British Imperialism In Africa Essay Research Paper
British Imperialism In Africa Essay, Research Paper
The motivations of Britain & # 8217 ; s imperialist activities
in Africa from 1869 to 1912 were strategic and defensive. While other motivations
did be, such as to colonise, to seek for new markets and stuffs,
to achieve retaliation and universe prestigiousness, to change over indigens to Christianity,
and to distribute the English manner of orderly authorities, the chief motivations
evident in many events of the period showed efforts to safeguard the state
and protect former land retentions. As its free trade and influential relationship
with Africa was threatened, Britain began to turn trade understandings into
stronger and more formal associated states and even settlements. Britain acted
to protect the path E and its connexion with the Indian Empire. Rather
than to spread out the British Empire, Britain fought conflicts over district
to forestall Gallic or German control in Africa.
Britain & # 8217 ; s imperialist engagement in the
scramble for Africa occurred in response to the actions of the Gallic and
even German. Britain had a history of African trade understandings and, compared
to its European opposite numbers, the highest grade of control in Africa.
France and Britain began an earnest race for the Niger in 1883, holding
so to split the district & # 8211 ; Lagos to Britain and Timbuktu for France.
This did non neutralize the competition, nevertheless. Britain had to move in
Nigeria ( 1885 ) and Nyasaland ( 1891 ) to protect bing domains of commercial
and missional activities. France & # 8217 ; s scheme to declare its & # 8220 ; right of business & # 8221 ;
and so seek dialogue farther urged Britain & # 8217 ; s aggressive care
of district. The British annexed Bechuanaland ( 1885 ) partially to guard against
the Germans ; partially to forestall its soaking up by the Transvaal, which would
hold increased the power of the Boers. ( Faber 57-58 ) Subsequently, in 1888, the
Gallic threatened the Britain dominated Nile Valley, suggesting they might
deviate the H2O of the Nile to render the country useless.
In East Africa the British had strategic
motivations to protect the Suez Canal and the path to the E. As the scramble
exploded in the 1880s, Britain was all of a sudden challenged for her right to
trade and behavior fiscal and military concern. & # 8220 ; The premier object was
defensive [ in the 1880ss ] , as it had been under Disraeli: the bar
of serious inroads on British power ; the expectancy of other powers,
when strategically necessary, in the & # 8216 ; Scramble for Africa & # 8217 ; ; the protection
of the path to India and the East. The safety of the Suez Canal had already
go a central point of British policy. & # 8221 ; ( Faber 57 )
The first confrontation over the path to the
E between Britain and France occurred in Egypt. Gallic pride over a
new Egyptian canal, built in 1869, was surging. It was suddenly grounded
in 1875, nevertheless, by a furtive British purchase of the bulk portion
in the Suez Canal. A doubtful balance of power was achieved through affaire d’honneur
Anglo-French control of Egypt. Britain was able to predominate over France
during the Egyptian Crisis, as the Gallic authorities did non let Gallic
engagement in surrounding the rebellion.
This afforded the British a opportunity to
re-establish their function in universe military laterality. These struggles were
clearly non for the intent of pecuniary addition on Britain & # 8217 ; s portion. The Economist
observed in 1892 that East Africa was & # 8216 ; likely an unprofitable ownership & # 8217 ; ;
it was chiefly for strategic grounds that the authorities held on to it.
By 1893, France was still non accommodate
to Britain & # 8217 ; s function in the Nile Valley. They tried to follow through on earlier
menaces to deviate the headwaters of the Nile to lay waste to the vale. An
expedition headed by Jean-Baptiste Marchand eventually departed in 1896 and
marched from the West seashore to Fashoda, a metropolis on the upper Nile. Britain
responded to rumours of this expedition by telling that an army lead by
Herbert Horatio Kitchener conquest the Sudan in order to protect the Nile
from the Gallic. Kitchener crushed the politically breakaway Sudanese,
winning the celebrated Battle of Omdurman in 1898. He took Khartoum and moved
on to Fashoda by September, where Marchand had been camped out since April.
Britain and France teetered on the threshold of war, which was eventually averted
by careful handling by both Marchand and Kitchener.
Britain & # 8217 ; s action in South Africa helped
to protect their connexion to the Indian Empire. They officially annexed
South Africa in 1877, acknowledging this might take to a decrease of British
duties South Africa. It was besides of import that they maintain
their control to maintain other powers from acquiring a bridgehead. The Boer War
ended in 1902, while the Transvaal was given self-rule by Britain 1906.
Britain was non an provoker in the scramble
for Africa, but instead a reactionist state who responded to the actions
of other forces. As Gallic and German forces threatened loose trade trades,
Britain set up associated states and settlements. As British retentions in Egypt
and in East Africa were threatened, Britain fought to keep its power.