British Army

9 September 2017

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British Army Essay Example

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1. Introduction

The British Army is the land armed forces subdivision of Her Majesty ‘s Armed Forces in the United Kingdom. It came into being with the fusion of the Kingdoms of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated Regiments that had already existed in England and Scotland and was administered by the War Office from London. It has been managed by the Ministry of Defence since 1963.

The British Army consists of 114,240 regular soldiers ( which includes 3,760 Gurkhas ) plus 35,500 Territorial Army soldiers, giving it a sum of around 150,240 soldiers in November 2009. The British Army is the 2nd largest ground forces in the European Union, second merely to the Gallic Army. The full-time component of the British Army has besides been referred to as the Regular Army since the creative activity of the reservist Territorial Force in 1908. The British Army is deployed in many of the universe ‘s war zones as portion of both Expeditionary Forces and in United Nations Peacekeeping forces. The British Army is presently deployed in Kosovo, Cyprus, Germany, Afghanistan and many other topographic points.

In contrast to the Royal Navy, Royal Marines and Royal Air Force, the British Army does non include Royal in its rubric. This is because, historically, British Armies comprised separately raised regiments and corps. The place of the British Army as the Army of Parliament and non the Crown was confirmed by the Bill of Rights of 1689 necessitating Parliamentary Authority to keep a standing ground forces in peacetime. Nevertheless, many of its component Regiments and Corps have been granted the “ Royal ” prefix and have members of the Royal Family busying senior places within some regiments.

The professional caput of the British Army is the Chief of the General Staff, presently Sir David Richards KCB CBE DSO.

2. History

The British Army came into being with the amalgamation of the Scots Army and the English Army, following the fusion of the two states ‘ parliaments and the creative activity of the United Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated bing English and Scots regiments, and was controlled from London.

From about 1763, the United Kingdom has been one of the taking military and economic powers of the universe. The British Empire expanded in this clip to include settlements, associated states, and Dominions throughout the Americas, Africa, Asia and Australasia. Although the Royal Navy is widely regarded as holding been critical for the rise of the British Empire, and British laterality of the universe, the British Army played an of import function in colonisation. Typical undertakings included garrisoning the settlements, capturing strategically of import districts, and take parting in actions to lenify colonial boundary lines, supply support to allied authoritiess, suppress Britain ‘s challengers, and protect against foreign powers and hostile indigens.

The decease of General Wolfe during the Battle of the Plains of Abraham ; the runs of the Gallic and Indian War resulted in British control of modern Canada. British military personnels besides helped capture strategically of import districts, leting their imperium to spread out throughout the Earth. The ground forces besides involved itself in legion wars meant to lenify the boundary lines, or to prop-up friendly authoritiess, and thereby maintain other, competitory, empires off from the British Empire ‘s boundary lines. Among these actions were the Seven Years ‘ War, the American Revolutionary War, the Napoleonic Wars, the First and Second Opium Wars, the Boxer Rebellion, the New Zealand land wars, the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the First and Second Boer Wars, the Fenian foraies, the Irish War of Independence, its consecutive intercessions into Afghanistan ( which were meant to keep a friendly buffer province between British India and the Russian Empire ) , and the Crimean War ( to maintain the Russian Empire at a safe distance by coming to Turkey ‘s assistance ) .

As had its predecessor, the English Army, the British Army fought Spain, France, and the Netherlands for domination in North America and the West Indies. With native and provincial aid, the Army conquered New France in the Seven Years ‘ War and later suppressed a Native American rebellion in Pontiac ‘s War. The British Army suffered licking in the American War of Independence, losing the Thirteen Colonies but keeping on to Canada.

The Duke of Wellington ‘s victory over Napoleon Bonaparte at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 is normally held as one of the British Army ‘s greatest triumphs. The British ground forces was to a great extent involved in the Napoleonic Wars in which the ground forces served in Spain, across Europe, and in North Africa. The war between the British and First French Empires stretched around the universe. The British Army eventually came to get the better of Napoleon at one of Britain ‘s greatest military triumphs at the conflict of Waterloo.

Under Oliver Cromwell, the English Army had been active in the conquering, and the colony, of Ireland in the 1650s. The Cromwellan run was characterized by its sturdy intervention of the Irish towns ( most notably Drogheda ) that had supported the Royalists during the English Civil War. It ( and later, the British Army ) has been about continuously involved in Ireland of all time since, chiefly in stamp downing legion Irish rebellions and runs for self-government. It was faced with the chance of combating Anglo-Irish and Ulster Scots colonists in Ireland, who alongside their Irish countrymen had raised their ain voluntary ground forces and threatened to emulate the American settlers if their conditions ( chiefly refering place regulation and freedom of trade ) were non met. The British Army found itself contending Irish Rebels, both Protestant and Catholic, chiefly in Ulster and Leinster ( Wolfe Tone ‘s United Irishmen ) in the 1798 rebellion.

The Battle of Rorke ‘s Drift in 1879 saw a little British force repel an overpowering onslaught by Zulu forces ; eleven Victoria Crosses were awarded for the defense mechanism. In add-on to combating the ground forcess of other European Empires ‘ ( and of its former settlements, the United States, in the American War of 1812 ) , in the conflict for planetary domination, the British Army fought the Chinese in the First and Second Opium Wars, and the Boxer Rebellion ; Maori tribes in the first of the New Zealand Wars ; Indian princely forces and British East India Company mutineers in the Indian Mutiny ; the Boers in the First and Second Boer Wars ; Irish Fenians in Canada during the Fenian foraies ; and Irish separationists in the Anglo-Irish War.

Following William and Mary ‘s accession to the throne, England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance chiefly to forestall a Gallic invasion reconstructing Mary ‘s male parent, James II. Following the 1707 brotherhood of England and Scotland, and the 1801 creative activity of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, British foreign policy, on the continent, was to incorporate enlargement by its rival powers such as France and Spain. The territorial aspirations of the Gallic led to the War of the Spanish Succession and the Napoleonic Wars. Russian activity led to the Crimean War.

British Mark One Tank during World War I. Note the counsel wheels behind the chief organic structure which were subsequently scrapped as they were unneeded. Armored vehicles of this clip still required much foot and heavy weapon support and still do to a lesser extent today The immensely increasing demands of imperial enlargement, and the insufficiencies and inefficiencies of the underfunded, post-Napoleonic Wars British Army, and of the Militia, Yeomanry, and Volunteer Force, led to the Cardwell and Childers Reforms of the late nineteenth century, which gave the British Army its modern form, and redefined its regimental system. The Haldane Reforms of 1907, officially created the Territorial Force as the Army ‘s voluntary modesty constituent.

Great Britain ‘s laterality of the universe had been challenged by legion other powers, notably Germany. The UK was allied with France ( by the Entente Cordiale ) and Russia, and when the First World War broke out in 1914, the British Army sent the British Expeditionary Force to France and Belgium to forestall Germany from busying these states. The War would be the most annihilating in British military history, with close 800,000 work forces killed and over 2 million wounded. In the early portion of the war, the professional force of the BEF was decimated and, by bends, a voluntary ( and so conscripted ) force replaced it. Major conflicts included the Battle of the Somme. Progresss in engineering saw coming of the armored combat vehicle, with the creative activity of the Royal Tank Regiment, and progresss in aircraft design, with the creative activity of the Royal Flying Corps, which were to be decisive in future conflicts. Trench warfare dominated scheme on the Western Front, and the usage of chemical and toxicant gases added to the desolation.

The Second Battle of El Alamein reversed German aspirations in North Africa, and is frequently cited as one of the turning points of the Second World War. The Second World War broke out in 1939 with the German invasion of Poland. British confidences to the Polish led the British Empire to declare war on Germany. Again an Expeditionary Force was sent to France, merely to be hurriedly evacuated as the German forces swept through the Low Countries and across France in 1940. Merely the Dunkirk emptying saved the full Expeditionary Force from gaining control. Later, nevertheless, the British would hold dramatic success get the better ofing the Italians and Germans at the Battle of El Alamein in North Africa, and in the D-Day invasion of Normandy with the aid of American, Canadian, Australian and New Zealand forces. Contrary to popular ( Hollywood influenced ) belief, over half of the Allied soldiers on D-day were British. In the Far East, the British ground forces battled the Japanese in Burma. World War II saw the British ground forces develop its Commando units, the Parachute Regiment and the Special Air Service ( SAS ) . During the war the British ground forces was one of the major combat forces on the allied side.

After the terminal of World War II, the British Army was significantly reduced in size, although National Service continued until 1960. This period besides saw the procedure of Decolonization commence with the terminal of the British Raj, and the independency of other settlements in Africa and Asia. Consequently the ground forces ‘s strength was further reduced, in acknowledgment of Britain ‘s decreased function in universe personal businesss, outlined in the 1957 Defence White Paper. This was despite major actions in Korea in 1950 and Suez in 1956. A big force of British military personnels besides remained in Germany, confronting the menace of Soviet invasion. The Cold War saw important technological progresss in warfare, the Army saw more technologically advanced arms systems come into service.

Soldiers from the Parachute Regiment guard Argentine captives of war during the Falklands War. Despite the diminution of the British Empire, the Army was still deployed around the universe, contending colonial wars in Aden, Cyprus, Kenya and Malaya. In 1982 the British Army, alongside the Royal Marines, helped to recapture the Falkland Islands during the war against Argentina.

In the three decennaries following 1969, the Army was to a great extent deployed in Northern Ireland, to back up the Royal Ulster Constabulary ( subsequently the Police Service of Northern Ireland ) in their struggle with stalwart and republican paramilitary groups, called Operation Banner. The locally-recruited Ulster Defence Regiment was formed, later going the Royal Irish Regiment in 1992. Over 700 soldiers were killed during the Troubles. Following the IRA ceasefires between 1994 and 1996 and since 1997, demilitarization has taken topographic point as portion of the peace procedure, cut downing the military presence from 30,000 to 5,000 military personnels. On 25 June 2007, the Second Battalion Princess of Wales ‘s Royal Regiment vacated the Army composite at Bessbrook Mill in Armagh. This is portion of the ‘normalisation ‘ programme in Northern Ireland in response to the IRA ‘s declared terminal to its activities.

3. Recent and current struggles

Gulf War

The stoping of the Cold War saw a 40 % cut in work force, as outlined in the Options for Change reappraisal. Despite this, the Army has been deployed in an progressively planetary function. In 1991, the United Kingdom was the 2nd largest subscriber to the alliance force that fought Iraq in the Gulf War. The state supplied merely under 50,000 forces and was put in control of Kuwait after it was liberated. 47 British Military forces died during the Gulf War.

Balkan mountainss struggles

The British Army was deployed to Yugoslavia in 1992. Initially this force formed portion of the United Nations Protection Force. In 1995 bid was transferred to IFOR and so to SFOR. Currently military personnels are under the bid of EUFOR. Over 10,000 military personnels were sent. In 1999 British forces under the bid of SFOR were sent to Kosovo during the struggle at that place. Command was later transferred to KFOR. From 1993 & # 8211 ; Present 72 British Military Forces have died on operations in the former Yugoslavian Countries of Bosnia, Kosovo & A ; Macedonia.

Afghanistan

In 2001 the United Kingdom, as a portion of Operation Enduring Freedom with the United States, invaded Afghanistan to tumble the Taliban. The 3rd Division Signal Regiment was deployed in Kabul, to help in the release of the troubled capital. The Royal Marines ‘ 3 Commando Brigade ( portion of the Royal Navy but including a figure of Army units ) , besides swept the mountains. The British Army is today concentrating on contending Taliban forces and conveying security to Helmand state. Approximately 9,000 British military personnels ( including Mariness, aviators and crewmans ) are presently in Afghanistan, doing it the 2nd largest force after the US. Around 500 excess British military personnels were deployed in 2009, conveying the British Army deployment sum up to 9,500 ( excepting Special Forces ) . From 2001 – 23rd Jan 2010 a sum of 250 British military forces have died on operations chiefly in Helmand Province. 37 of these have died of causes other so direct contact from insurrectionists ; in such ways as accidents or unwellness.

Iraq War

In 2003, the United Kingdom was a major subscriber to the United States-led invasion of Iraq. There was major dissension amongst the domestic public but the House of Commons voted for the struggle, directing 46,000 army forces to the part, the 2nd largest force after the US. The British Army controlled the southern parts of Iraq and maintained a peace maintaining presence in the metropolis of Basra until their backdown on April 30, 2009. 179 British Military personnal have died on operations in Iraq.

Northern Ireland

The British Army was ab initio deployed in Northern Ireland in the aftermath of Catholic rioting in Derry and Belfast and to forestall Protestant Loyalist onslaughts on Catholic communities, under Operation Banner between 1969 and 2007 in support of the Royal Ulster Constabulary ( RUC ) and its replacement, the Police Service of Northern Ireland ( PSNI ) . There has been a steady decrease in the figure of military personnels deployed in Northern Ireland since the Good Friday Agreement was signed in 1998. In 2005, after the Provisional Irish Republican Army announced an terminal to its armed struggle in Northern Ireland, the British Army dismantled stations and withdrew many military personnels, and restored troop degrees to that of a peace-time fort.

Operation Banner ended at midnight on 31 July 2007, doing it the longest uninterrupted deployment in the British Army ‘s history, enduring some 38 old ages. An internal British Army papers released in 2007 stated that the British Army had failed to get the better of the IRA but had made it impossible for them to win through the usage of force. Operation Helvetica replaced Operation Banner in 2007 keeping fewer military mans in a much more benign environment. From 1971 to 1997 a sum of 763 British Military forces were killed during the problems ; 129 were killed in the twelvemonth 1972 alone. A sum of 303 RUC officers were killed in the same clip period. Most late, in March 2009, 2 soldiers and a Police Officer were killed in separate incidents in N. Ireland.

4. Tommy Atkins and other monikers

A long established moniker for a British soldier has been Tommy Atkins or Tommy for short. The beginnings are vague but most likely derive from a specimen ground forces signifier circulated by the Adjutant-General Sir Harry Calvert to all units in 1815 where the spaces had been filled in with the specifics of a Private Thomas Atkins, No 6 Company, 23rd Regiment of Foot. German soldiers in both World Wars would normally mention to their British oppositions as Tommy & # 8217 ; s. Present- twenty-four hours British soldiers are frequently referred to as Toms or merely Tom. The British Army magazine Soldier has a regular sketch strip, Tom, having the mundane life of a British soldier. Outside of the services, soldiers are by and large known as squaddies by the British popular imperativeness, and the general public.Another moniker which applies merely to soldiers in Scots regiments is Jocks, derived from the fact that in Scotland the common Christian name John is frequently changed to Jock in the slang. Cambrian soldiers are on occasion referred to as Taffy or merely Taff. This may merely use to those from the Taff-Ely Valley in South Wales, where a big part of work forces, left unemployed from the diminution of the coal industry in the country, enlisted during WW I and WW II. Alternatively, it is derived from the supposed Welsh pronounciation of Dafydd – the common signifier of Dave or Davey, the frequenter Saint of Wales being Saint David. Irish soldiers are referred to as Paddys or Micks ; this from the yearss when many Irish recruits had the name Patrick or Michael.

Junior officers in the ground forces are sometimes known as Prince ruperts by the Other ranks. This moniker is believed to be derived from the kids ‘s amusing book character Rupert Bear who epitomizes traditional public school values.

The term Pongo, as in “ where the ground forces goes, the niff goes ” , or Perce is frequently used by Sailors and Royal Marines to mention to soldiers. It is non considered complimentary.

5. Today & # 8217 ; s Army

Statisticss

British Army statistics
Forces ( Regular Army ) 114,260 ( of which 101,190 are trained )
Forces ( Territorial Army ) 35,500
Main Battle Tanks 446 Challenger 2
Light Tanks 325 FV107 Scimitar
Infantry contending vehicles 789 Warrior. 305 Tempest MPV
Armored personnel carriers and CVR ( T ) s 3,230 & # 8211 ; 4,000+
Land Rover Wolf 15,000
Pinzgauer 2,000
Utility Trucks 2,300
Artillery pieces and howitzers 2,896
Air Defence 337
Aircraft 300+

Current deployments

High strength operations

State Dates Deployments Detailss
Afghanistan 2001-

10,000

military personnels

British military personnels have been based in Afghanistan since the US-led invasion at that place in 2001. Presently, under Operation Herrick, the Army maintains military personnels in Camp Souter, Kabul and a brigade on 6-monthly rotary motion in the southern state of Helmand, largely based in Camp Bastion and frontward runing bases. In late 2009, the occupant brigade is 11 Brigade. This brigade has antecedently served Tourss in Afghanistan. In 2009, Secretary of State for Defence Bob Ainsworth announced British troop Numberss in Afghanistan to increase by 500 to a new high of more than 9,500 by late 2009.

Low strength operations

& lt ;

Br / & gt ;

State Dates Deployments Detailss
Cyprus 1960- Two resident foot battalions, Royal Engineers, 16 Flight Army Air Corps and Joint Service Signals Unit at Ayios Nikolaos as a portion of British Forces Cyprus. The UK retains two Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus after the island ‘s independency. The bases serve as forward bases for deployments in the Middle East. British forces are besides deployed individually with UN peacekeeping forces on the island. Principal installations are Alexander Barracks at Dhekelia and Salamanca Barracks at Episkopi.
Falkland Islands 1982- An foot company group and an Engineer Squadron. Previously a platoon-sized Royal Marines Naval Party acted as the military presence. After 1982 the fort was enlarged and bolstered with an RAF base at Mount Pleasant on East Falkland.
Calpe 1704-1991 One foot battalion, Joint Provost and Security Unit as a portion of British Forces Gibraltar. British Army fort is provided by an autochthonal regiment, the Royal Gibraltar Regiment, which has been on the Army regular constitution since the last British battalion left in 1991.
Rest of the Middle East 1990- 3,700 military personnels Since the Gulf War in 1991, the UK has had a considerable military presence in the Middle East. Besides Iraq, there are besides an extra 3,500 military personnels in Saudi Arabia and Camp Beuhring, Kuwait, every bit good as regular preparation Exercises in Oman.
Sierra Leone 1999- About 1,000 military personnels The British Army were deployed to Sierra Leone, a former British settlement on Operation Palliser in 1999 to help the authorities in squelching violent rebellions by militiamen, under United Nations declarations. Troops ( Royal Marines ) remain in the part to supply military support and preparation to the Sierra Leonean authorities.
Pakistan 2009-2012 24 teachers 24 teachers from the British Army along with 6 American Army forces will be developing Pakistan & # 8217 ; s paramilitary Frontier Corps over a period of 3 old ages

Permanent abroad posters

State Dates Deployments Detailss
Belize 1940s- British Army Training and Support Unit Belize and 25 Flight Army Air Corps British military personnels have been based in Belize from around late 1940s until 1994. Belize ‘s neighbor, Guatemala claimed the district and there were legion boundary line differences. At the petition of the Belizean authorities, British military personnels remained in Belize after independency in 1981 to supply a defense mechanism force.
Brunei 1962- One battalion from the Royal Gurkha Rifles, British Garrison, Training Team Brunei ( TTB ) and 7 Flight Army Air Corps A Gurkha battalion has been maintained in Brunei since the Brunei Revolt in 1962 at the petition of Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin III. The Training Team Brunei ( TTB ) is the Army ‘s jungle warfare school, while the little figure of fort military personnels support the battalion. 7 Flight Army Air Corps provides chopper support to both the Gurkha battalion and the TTB.
Canada 1972- British Army Training Unit Suffield and 29 ( BATUS ) Flight Army Air Corps A preparation Centre in the Alberta prairie which is provided for the usage of British Army and Canadian Forces under understanding with the authorities of Canada. British forces conduct regular, major armoured preparation exercisings here every twelvemonth, with chopper support provided by 29 ( BATUS ) Flight AAC.
Germany 1945 1st ( UK ) Armoured Division as portion of British Forces Germany British forces remained in Germany after the terminal of World War II. Forces declined well after the terminal of the Cold War, although the deficiency of adjustment in the UK means forces will go on to be based in Germany.
Kenya 2010- British Army Training Unit Kenya The Army has a preparation Centre in Kenya, under understanding with the Kenyan authorities. It provides preparation installations for three foot battalions per twelvemonth.

6. Equipment

The basic foot arms of the British Army are the SA80 assault rifle household, with several discrepancies such as the L86A2, the Light Support Weapon ( LSW ) and the short stock discrepancy, issued to tank crews. No sidearm is issued to infantry soldiers. However, some officers and snipers are issued with a sidearm, by and large the Browning L9A1 or the Sig Sauer P226 or the Colt 1911, though a hunt is presently afoot to happen a replacing. Support fire is provided by the FN Minimi light machine gun and the L7 General Purpose Machine Gun ( GPMG ) ; indirect fire by 51 and 81 millimeter howitzers, every bit good as the UGL, mounted under the barrel of the SA80 rifle. Sniper rifles used include the L96A1 7.62 millimeter, the L115A1 and the AW50F, all produced by Accuracy International. Some units use the L82A1.50 quality Barrett sniper rifle. More late the L128A1 ( Benelli M4 ) ‘combat scattergun ‘ has been adopted, and is intended for close quarters combat in Afghanistan.

The British Army ‘s Armoured vehicles include Supacat “ Jackal ” MWMIK and the Iveco “ Panther ” CLV. The Challenger 2 is its chief conflict armored combat vehicle. The Warrior Infantry Fighting Vehicle is the primary armored forces bearer, although many discrepancies of the Combat Vehicle Reconnaissance ( tracked ) are used, every bit good as the Saxon APC and FV430 series now being re-engined and uparmoured and returned to look line service as Bulldog. The British Army commonly uses the Land Rover Wolf and Land Rover Defender.

The Army uses three chief heavy weapon systems ; the MLRS, AS90 and L118. The MLRS ( Multi Launch Rocket System ) was foremost used operationally in Operation Granby and has a scope of 70 kilometer. The AS-90 is a one hundred fifty-five millimeter automotive gun. The L118 Light Gun is a 105 millimeter towed gun used chiefly in support of 16 Air Assault Brigade, 19 Light Brigade and 3 Commando Brigade ( Royal Marines ) .

The Rapier FSC Missile System is the Army ‘s primary battleground air defense mechanism system, widely deployed since the Falklands War ; and the Starstreak HVM ( High Velocity Missile ) is a surface-to-air arm, launched either by a individual soldier or from a vehicle-mounted launcher. The Starstreak fills a similar function to the American FIM-92 Stinger

The Army Air Corps ( AAC ) provide direct air power support for the Army, although the RAF besides assist in this function. The primary onslaught chopper is the Westland WAH-64 Apache ; a license-built, modified version of the AH-64 Apache that will replace the Westland Lynx AH7 in the anti-tank function. The Westland Lynx performs several functions including tactical conveyance, armed bodyguard, reconnaissance and emptying. It was besides used in the anti-armour function ; it could transport eight TOW anti-tank missiles. The TOW missile system for the Lynx was withdrawn from service by the MOD in December 2005.

The Bell 212 is used as a specialist public-service corporation and conveyance chopper, with a crew of two and a conveyance capacity of 12 military personnels.

The Westland Gazelle chopper is a light chopper, chiefly used for battlefield reconnaissance and control of heavy weapon and aircraft.

The Eurocopter AS 365N Dauphin is used for Particular Operations Aviation, along with the Gazelle.

The Britten-Norman Islander is a light aircraft used for airborne reconnaissance and bid.

7. Formation and construction

The construction of the British Army is complex, due to the different beginnings of its assorted component parts. It is loosely split into the Regular Army ( full-time soldiers and units ) and the Territorial Army ( parttime soldiers and units ) .

In footings of its military construction, it has two parallel administrations, one administrative and one operational.

Administrative

-Divisions administering all military units, both Regular and TA, within a geographical country ( e.g. , 5 Div. based in Shrewsbury ) .

-Brigade in a non contending capacity ( e.g. , 43 ( Wessex ) Brigade based in Bulford ) .

Operational

The major operational bid is Headquarters Land Forces ( integrating Land Command and Headquarters Adjutant General ) .

Corps made up of two or more divisions ( now unlikely to be deployed as a purely national formation due to the size of the British Army ) ; e.g. , the ARRC.

-Division made up of two or three brigades with an HQ component and support military personnels. Commanded by a Major-General.

-Brigade made up of between three and five battalions, an HQ component and associated support military personnels. Commanded by a Brigadier.

-Battalion of about 700 soldiers, made up of five companies commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel, or

-Battlegroup. This is a assorted formation of armor, foot, heavy weapon, applied scientists and back up units, and its construction is task specific. It is formed around the nucleus of either an armored regiment or foot battalion, and has other units added or removed from it as necessary. A battlegroup will typically dwell of between 600 and 700 soldiers under the bid of a Lieutenant Colonel.

-Company of about 100 soldiers, typically in three platoons, commanded by a Major.

-Platoon of about 30 soldiers, commanded by a Second Lieutenant, Lieutenant or, for specialist platoons such as recco or anti-tank, a Captain.

-Section of approximately 8 to 10 soldiers, commanded by a Corporal.

A figure of elements of the British Army usage option footings for battalion, company and platoon. These include the Royal Armoured Corps, Corps of Royal Engineers, Royal Logistic Corps, and the Royal Corps of Signals who use regiment ( battalion ) , squadron ( company ) and troop ( platoon ) . The Royal Artillery are alone in utilizing the term regiment in topographic point of both corps and battalion, they besides replace company with battery and platoon with troop.

Divisions

The British Army presently has 6 divisions with two ( 1st Armoured Division and 3rd Infantry Division ) being deployable.

Name Headquarterss Fractional monetary units
1st Armoured Division Herford, Germany 3 Armoured or Mechanised Brigades.
2nd Infantry Division Craigiehall, near Edinburgh Four regional brigades.
3rd Infantry Division Bulford, Salisbury Two mechanised brigades, one visible radiation brigade and one foot brigade.
4th Infantry Division Aldershot Three regional brigades.
5th Infantry Division Shrewsbury Three regional brigades, one air assault brigade and Colchester Garrison.
6th Infantry Division York Deployable divisional HQ. Created to back up the UK ‘s rotational bid of HQ Regional Command South.

Aviation constituents

The British Army operates alongside the Royal Air Force as portion of a Joint Force, but the ground forces besides has its ain Army Air Corps.

8. Particular forces

The British Army contributes two of the three particular forces formations within the United Kingdom Special Forces Command ; the Special Air Service Regiment and the Particular Reconnaissance Regiment.

The most celebrated formation is the Special Air Service Regiment. Formed in 1941, the SAS is considered the function theoretical account for many other particular forces units in the universe.

The SAS comprises one regular Regiment and two Territorial Army Regiments.

The regular Regiment, 22 SAS, has its central offices and terminal located in Hereford and consists of five squadrons: A, B, D, G and Reserve with a preparation wing. The regiment has battlespace functions in deep reconnaissance, mark designation and indicant and mark devastation and denial.

The two modesty SAS Regiments ; 21 SAS and 23 SAS have a more limited function, to supply deepness to the UKSF group through the proviso of Individual and corporate augmentation to the regular constituent of UKSF and standalone elements up to task group ( Regimental ) degree focused on support and influence ( S & A ; I ) operations to help conflict stabilization.

The Particular Reconnaissance Regiment ( SRR ) which was formed in 2005, from bing assets, undertakes near reconnaissance and particular surveillance, undertakings.

Formed around 1st Battalion the Parachute Regiment, with affiliated Royal Marines and RAF Regiment assets, the Particular Forces Support Group are under the Operational Control of Director Special Forces to supply operational tactic support to the elements of United Kingdom Special Forces.

9. Recruitment

The Army chiefly recruits within the United Kingdom, it usually has a recruitment mark of around 25,000 soldiers per twelvemonth.

Low unemployment in Britain has resulted in the Army holding trouble in run intoing its mark, in the early old ages of the twenty-first century there has been a pronounced addition in the figure of recruits from other ( largely Commonwealth ) states. In 2008 Commonwealth beginning voluntaries comprised about 6.7 % of the Army ‘s entire strength. In entire 6,600 foreign soldiers from 42 states were represented in the Army, non including Gurkhas. After the Gurkhas ( who are from Nepal ) , the state with most citizens in the British Army is Fiji, with 2,185, followed by Jamaica and Ghana with 600 each ; many soldiers besides come from more comfortable states such as New Zealand, South Africa and the Republic of Ireland.

The Ministry of Defence now caps the figure of recruits from Commonwealth states, although this will non impact the Gurkhas. If the tendency continues 10 % of the ground forces will be from Commonwealth states before 2012. The cap is in topographic point as some fear the ground forces ‘s British character is being diluted, and using excessively many could do the ground forces seen as using soldier of fortunes.

The minimal enlisting age is 16 old ages ( after the terminal of GCSEs ) , although soldiers may non function on operations below 18 old ages ; the maximal recruitment age was raised in January 2007 from 26 to 33 old ages. The normal term of battle is 22 old ages, and, one time enlisted, soldiers are non usually permitted to go forth until they have served at least 4 old ages.

There has been a strong and go oning tradition of enrolling from Ireland including what is now the Republic of Ireland. Almost 150,000 Irish soldiers fought in the First World War ; 49,000 died. More than 60,000 Irishmans, more than from Northern Ireland, besides saw action in the Second World War ; like their compatriots in the Great War, all were voluntaries. There were more than 400 work forces functioning from the Republic in 2003.

10. Curse of commitment

All soldiers must take an curse of commitment upon fall ining the Army, a procedure known as attestation. Those who believe in God use the undermentioned words:

I ( your name ) , swear by Almighty God that I will be faithful and bear true commitment to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, her inheritors and replacements and that I will every bit in responsibility edge candidly and dependably support Her Majesty, her inheritors and replacements in individual, Crown and self-respect against all enemies and will detect and obey all orders of Her Majesty, her inheritors and replacements and of the generals and officers set over me.

Others replace the words “ swear by Almighty God ” with “ solemnly, unfeignedly and genuinely declare and affirm ” .

11. Training constitutions

-Royal Military Academy Sandhurst ( RMAS ) is the officer preparation constitution. All officers, regular and modesty, go to RMAS at some point in their preparation.

-Army Training Regiments:

-ATR Bassingbourn

-ATR Winchester

-ATC Pirbright

-Infantry Training Centres:

-ITC Catterick

-Infantry Battle School, Brecon

-Support Weapons School, Warminster

-Army Foundation College ( Harrogate )

-Regional preparation Centres

-Welbeck Defence Sixth Form College

12. Flags and ensigns

he non-ceremonial flag of the British Army. Sometimes the word Army in gold letters appears below the badge.The British Army does non hold its ain specific ensign, unlike the Royal Navy, which uses the White Ensign, and the RAF, which uses the Royal Air Force Ensign. Alternatively, the Army has different flags and ensigns, for the full ground forces and the different regiments and corps. The official flag of the Army as a whole is the Union Flag, flown in a ratio of 3:5. A non-ceremonial flag besides exists, which is used at enrolling events, military events and exhibitions. It besides flies from the MOD edifice in Whitehall.

Whilst at war, the Union Flag is ever used, and this flag represents the Army on the Cenotaph in Whitehall, London ( the UK ‘s memorial to its war dead ) . A British Army ensign besides exists for vass commanded by a commissioned officer, the Blue Ensign defaced with the Army badge. Army Vessels are operated by the Maritime component of the Royal Logistic Corps.

Each Foot Guards and line regiment ( which does non include The Rifles and Royal Gurkha Rifles ( RGR ) ) besides has its ain flags, known as Colours & # 8212 ; usually a Regimental Colour and a Queen ‘s Colour. The design of different Regimental Colours. vary but typically the coloring material has the Regiment ‘s badge in the Centre. The RGR carry the Queen ‘s Truncheon in topographic point of Colours.

13. Ranks, specialisms and insignia

NATO Code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF ( D ) Student Officer
United Kingdom Field Marshal1 General Lieutenant General Major General Brigadier Colonels Lieutenant Colonel Major Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant No Equivalent Officer Cadet
Abbreviation Frequency modulation Gen Lt Gen Maj Gen Brig Col Lt Col Maj Capt Lt 2nd Lt
1
Now an honorary or wartime rank merely.

NATO Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
United Kingdom Warrant Officer Class One ( Conductor ) Warrant Officer Class One Warrant Officer Class Two ( Quartermaster Sergeant ) Warrant Officer Class Two ( Sergeant Major )

Staff Sergeant/

Colour Sergeant

Sergeant

No

Equivalent

Corporal/

Bombardier

Lance-Corporal/

Lance-Bombardier

No Insignia

Private/regimental equivalent

Every regiment and corps has its ain typical insignia, such as cap badge, beret, tactical acknowledgment flash and stable belt.

Throughout the ground forces there are many official specialisms. They do non impact rank, but they do affect pay sets.

Band 2 Specialisms: Band 3 Specialisms:
Musician Survey Technician
Farrier Lab Technician
Driver Tank Transporter Registered General Nurse
Radar Operator Telecom Op ( Special )
Meteorologist Aircraft Technician
Bomb Disposal Engineer SAS Trooper
Telecom Op ( Linguist ) Ammunition Technician ( Bomb Disposal )
Operator Particular Intelligence
Construction Materials Technician
Driver Specialist
Armoured Engineer

14. Royal Navy and RAF land units

The other armed services have their ain foot units which are non portion of the British Army. The Royal Marines are amphibian light foot organizing portion of the Naval Service, and the Royal Air Force has the RAF Regiment used for airfield defense mechanism, force protection responsibilities and Forward Air Control.

15. Abroad Territories military units

Numerous military units were raised historically in British districts, including self-governing and Crown settlements, and associated states. Few of these have appeared on the Army List, and their relationship to the British Army has been equivocal. Whereas Dominions, such as Canada and Australia, raised their ain ground forcess, the defense mechanism of Crown ownerships ( like the Channel Islands ) , and settlements ( now called Overseas Territories ) was, and is, the duty of the UK ( due to their position as districts of Britain, non British associated states ) . All military forces of abroad districts are, hence, under the direct bid of the UK Government, via the local Governor and Commander-In-Chief.

Many of the units in settlements, or former settlements, were besides really formed at the behest of the UK Government as it sought to cut down the deployment of the British Army on garrison responsibilities around the universe at the latter terminal of the nineteenth century. Today, three abroad districts retain locally-raised military units, Bermuda, Gibraltar, and the Falkland Islands. The units are patterned on the British Army, are capable to reexamine by the Ministry of Defence, and are finally under the control of the British authorities, non the local authoritiess of the districts ( though daily control may be delegated to Curates of the territorial authoritiess ) . Despite this, the units may hold no tasking or support from the MOD, and are by and large raised under Acts of the Apostless of the territorial assemblies.

-Bermuda Regiment

-Royal Gibraltar Regiment

-Falkland Islands Defence Force

16. Decision

The British Army was formed in 1707 with the fusion of England and Scotland into the United Kingdom of Great Britain. Throughout history it has seen action in about every corner of the Earth, and employs soldiers from many different countries of the commonwealth including Australia, India, Ghana, South Africa, the Republic of Ireland and the celebrated Nepalese Gurkhas. There are about 100,000 regular forces and 26,000 territorial ground forces soldiers presently deployed as portion of the British Expeditionary Force and as United Nations peacekeepers in many states worldwide, including Cyprus, Iraq, Afghanistan, the Balkans and Germany.

The British Army has ever been at the cutting border of military engineering, and presently uses some of the most hi-tech and effectual equipment available including state-of-the-art Challenger 2 conflict armored combat vehicles, WAH-64D Apache gunship choppers and the much improved SA80A2 Rifle.

17. Bibliography

1. Charles Heyman, “ Armed Forces of the United Kingdom ” .

2. ED Griffin, “ Encyclopedia Modern British Army Regime ”

3. Carver, M. , “ The Seven Ages of the British Army ”

4. General H. Landlois, “ The British Army in a European war ”

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