to depict the tense relationship between station World War II East and West. The United States and Western Europe stood on the rule of opposing the communism that dominated Russia and Eastern Europe. Russia was catching smaller eastern European states with force and did non desire the United States to defy this motion into Europe. The two world powers rapidly abandoned the visual aspect of being Alliess, with Western Europe alining with the United States and Eastern Europe alining with Russia.
On March 12, 1947, the United States Congress adopted the Truman Doctrine. This stiffened the anti-Communist stance in America. The Truman Doctrine set forth a United States policy to help any government defying communism. Merely a few months subsequently, in June of 1947, Secretary of State George Marshall announced a program to assist in the Reconstruction of Europe. The program asked all European states, Eastern and Western Europe, to uncover their Reconstruction needs to the United States.
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The United States would so try to supply assistance to those states that responded. The Soviets predictably refused the offer of assistance and kept Eastern Europe closed. This was what the United States expected and it besides gave the visual aspect that the Soviets were responsible for increasing tensenesss in the Cold War. These two programs together offered economic and military support to those states threatened by Communism and besides weakened the already crumpling relationship between the United States and Russia.
The anti-Communist sentiment besides applied to the Communist parties in Western Europe. This led Western Europe to be led by middle of the roader or conservative parties in the fiftiess. Italy, Germany, Britain, and France wholly elected middle-of-the-road or conservative leaders in the 1950s.
With two world powers in the universe, European states now had to do a determination as to their defence. The states could unify to organize an confederation in order to increase their corporate strength, or the states could aline with one of the world powers and depend on that power for their defence. The consequence was the formation of NATO ( the North Atlantic Treaty Organization ) on April 4, 1949. The NATO pact allowed for a strong United States military presence in Europe for the first clip. An onslaught upon one of the take parting states was to be considered an onslaught upon all to the states.
The Soviet Union during the late fortiess and early 1950s put much of its fabrication attempt into the development of a dashing military. Secrecy and edginess ruled the Soviet landscape and constabularies control and the menace of war haunted the nervous citizens. Stalin ruled with an Fe fist and would non waver to oppress those that opposed him. Stalin s decease in March of 1953 prompted a battle for control of the Soviet Union. Nikita Khrushchev finally came to power in 1958 and held the office of Prime Minister. Khrushchev was really vocal of his resistance to the West. He wanted control of Berlin and tried to coerce the Western powers out of the metropolis. He was unsuccessful in making so and in 1961, Russia constructed the Berlin wall that separated the Soviet controlled part from the Western controlled subdivision of the metropolis.
The building of the Berlin Wall was non the lone edifice undertaking undertaken by the Russians in the early sixtiess. In October 1962, a United States pl
ane winging a reconnaissance mission discovered the building of missile installings. The placing of ballistic missiles in Cuba was the greatest menace yet encountered to United States security at this clip. This state of affairs created the most tenseness filled yearss of the Cold War. Both states were armed with atomic arms and both appeared ready to strike if the menace was strong plenty. President Kennedy and Khrushchev were able to come to an understanding without firing a shooting. Kennedy ordered a naval encirclement of Cuba in stead of the air work stoppage proposed by his military advisers and the Secretary of State. Russia recalled its ships that were sailing to Cuba when the Americans agreed non to occupy Cuba. The missiles in Cuba were removed and the United States accepted the being of a Communist authorities in Cuba. The realisation that a atomic war would non profit either state led to a partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in the summer of 1963. This led to a clip of relaxed tensenesss between the world powers and allowed Western Europe to go more confident that the Soviets would non go on their westbound motion. The SALT ( Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties ) pact signed in June of 1972 besides helped to take down the high tensenesss of the sixtiess. This pact set bounds on the anti-ballistic missile weaponries development.
There was a big economic roar in Western Europe in the late sixtiess and early 1970s. This great recovery was cut short nevertheless by an oil trade stoppage by OPEC, The Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries. OPEC controlled 53 per centum of the universes oil production and the group raised the monetary value of oil by 70 per centum on October 17, 1973. This addition in oil monetary value had a strong negative consequence on the Western European economic system. Western Europeans had become more dependent on oil as a beginning of energy. Through the remainder of the 1970s, Europe suffered economically. Unemployment rose and rising prices continued to lift in the face of this state of affairs, partially because of the continued rise in oil monetary values. The economic jobs gave rise to more conservative communist parties in Western Europe as it was obvious that the Soviet theoretical account of communism was neglecting economically. Eastern European states were defying the Soviet control more now than they had in the yesteryear because economic conditions were so hapless. Hungary and Poland both gained some independency from Soviet economic control and other Eastern European states struggled to stop the dependence on the Soviets.
With free elections taking topographic point in Poland in 1989, the Communist government in Central Europe was get downing to crumple. The Hungarians destroyed portion of the fencing that separated them from Austria in May of 1989 and this started a inundation of illegal out-migration. East Germans would & # 8220 ; holiday & # 8221 ; in Hungary and so go on to Austria and West Germany. Budapest was unwilling to utilize force to halt the fleeing East Germans and on November 9, 1989, the wall that separated West Berlin from East Berlin was opened by the East German Government in an effort to halt the illegal out-migration by doing it legal. In 1990, East Germany participated in free elections, and the Communist party lost its clasp on East Germany. With the dissolution of the Soviet clasp on European states and the soaking up of East Germany into West Germany, Russia no longer wielded the same power it did in the 1950s and 60s. The autumn of communism in Germany signaled an terminal to the Cold War.