Brine Shrimp and Ethanol Alcohol

8 August 2016

Artemia salina are used as environmental indicator species. They are used to test changes in their environment. A. salina is sensitive to toxins, temperature, and drugs. For the experiment, cysts were put into different amounts of ethanol alcohol and their viability was measured. The hypothesis used was if there is more ethanol alcohol, then the viability of the brine shrimp is unfavorable. The brine shrimp were put into sixteen Petri dishes with the same amount of brine solution. Different amounts of ethanol alcohol were added to each Petri dish.

After 168 hours, the brine shrimp were looked at under a microscope and some cysts became nauplii and many died. In the control dishes, with no alcohol, the viability was the lowest; the average viability for treatment one was not the lowest but treatment four was the lowest. Treatment two had the highest viability (Table 1). Treatment one, 0. 1668, versus treatment three, 0. 1224, and treatment four, 0. 0478, confirms that small amounts of ethanol alcohol can be accepted by the A. salina. The numbers of cysts in each Petri dish were not consistent.

If the number of cysts were consistent then the comparison between viabilities in each dish would be more accurate. The importance of the average viability is that it is used as representative data. It will help show the inaccuracies of the data recorded. The purpose of this experiment is determine the aptness of A. salina as warnings of ethanol pollution. INTRODUCTION Artemia, or commonly known as brine shrimp, live in hyper-saline lakes. Artemia begin as dormant cysts, which contains an embryo in a diapause state.

When water temperature and salinity changes occur, the cysts rehydrate and releases the first growth stage, known as nauplius larva. The cysts are very small and about fifty could fit on a small pin (“Brine Shrimp,” 2013). Hence, `1using the toothpick worked just fine. Nauplii molt about fifteen times until they reach adult size (“Brine Shrimp,” 2013). A. salina are known as an environmental indicator species, which means they are used to measure toxins, drugs, and other chemicals.

Brine shrimp are sensitive to temperature and salinity levels, which is why they are good test organisms (Lu et al. , 2012). Brine shrimp were put into ethyl alcohol to test their viability. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the suitability of A. salina as indicators of ethanol pollution. Due to natural selection, A. salina females can change their reproductive manner as an adaptive response from environmental stressors (Gajardo et al. , 2006). It was hypothesized that the amount of ethyl alcohol added to the A. salina environment causing the viability to be negative.

The reasoning behind the hypothesis is that since brine shrimp are environmental indicator species, then they would be prone to changes. The purpose of monitoring A. salina is to determine the viability in ethyl alcohol. This experiment is known as a bioassay, which means to experiment levels of toxicity. A. salina are very good for experiments such as this because they are inclined to minute changes, reliable, and cost efficient (Lu et al. , 2012). This experiment can be done in an outside pond or inside a lab (Lu et al. , 2012). MATERIALS AND METHODS

Petri dishes were labeled according to their treatment and 10 mL of brine solution was added to each dish. The following ethanol alcohol solutions were prepared: 0. 10 mL in treatment one, 0. 25 mL in treatment two, 0. 5 mL in treatment three, and 0. 0 mL in treatment four. Treatment four is the control therefore no alcohol was added. 0. 2 cm was measured from the end of the toothpick. The toothpicks were dipped into the eggs up to the 0. 2 cm mark to transfer the brine shrimp eggs into all the Petri dishes by stirring the toothpicks into the dishes.

A new toothpick was used for every Petri dish. Once the preparation was done, each treatment was observed and the numbers of eggs or cysts were recorded. They were put away in a closed drawer for about a week. After 168 hours of leaving the cysts in the alcohol, the number of surviving eggs and dead eggs were recorded. The viability was calculated by counting the number of swimming or alive nauplii and dividing them by the number of dead or not swimming nauplii. This experiment was repeated four times.

The relationship of ethanol and the viability of A. salina was calculated as the ratio of swimming to cysts or not swimming. The averages of groups one through four, the standard deviations, and the t-test was evaluated. RESULTS After 168 hours, the cysts became nauplii and some died and some survived. In treatment four, there was no ethanol alcohol mixed with the brine solution; it had the lowest viability. Treatment one had the most viability with 0. 10 mL of ethyl alcohol. Treatment two and three had the most ethanol alcohol therefore the viability was low as well, but not as low as treatment four.

This shows that small amounts of ethanol alcohol are favorable for brine shrimp viability. The average, also shows that the viability of treatment two was the highest, which represents brine shrimp are able to survive in minimal amounts of ethanol alcohol. The viability of the shrimp started to increase and then had an acute decrease (Figure 1). With the averages, the standard deviations were also calculated.

The development of A. salina will be unfavorable if exposed to too much ethyl alcohol. Treatment two and three have more ethanol alcohol than treatment one and more brine shrimp died when put into more ethanol alcohol. Since the viability was less than the viability in treatment one, the hypothesis was supported.

Treatment four was the constant and had no ethanol alcohol which less cysts died when compared to treatment two and three, but when compared to treatment one, more had died, The importance of calculating the average results is that the data would be more accurate instead of using one set of data or trial. In case there was an error during the experiment, the average would be representative. The average also specifies that there is some flexibility within the original data. In controlled experiments, averages and replicate samples can replace the error in the data that shows inconsistency.

This experiment can be enhanced in many ways. The amount of alcohol used as treatments could be lessened to measure the viability of A. salina more accurately. The amount of cysts in each Petri dish was not consistent because there weren’t an exact number of cysts that were to be measured. If a number was provided for how many cysts were to be experimented on, then the overall result would be more accurate and precise. For each Petri dish, 200 cysts or brine shrimp eggs should be counted out. The treatments were different in order to measure how much ethanol alcohol would significantly affect the A.

This data is inaccurate because there was a change in the environment of the brine shrimp from a dry can to the Petri dishes. Also, treatment two and three had the most change. Treatment one however had the highest viability, with 0. 1668(±0. 0299), this illustrates that brine shrimp have better living conditions when put in 0. 10 mL of ethanol alcohol (Table 1). The averages fill in the error gaps which provides for better results. According to the average viabilities the highest viability to the lowest viability is treatment 1, treatment 4, treatment 2, and treatment 3.

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