1. British Monarchy: the function of the queen in modern society, the royal privileges and maps, the royal household, the chief beginnings of income, chief ceremonies connected with royalty, royal abodes, the perceptual experience of monarchy in society
The Monarchy is called the dignified portion of the Fundamental law
as opposed to the efficient portion & # 8211 ; the executive ( the Government ) . Under the British Constitution the Monarch remains the caput of province which efficaciously means that British people are non citizens but Her Majesty & # 8217 ; s topics.
The Royal Prerogatives
& # 8211 ; an action of the Government that gets its legitimacy from the Crown ( there are certain actions that the Government performs, they are finally approved by the Queen. ) It is a fiction because the Queen is advised on most of her actions by her Government.
1: to name the PM at the terminal of the election ( usually the leader of the party that has the bulk in the HC )
2: to cite, prorogue ( & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1098 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1074 ; ) and fade out the Parliament.
Only $13.90 / page
3: enact statute law ( & # 1074 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1099 ; ) ; to give her Royal Assent to measures when they & # 8217 ; ve been passed by both Houses.
4: declares war / makes peace
5: recognizes foreign provinces and authoritiess
6: concludes pacts
7: extensions / cedes districts
8: caput of judiciary = all the tribunals of the land are the Queen & # 8217 ; s Courts & # 8211 ; all the tests carried out in the Queen & # 8217 ; s name ( Regina vs. Jones )
9: Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces
10: temporal governor of the Church of England
11: makes formal assignments to the most of import offices of the province in the Armed Forces and churches
12: confers baronages, knighthoods and other honours
13: formal blessing to determinations of the Government is given at the meetings of the Privy Council
14: the Queen of 16 former settlements, including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, represented by the governor. The Head of the Commonwealth ( 16 + some more other states )
Constitutional function of the Queen ( sovereign ) was foremost explicitly formulated by the 19 cent author and journalist Walter Bagehot ( the English Constitution 1867 ) . Celebrated ternary expression: the Queen has the right to be consulted, the right to promote and the right to warn.
Every twenty-four hours surveies cabinet documents, foreign office paperss, receives a study of the parliamentary proceedings, on a regular basis sees the PM in audience, in changeless touch with foreign embassadors and the Commonwealth representatives.
Important symbolic function: the integrity of the state, historical traditions and continuity. Defender of the Faith & # 8211 ; merely Anglicans can win to the throne. Religious caput of province, the archbishop of Canterbury crowns the sovereign.
2 archbishops ( Canterbury and York ) and 24 bishops, deans of Cathedrals ( appointed by the Queen, advised by the PM ) . The Queen has ecclesiastic family & # 8211 ; the College of Chaplains, the Chaplains and organists of the Chapels Royal at the Tower of London, St. James Palace and Hampton Court. The Royal Peculiars & # 8211 ; non subjects to the legal power of archbishops, they are monarch & # 8217 ; s.
A figure of particular royal occasions
, taking topographic point on a regular basis each twelvemonth: the province gap of the Parliament & # 8211 ; October, November ( unless there has been general election ) . The Queen drives in a province passenger car from Buckingham castle to the castle of Westminster ( HL ) , reads her address from the throne, wears a Crown, address prepared by the governor. The Remembrance twenty-four hours & # 8211 ; in November, service in the White Hall for the dead of the 2WW, lays a garland at the Cenotaph. June & # 8211 ; goes to the Derby at Epsom, subsequently in June at Windsor for the Royal Ascot. Second Saturday of June & # 8211 ; official birthday. The Trooping of he Colour, Horse Guards Parade, birth honours are given. In summer 3 garden parties are given in the evidences of Buckingham palace & # 8211 ; all people & # 8211 ; each attended by ~ 8,000 people of different walks of life ; tea, bars, brass set.
The royal family
& # 8211 ; 350 courtiers, Private Secretary, ladies-in-waiting, the Mistress of the Robes, Ladies ( Gentlemen ) of the Bedchamber.
. More than & # 190 ; of the Queen & # 8217 ; s disbursals is met by relevant authorities debts. & # 163 ; 15,3mln & # 8211 ; castles ( 3 functionary abodes & # 8211 ; Buckingham castle in London, Holyrood castle in Edinburgh, Windsor palace ) . The Civil List & # 8211 ; money provided by the Government and frequently by the Parliament, on a 10-year footing for the running of the Queen & # 8217 ; s family. 2001-2011 & # 8211 ; & # 163 ; 7,9mln. Besides the Queen receives an income & # 8211 ; the Duchy of Lancaster ( the Crown estate & gt ; 19,000 hectares ) & # 8211 ; one-year income & # 163 ; 7,3mln before revenue enhancement.
The Duke of Edinburgh ( hubby ) , kids ( Princess Royal Ann, Prince Andrew, Edward ) & # 8211 ; receive rentes, but the Queen refunds all except the hubby, he & # 8217 ; s the lone who receives purely. The Queen pays for her kids, they live at her disbursal. Prince Charles & # 8211 ; the Heir to the Throne ; Duchy of Cornwall & # 8211 ; income, in 2003 ~ & # 163 ; 10mln – ~ & # 188 ; income revenue enhancement. The Queen offered to pay revenue enhancement on voluntary footing & # 8211 ; decides how much to pay, on her private income, e.g. on portion of the Civil List used for private intents ( e.g. feast for friends ) . Others pay income revenue enhancement on regular footing like ordinary citizens.
The Civil List is administrated by the alleged Keeper of the Privy Purse.
Private Royal abodes
. Sandringham ( East Anglia ) , Balmoral ( Scotland ) , Clarence House ( Queen Mother resided ) , St. James & # 8217 ; s Palace ( Prince Charles, the minor royals ) , Kensington Palace ( Diana ) . Grace and favour flats, free of charge.
The Royal Family
. The Queen & # 8217 ; s conserve & # 8211 ; Philip the Duke of Edinburgh ( 1921 ) & # 8211 ; celebrated for his epigrams. Princess Royal Ann, girl. The Prince of Wales ( 1948 ) , Heir to the Throne & # 8211 ; Heir Apparent. Prince William ( 21 now ) & # 8211 ; Heir Presumptive, Prince Henry ( 1984 ) . Prince Andrew ( 1960 ) & # 8211 ; the Duke of York, Prince Edward ( 1964 ) & # 8211 ; the Earl of Wessex.
The perceptual experience of monarchy in society & # 8211 ; it has its symbolic function, integrity, continuity, but immature people are far from it, the general attitude & # 8211 ; non interested, attracts tourers.
2. The national symbols of Britain and its component parts ( the National flag, anthem, the national emblems, the Royal Beasts ) . The system of rubrics and honours
The National Flag
& # 8211 ; the Union Jack. Combination of three crosses & # 8211 ; St. George & # 8217 ; s traverse & # 8211 ; England, ruddy cross on a white land ; the cross of St. Andrew for Scotland & # 8211 ; white diagonal cross on a bluish land ; the cross of St. Patrick for Ireland & # 8211 ; ruddy diagonal on a white land. First introduced in 1606, had 2 crosses, brotherhood of England and Scotland ( James I ) , 1801 & # 8211 ; St. Patrick added.
. Rise for England, thistle for Scotland, Narcissus pseudonarcissus ( leek ) for Wales, white clover ( wild oxalis, ruddy manus ) for Ireland. Crown, sceptre, blade of province, eyeball.
Monogram ER & # 8211 ; Elizabeth Royal. In the Centre of the emblem is situated a heraldic shield, divided into 4 parts. Left upper portion & A ; right lower portion typify England ( 3 gold leopards on a ruddy land ) . Right upper portion & # 8211 ; Scots emblem ( a ruddy king of beasts on a gold land ) . Left lower portion & # 8211 ; Irish emblem ( xanthous harp on a bluish land ) . Around the shield & # 8211 ; supporter. The shield is held by two Royal Beasts the Lion with the Crown in the left, the Unicorn in the right. Under them a bluish thread with words & # 8220 ; Dieu et Monday droit & # 8221 ; ( God & A ; my right ) & # 8211 ; Richard I. In the background & # 8211 ; rose ( England ) , thistle ( Scotland ) , medic ( Ireland ) , leek ( Wales ) .
The National Anthem
& # 8211 ; God Save the Queen ( King ) . Adopted after the War with Napoleon.
The Royal Animals
. The Lion of England, the Unicorn of Scotland, the Red Dragon of Wales, the Grey Hound of Richmond, the White Horse of Hanover, the Griffin of Edward III, the Falcon of the Plantagenet lines.
The system of rubrics and honours
. Twice a twelvemonth ( at the New Year and on the Queen & # 8217 ; s official birthday & # 8211 ; the Queen & # 8217 ; s birthday honours ) & # 8211 ; solemn ceremonial. 3000 honours are given yearly & # 8211 ; the bulk the Order of the British Empire, most on PM & # 8217 ; s advice, a few in the Queen & # 8217 ; s personal gift.
The Order of the Garter ( since Edward III 14th cent. ) & # 8211 ; 24 people at one time, the Queen is a crowned head of the Order of the Garter, bluish thread, Prince Charles, + foreign, e.g. the King of Spain. The Order of the Thistle & # 8211 ; 16 knights, green thread. The Order of Merit ( 1902 ) & # 8211 ; 24 people. Royal Victorian Order ( 1896 ) & # 8211 ; who have straight served the Royal Family. The Order of the Bath ( 1725 ) & # 8211 ; ceremonial ablutions, red thread. The Order of the British Empire: 5 grades & # 8211 ; member of the British Empire ( MBE ) , officer ( OBE ) , commanding officer ( CBE ) , knight commanding officer ( KBE ) or dame commanding officer ( DBE ) , knight/dame expansive cross ( GBE ) . Lists are made by members of the populace. Remain common mans, no particular privileges, rubrics are non familial. Highest honor & # 8211 ; baronage, historically familial, and since 1959 life baronage.
The 5 classs & # 8211 ; Duke / Duchess ( Your Grace ) , Marquis / Marchioness ( My Lord ) , Earl / Countess ( – & # 8220 ; – ) , Viscount / Viscountess, Baron / Baroness. Connected with individual & # 8217 ; s business. On formal frocks & # 8211 ; strawberry leaves, a coronet consisting of 8 strawberry foliages, 4 Ag falls and 4 strawberry foliages for a Marquis. Peers can disclaim their rubric, to acquire the right to sit in the HC & # 8211 ; the rubric falls into suspension, means title delaies until this individual dies and his boy accepts it. The older boies of equals have courtesy rubric, one grade lower than their male parents & # 8217 ; . Duke can strip his boy heritage, but no right to strip of the rubric.
Elections in Britain
Members of the House of Commons ( MPs ) are elected by electors of 651 parliamentary constituencies, into which Britain is divided, each with electorate of about 60,000 electors. Each individual over 18 has the right to vote, except captives, Godheads and the mentally sick. The vote is taken by a secret ballot. Each constituency is represented by one MP. The victor is the campaigner who gets more ballots than any other individual campaigner. The leader of the party with most seats normally becomes the PM and forms the Government, which can stay in power for up to five old ages. The 2nd biggest party becomes the official Opposition, and its leader forms the Shadow Cabinet. The PM chooses the day of the month of the following General Election. About a month before the election the PM meets a little group of close advisors to discourse the day of the month. Then the PM officially asks the Queen to fade out the Parliament & # 8211 ; all MPs become unemployed, but authorities officers continue to map. . Voting takes topographic point on Polling Day ( normally a Thursday ) , the consequences are known by the following forenoon. The leader of the party that got the bulk is invited by the Queen to organize a authorities. The authorities is arranged in approximately 15 sections each with a curate as its caput. The PM chooses about 20 Mononuclear phagocyte systems from his or her party to go the Cabinet of Ministers.
Members of the House of Lords are non elected. About 70 per cent of them are familial equals. The other 30 per cent are life equals, they are appointed by the Queen.
The relative representation system & # 8211 ; all political parties, little every bit good as big, are represented in the government organic structure harmonizing to the proportion of ballots they receive.
. 3 chief parties & # 8211 ; the Labour ( Tony Blair ) , the Conservative ( Ian Duncan Smith ) , the Liberal-Democrats ( Charles Kennedy ) . Labour & # 8211 ; ruddy coloring material, Conservative & # 8211 ; bluish, Lib-Dem & # 8211 ; orange. The party system since 17th
The House of the Godheads
The chief map of the HL is to analyze and revise measures from the Commons. It besides acts as the concluding tribunal of entreaty. Bill send from the HC may be approved by the HL ( if fiscal – automatically ) , they can amend the measure and direct it back to the HC, can non merely reject, can detain for 13 months, after this it becomes a jurisprudence ( & # 8220 ; kill a measure & # 8221 ; ) , but the measure is no longer relevant.
: throne in the centre with a canopy and a woolsack ( beginning of Britain & # 8217 ; s prosperity ) where the Lord Chancellor sits ( talker of the HL ) . Governmental side & # 8211 ; right of the talker, resistance & # 8211 ; left. Benches & # 8211 ; ruddy leather, green line separates authorities and resistance ( for contrast ) + transverse benches. The talker takes portion in arguments and ballots. If the talker decides to turn to as an ordinary & # 8211 ; leaves the woolsack.
The House of Commons
: Labor 409 ( a & # 8220 ; comfy & # 8221 ; bulk ) , Conservatives 163, Lib-Dem 53, entire 659 ( + some smaller parties ) . Presided over by a talker, has the right to keep the order, elected at the beginning of each parliament session or when the old retires or dies ; doesn & # 8217 ; t talk in arguments, doesn & # 8217 ; t ballot, calls members to talk, puts the inquiry ( to vote ) .
has the same agreement & # 8211 ; talker & # 8217 ; s chair ( alternatively of the throne and the woolsack ) . Shadow Cabinet of the Opposition has the right to lucubrate alternate policies.Frontbenchers, backbenchers, crossbenchers, the visitants & # 8217 ; gallery. The benches are green. Stress 2-party system. The procedure of arguments is adversarial.
The chief map
is to do Torahs by go throughing Acts of Parliament, every bit good as to discourse current political issues.
. Each session begins with the State Opening of the Parliament, if a portion has the bulk, the Queen reads the address. A argument, a ballot is taken. If no clear bulk & # 8211 ; hung parliament, unsafe state of affairs, can take to a parliament crisis. Most of the twelvemonth & # 8211 ; particular modus operandi. Proceedings are public, televised, imperativeness admitted, so print the proceedings on the undermentioned twenty-four hours in Hansard ( it was the first adult male who published ) . Business, order of concern, parliamentary concern ; inquiry clip & # 8211 ; 1 hr, MPs ask Ministers and other MPs inquiries, prepared 48 hours, by resistance & # 8211 ; to uncover the failing in the Government. The chief argument: measures are introduced by the Government, Ministers largely. The measure is introduced in a signifier of a gesture, any Minister can travel something ; the inquiry is unfastened to debate. At the terminal of the argument the Speaker asks MPs if they accept a gesture, sometimes the affair is decides on the topographic point. Approved by a bulk, rare & # 8211 ; a division is called: aye/no anterooms & # 8211 ; ballot by walking, a bell is rung, appoint Tellers stay on a/n anterooms, each MP walk to the anteroom and they are counted ; hold really small clip. The measure goes through some phases: foremost reading & # 8211 ; debated in item, when is complicated, the House goes into commission, particular commission remains ( e.g. the Committee of Defense ) , others leave. 3rd
clip & # 8211 ; passed or rejected, if passed & # 8211 ; & gt ; the HL & # 8211 ; & gt ; the Queen for the Royal Assent & # 8211 ; & gt ; jurisprudence. Bills are drafted by audience with professional organic structures. Sometimes the proposals take the signifier of white paper ( provinces that the Government wants to cognize the attitude of public ) ; if wants public treatment & # 8211 ; green paper. The standing commissions.
Guillotine gesture ( foremost introduced by Thatcher ) & # 8211 ; cuts down argument, repair the clip is allocated. Every party has the party whips & # 8211 ; like party police officer, press the members to vote for the Government, all party members vote for. They don & # 8217 ; t play hooky player, if don & # 8217 ; t come & # 8211 ; decrease of the wage.
The Government and Cabinet
10, Downing Street & # 8211 ; PM and the Cabinet. The White Hall & # 8211 ; Her Majesty & # 8217 ; s Government, governs in the name of the Queen. The Queen invites the leader of the party that has the bulk to organize a authorities. The Ministers are about ever the members of the Commons, besides a few & # 8211 ; Lords. It is based on a tradition, because in the Commons the Government is expected to explicate its policies. In 19th
century some Governments included members of different parties.
The chief curates and sections
. ~100 Ministers, the cardinal nucleus is the Cabinet – ~20 senior Curates invited by the PM, they are called the Secretaries of State. Minister & # 8211 ; a junior member of the Cabinet. Lord Chancellor, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs ( Foreign Secretary ) & # 8211 ; Jack Straw ; Chancellor of the Exchequer ( Minister of Finance ) & # 8211 ; Gordon Brown ; Home Secretary ( Home Department ) ; Secretary for Defense, for Culture, Media and Sport, Education and Employment, Social Security, for Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland.
The chief rules
: 1 corporate duty ( as if they were one individual ) even if persons do non hold. If a Minister has done something incorrect, his co-workers have to disinherit him/her, will hold to vacate. 2 PM foremost among peers. In theory the 2nd
is supposed to promote balance and freedom for single curates, in pattern it can give rise to tenseness. Insure leading, let for each curate some duty and freedom in their field.
Cabinet meetings are held in private, 1-2 a hebdomad, while the Parliament is sitting, or, less frequently, during parliamentary deferral. The proceedings are confidential, secretaries take a particular curse non to unwrap. Because of the great sum of concern, Secretaries have junior Curates working under them & # 8211 ; Curates of State ( Undersecretaries ) .
& # 8211 ; a political organic structure which administers the determinations of the Ministers. Employed ~600,000 civil retainers, expected to be politically impartial, serves any authorities, every bit loyal to whatever party is in office ; if they want to stand for the Parliament they have to vacate foremost. Centre & # 8211 ; the Cabinet Office, responsibilities & # 8211 ; considerable, including the proper running of the whole Civil Service.
The Local Government
1995-1998 & # 8211 ; the system was reformed.
. 45 Unitary governments, largely around the large metropoliss. Now the system of local authorities has one-tier governments, merely unitary. 2-tier governments: county councils ( council member ) , subdivided into territory / borough councils ( city managers ) . In England & # 8211 ; 45 u. c. , 34 c. c. and 238 d. / b. c. Local elections & # 8211 ; for 4 old ages, council members elect yearly, function on voluntary footing ; the council doesn & # 8217 ; Ts have executive powers, no decision maker & # 8211 ; fundamentally self-regulating. The Queen & # 8217 ; s represented by Lord Lieutenant of the county, attends on the Queen when she comes to the county, gives honours and grants on behalf of the Crown.
. Responsible for instruction, the care of the chief roads, societal services, public assistance, libraries, fire service, garbage disposal. District councils: lodging, urban roads, auto Parkss, garbage aggregation, diversion, graveyards, environmental wellness. Unitary councils & # 8211 ; unite all these maps. Parish councils & # 8211 ; in rural.
Beginnings of funding
. 1 the council revenue enhancement & # 8211 ; on the owner-occupier or renter of a home which is their exclusive or chief abode. Calculate: depending on rating of the market monetary value of the home. Standard Band D, divide homes into groups. 2 non-domestic rate & # 8211 ; on other sorts of belongings ; 3 authorities grants ; 4 income from fees and charges for services.
. 32 borough councils. The London city manager & # 8211 ; Ken Livingston. Greater London authorization ( GLA ) covers the country of 32 boroughs and the City of London. The Corporation of London: the Lord-Mayor & # 8211 ; nominated yearly by the City Guilds, 24 Aldermen, 130 council members.
. Merely unitary governments ( 22 ) . Besides & # 8211 ; degeneration & # 8211 ; the National Assembly for Wales in Cardiff for 4 old ages, 60 members and presiding officer. Can present secondary statute law, on the footing of Acts of the Apostless passed by the Parliament in Westminster, can non raise or lower income revenue enhancement. The Welsh Cabinet & # 8211 ; 1st
Secretary, secretaries for minor affairs ( ~ economic development, instruction, wellness, etc. ) . Have step of independency presents.
. 29 unitary governments, for 3 old ages, elected. + 3 island councils. Have greater independency than Wales. The Scots Parliament, in Edinburgh, since 1999, 128 members. Has the right to present primary statute law and raise / lower income revenue enhancement by up to 3p in the lb. The Scottish Executive & # 8211 ; the authorities, for instruction, wellness, jurisprudence and order, headed by the 1st
Minister. Own notes & # 8211 ; Scots lb.
Northern Ireland: 26 territory councils elected for 4 old ages.
The system of jurisprudence and order
The Fundamental law
is non codified in any formal papers. The legislative subdivision & # 8211 ; the HL, the HC, the Queen ; the Cabinet and the PM & # 8211 ; executive ; they are combined by the Queen. In fact the Parliament is controlled by the executive, as all the measures pass to the Parliament by the bulk party, besides it is in the Parliament. Judicial system is represented by Courts, the HL is the chief 1. So there is practically no separation of powers. The bulk party has the existent power in the state. There is no constitutional tribunal, the system provides for no cheques and balances.
The legal system of England and Wales are separated of these of Scotland and Northern Ireland.
The system of tribunals
. Supreme authorization & # 8211 ; the HL ( supreme tribunals ) . The Ultimate Court of Appeal & # 8211 ; Law Lords. Under the HL & # 8211 ; Supreme Court of Judicature ( instead abstract, no individual organic structure ) , including the Court of Appeal, the High Court of Justice ( responsible for civil instances ) , the Crown Court ( for condemnable instances ) . The High Court of Justice: 3 divisions & # 8211 ; the Chancery Division ( fiscal affairs: bankruptcy, reading of minutess and volitions ) , the Queen & # 8217 ; s Bench Division ( for commercial jurisprudence: breach of contracts, serious personal hurt ) , the Family Division ( acceptance, divorce, etc. ) . Claimant/plaintiff & lt ; & # 8211 ; & gt ; suspect.
: most are minor, settled in Small Claims Court ( affecting amount of money & lt ; & # 163 ; 5,000 ) , by a territory justice, if he decides that you are right can present costs and normally compensation / amendss. The more serious affair ( e.g. auto ) & # 8211 ; to the County tribunal ( circuit justice & # 8211 ; travels to the topographic point ) . You & # 8217 ; d be represented by a canvasser or a barrister, if the instance is serious ( e.g. route accident and person was severely injured ) . If you are disgruntled & # 8211 ; to the Court of Appeal ( Civil Division ) .
: Crown Prosecution Service, headed by the Director of Public Prosecutions, works under the counsel of the Attorney-General. Crown Prosecution Service sends barristers andcanvassers.
3 types of offenses
: 1 ) sum-up offenses ( 95 % ) & # 8211 ; e.g. motoring offenses, dealt with in Magistrates & # 8217 ; tribunals ( Justice of the Peace ) & # 8211 ; 3 people, ordinary citizens, chosen by the community, appointed by the Lord Chancellor on recommendations by local groups ; unpaid, non professional attorneies ( put magistrates ) , without any jury & # 8211 ; so advised on points of jurisprudence and process by a particular lawfully qualified clerk. Magistrates & # 8217 ; tribunal can condemn to less than 6 month imprisonment or a all right of less than & # 163 ; 5,000, if more serious & # 8211 ; direct to the Crown Court. 2 ) Offense triable either manner ( e.g. auto larceny ) & # 8211 ; pick belongs to the suspect, decides either should be heard by ballad magistrates or the Crown Court. 3 ) Chargeable offenses ( e.g. robbery, at the point of the gun or knife ) & # 8211 ; merely in the Crown Court, presided by High Court Judges ( full-time circuit Judgess ) with a jury of 12 people ( jurymans ) . Crown Courts besides hear the instances from Magistrates. If dissatisfied & # 8211 ; to the Court of Appeal ( the Criminal Division ) . Verdict is reached by the jury, after they have heard. Jury & # 8211 ; local people ( constitutional responsibility ) . The justice sits in the tribunal room, makes certain that the test is decently conducted. Counsel for prosecution, for Defense. The justice ~ ushers, helps the jury to make the finding of fact. Person is presumed to be guiltless unless the prosecution can turn out guilt above all sensible uncertainty. Convicted, acquitted, recessed.
: slaying, manslaughter, colza, assault, assault and battery, incendiarism, robbery, burglary, larceny, mugging, shrinkage, snatch, peculation, graft, counterfeit, bearing false witness, slander, libel, blackmail, maltreatment of power/confidence, disorderly behavior, hurrying.
: mulct, imprisonment, community service, probation ( study to a particular probation officer ) , remand in detention, remand on bond, to allow, deny bond, release on word ; decease punishment abolished in 1969. The age of condemnable duty 10 old ages. For kids & # 8211 ; Juvenile Court ( youth tribunal ) , 15 old ages peak age: let to populate within the household, under particular supervising, take into local authorization attention ( in a community place ) , attend particular school, live with surrogate parents, community service.
. Solicitors & # 8211 ; the lower class, may cover with public, barristers & # 8211 ; can non near public. A individual & # 8211 ; & gt ; canvasser & # 8211 ; & gt ; barrister & # 8211 ; speaks in tribunal. Solicitor speaks in the Magistrates & # 8217 ; Courts. Law society & # 8211 ; for canvassers, the Bar & # 8211 ; for barristers. Queen & # 8217 ; s Counsels ( QC ) & # 8211 ; in of import instances. No particular preparation for Judgess, Lord Chancellor decides who is to be a justice, chooses barristers.
9. The category system of modern Britain: the enlargement of the in-between category, category mobility, the upper categories, the outgrowth of a new lower class, the chief causes of this, the British impression of professional categories, the perceptual experience of category system and category struggle in modern society
1990 & # 8217 ; s: upper category 1 % , upper middle 3 % , in-between 16 % , lower in-between 25 % , skilled working 25 % , unskilled working 17 % , underclass 13 % . A market characteristic of last 3 decennaries of 20th
century & # 8211 ; major enlargement of the in-between category. In 1900 75 % of manual workers, in 1991 & # 8211 ; 36 % . 2mln occupations created in the professional and managerial Fieldss, works became more skilled and the service sector grew well ; mean income grew, so today much of the working category population can afford a in-between category life manner. Thatcher made 2/3 of population house-owners by selling council houses for give-away monetary values, overpowering bulk have a bank history or a edifice society history ; share-holders due to the denationalization of province companies in 1980 & # 8217 ; s. Traditionally working at a works was considered on the job category, but basically in-between category & # 8211 ; a batch of mobility between center, lower center and working categories. Least mobility in upper category, in lower class & # 8211 ; another consequence of Thatcher & # 8217 ; s policies ( abolished full-employment ) . 1 % ain & # 188 ; of the state & # 8217 ; s wealth ; heritage, spread around the household to minimise the consequence of revenue enhancement. Young people & # 8211 ; professionals, like civil retainers, attorneies, armed forced & # 8211 ; during Thatcher & # 8217 ; s period, a batch of them moved from the public service to the private sector, because of wages. In 1964 people were asked if there was category battle & # 8211 ; 48 % & # 8220 ; yes & # 8221 ; , in 1995 & # 8211 ; 81 % .
10. Historic state houses as portion of British national heritage: the development of attitudes from the mid-19th century to the present twenty-four hours. The function of the chief blue households, the National Trust and the authorities in the saving of the state houses
Until early 19th
century & # 8211 ; private houses of the nobility. Their function as national heritage began so. The Victorian thought & # 8211 ; Tudor and Jacobean houses, contrasted to the 18the century houses which considered not-English, cosmopolite.
A author Nash published a book about them, everybody could see. Started going a batch, one of the most popular interests, + railways ( 1825 ) , all categories excepting working categories. Few proprietors needed fiscal part, so no fee ( merely in 3-4 houses ) .
half of the 19th
century & # 8211 ; alteration, friendly attitude broken, general populace began to be called anti-intellectuals ( commercialism, urbanisation, amenitiess ) . Middle category & # 8211 ; widely distributed resorts ( Nice, Biarritz & # 8211 ; tone was set by Edward, Victoria & # 8217 ; s boy ) . In European states & # 8211 ; opposite. In Jan 1895 & # 8211 ; a charitable trust was set up, the National Trust ( 1st
president & # 8211 ; Duke of Westminster ) . Accepted gifts from people who cared, bought houses by public subscription, rank fees. Bought merely ~60 houses. The 2nd group of people & # 8211 ; proprietors themselves & # 8211 ; savages. Didn & # 8217 ; t want to keep. Deep agribusiness depression, monetary values of land fell, grain monetary values fell, = & gt ; economic and political power suffered terrible blows, land and money more of import than houses and contents, big houses were really expensive to keep & # 8211 ; found purchasers, or redecorated, destructing historical characteristics. In 1894 & # 8211 ; decease responsibility introduced, this ruined many blue households. The 3rd group & # 8211 ; little, about fringy & # 8211 ; aesthetes, criticized anti-intellectuals and savages.
Between the WW & # 8211 ; public rating continued to deteriorate, sing stopped, closed, abandoned or demolished. Urbanization of the state & # 8211 ; landholders began to sell land ( decease responsibility & # 8211 ; 50 % ) , ~ 1/5 of landholders fell out of the category. While they could sell lands, cipher needed houses, they could be bough & # 8220 ; for a vocal & # 8221 ; . Lots demolished, tonss sold to assorted establishments, like public schools, colleges, young person inns.
After WWII & # 8211 ; alteration, trade with the authorities ( schools, or shop houses for national art aggregations ) ; if non & # 8211 ; to suit military personnels. Besides & # 8211 ; one time is taken & # 8211 ; no decease responsibility. Everybody felt there was no hereafter for the state houses life, tonss demolished, sold, needed for schools, infirmaries.
Late 50 & # 8217 ; s-60 & # 8217 ; s period of turning land monetary values, many landholders became multimillionaires. Then a group was formed & # 8220 ; heritage in danger & # 8221 ; .
Tax freedom for of import plants of art, edifices, stretches of land. Owners were allowed to set their belongings in “maintenance funds” – controlled by the household, but treated as public organic structures. Apply for care grants – historic edifice council.
Nowadays & # 8211 ; 1: in private owned houses & # 8211 ; HHA ( historic houses association ) , in best status. 2: owned by the National Trust ( rank fee, but sing free ) . 3: owned by the Government, 1984 English heritage set up, organisation funded by the Government, shells & # 8211 ; nil indoors, or ruins. There is Secretary in the Cabinet for English Heritage. Besides purchasing & # 8211 ; grants export licence to take it out of the state, administers Historic Buildings Council grants. 4: institutional usage, e.g. Warwick Castle & # 8211 ; Mme Tussaud & # 8217 ; s.
1. Name the encroachers who came to the British Isles before the Norman Conquest.
The Celts ( 700 BC ) , the Romans ( 55, 54 BC Caesar ; 44, 77 AD Agricola ) , the Scotts from Ireland, the Picts from far north, the Anglo-Saxons ( 6th
century ) , the Vikings ( Danes, Norwegians, Swedes )
2. Who were the Druids?
The ancient Gaelic priests and instructors, spiritual leaders, before Christianity.
3. What is Hadrian ‘s Wall?
A rock wall which the Roman Emperor Hadrian ordered to be built across the North of England in 122 Ad from the E seashore to the West, in order to support Roman Britain from onslaught by northern folks. Every 15 stat mis & # 8211 ; garrison. In Northumberland.
4. What do the words “ Danelaw ” and “ Danegeld ” base for?
Area conquered by the Danes, money ( ransom ) paid to the encroachers.
5. What do you cognize about the conflict of Hastings?
14 Oct 1066, the Norman King William the Conqueror defeated the ground forces of the English King Harold.
6. Trace the history of spiritual on the British Isles up to the concluding transition to Christianity.
Druids, pagan religion, & # 8211 ; & gt ; pagan Romans, eradicated Druids, & # 8211 ; & gt ; 391 Theodosius ordered the closing of all heathen temples, & # 8211 ; & gt ; 597 Pope Gregory sent mission to change over Anglo-Saxons, St. Augustine & # 8211 ; missional ; monasteries, churches, by 8th
7. What changes did the Romans bring to Britain?
Introduction of towns, baths in each, aqueducts, drainage, sewerage, walls against invasions, armed cantonments, Villas, introduces some veggies and fruits.
8. When was England portion of a Norse Empire? The Angevin Empire?
cent. 1154 – terminal of the 14th
9. Remark on the beginning of names like Gloucester, Worcester, Essex, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday.
Gloucester, Worcester & # 8211 ; & # 8220 ; castra & # 8221 ; intending the armed cantonment ( lat. ) , Essex & # 8211 ; east Saxons, Thursday & # 8211 ; Vikings & # 8217 ; strongest God of boom Thor, Friday & # 8211 ; Freya & # 8217 ; s twenty-four hours.
10. Which languages of Britain are of Celtic beginning?
Gaelic, Erse ( Scots and Irish ) , Welsh, Irish.
11. What historical significance does the Bayeux Tapestry hold?
A tapestry ( big piece of heavy woven cloth ) 70m long, made in Bayeux ( France ) in 11th
centuries, whose images tell the narrative of the Norman Conquest.
12. When was Westminster Abbey built? Rebuilt?
13. In what papers is the narrative of the Viking invasion told?
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.
14. What is Witenagemot?
The council of the aristocracy and top clergy in 10th
15. What was the capital of Anglo-Saxon and early Norman England?
16. How was the royal family expected to be financed in the medieval times? When did this pattern terminal?
The male monarch was believed to be the richest landholder, expected to populate off his ain. Then system of revenue enhancement & # 8211 ; the knights were encouraged to remain in their manors and better, pay revenue enhancements, instead than function the male monarch at the tribunal. Ended when the Civil List was introduced, money was given by the Parliament.
17. When was test by jury introduced? How did it work?
century, jurymans were the informants themselves. Cipher could be convicted unless jurymans swore that there was the instance against person.
18. In what war was the conflict of Crecy fought? What was its consequence?
The Hundred Years War. 1356. Prince of Wales ( Black Prince ) defeated the Gallic.
19. What papers was signed at Runneymede? In what twelvemonth? What were its commissariats?
Magna Charta, 1215. ~ 1st
English fundamental law, lay down the foundation of the authorities, 60 articles. Most of import & # 8211 ; no free adult male was to be arrested, imprisoned except by the jurisprudence of land ( given of artlessness ) ; no revenue enhancement should be introduced without the blessing of thee Council. Privileges to boroughs & # 8211 ; charted town, guaranteed freedom of metropoliss.
20. What are the campaigns?
8 wars led by Christian European male monarchs in the 11th
centuries to acquire control of Palestine from the Muslims, since both sides believed that Palestine was a holy land in their faith.
21. How and when did Parliament emerge in England?
century & # 8211 ; 1265. Great councils more and more frequently, representatives from shires, towns came to meetings. In 1350 divided into HL and HC.
22. How was the feudal system organized under William the Conqueror?
Brought 170 tenants-in-chief, 5,000 knights. The honor ( land ) & # 8211 ; to tenants-in-chief, manors & # 8211 ; to knights. Governing category & # 8211 ; renters, knights ( aristocracy category ) , bishops ( appointed by the King ) . William gave orders to renters, they to knights. Common people belonged to the knights.
23. Why did the Hundred Years ‘ War start? How did it stop?
1337-1453. Attempt to repossess the Angevin Empire, tried to maintain control of lands in France. The Gallic won and forced the English to go forth France.
24. What is the Domesday Book?
The record of all the lands in England, demoing their size, value, ownership, etc. , made in 1086 on the orders of William the Conqueror.
25. What do you cognize about Thomas Becket?
The Archbishop of Canterbury, who was killed by Henry II & # 8217 ; s soldiers ( 1170 ) in Canterbury Cathedral ( & # 8220 ; Who will free me of this turbulent priest? & # 8221 ; ) . Becket was his friend. He was appointed Lord Chancellor, so became the Archbishop and began to claim estates from the baronial people as being Church belongings. Then he declared that no power, but himself should name a priest to any church in England. Henry II tried to cut down the power of the Church. They quarreled, so Becket resigned and changed life styles to humbleness and self-denial, went to France for 6 old ages.
26. What are the royal regalia?
Ceremonial apparels and ornaments. Crown, sceptre, eyeball, + blade of province.
27. Who is Wolsey?
An English Cardinal, and politician who was rich and powerful, but lost power after neglecting to carry the Pope to let Henry VIII to disassociate Catherine of Aragon. Accused of high lese majesty, died merely in clip.
28. When and how were the feudal system and the power of the mediaeval aristocracy broken?
century. Continuous contending among the baronial people, the Wars of the Roses ( civil war ) , physically wiped out, and common people stayed off from contending. Battle of Bosworth, 1485 & # 8211 ; terminal of mediaeval England.
29. What character in English history was called the King-maker? Why?
During the Wars of the Roses, Earl of Warwick, decided to interfere, and Edward IV became the male monarch with his aid.
30. What do you cognize about Thomas More?
An English politician and author, he was the King & # 8217 ; s advisor, Lord Chancellor, but when he opposed the King & # 8217 ; s divorce and refused to accept him as the caput of the Church of England, was put in prison and beheaded.
31. Name the chief Tudor male monarchs. What was the success of the Tudor regulation based on?
Henry VII, Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I, Elizabeth I. Absolute monarchy, set manners in every field of public life, felt public sentiment, gave rise to a new elite & # 8211 ; the aristocracy, trade flourished, avoided expensive wars.
32. How did the Church of England emerge?
In 1527 Henry VIII wanted to remarry ( Catherine of Aragon & # 8211 ; & gt ; Anne Boleyn ) , the Pope didn & # 8217 ; t admit his divorce ( was influenced by the Spanish male monarch, Catherine & # 8217 ; s nephew ) , in 1533 broke off with Vatican, announced himself a supreme caput of the Church of England.
33. Who is Thomas Cranmer? What is he best remembered for?
The Archbishop of Canterbury, foremost after the creative activity of C of E, one of the leaders of Reformation. Granted the King his divorce.
34. The causes, two chief periods and the consequences of the Wars of the Roses.
Dynastic crisis, Plantagenets perished, the competition between House of Lancasters and House of Yorks led to the civil war ( 1455-1485 ) . The Battle of St. Albans ( 1455 ) & # 8211 ; Richard of York ( won ) versus Henry VI. Queen Margaret ( 1960 ) & # 8211 ; Lancaster. Edward IV ( York ) . Richard III. 1485 – Henry VII Tudor. The Battle of Bosworth. End of mediaeval England, rise of new elite, Tudors came to the throne.
35. Who is William Cecil?
Elizabeth & # 8217 ; s advisor, secretary. She had a good endowment in taking advisors in opinion. Cecils were common mans, but she made him Lord Burleigh.
36. What do you cognize about the disintegration of monasteries? Its societal effects.
In the beginning of 1530s in England were approximately 800 Catholic monasteries. 1536-1540 all the monasteries were closed, the lands and properties passed to the male monarch & # 8217 ; s exchequer. Then the male monarch sold the lands to gentry, it created a immense landowning category, which had political influence until the 19th
37. How did the inside of and service in the English church alteration as a consequence of the constitution of the Church of England?
1549 & # 8211 ; Book of Common Prayer, retained much of Catholic pattern, including mass. More extremist ( 1552 ) & # 8211 ; Catholic mass disappeared, introduced punishment. 1559 & # 8211 ; Act of Uniformity. Service of the Holly Communion replaced the mass, Morning Prayer said in English, Psalm vocalizing, vicar delivered discourse from the dais. Before appealed to the oculus, now to the ear. Appearance of churches changed & # 8211 ; interior about bare, Royal Arms alternatively of the image of Jesus Christ, relics, communion table, pix gone, walls whitewashed, no pictures, reverends wore surplice. Abolition of church music.
38. What character in English history is called “ Bloody Mary ” ? Why?
Mary, girl of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. Wanted to change over the state to Catholicism. Lots of executing ( Thomas Cranmer ) , reign was about a catastrophe, unsuccessful war with France.
39. In what papers is the philosophy of the Anglican Church contained? When was the concluding version of it adopted? How did the philosophy develop from Henry VIII to Elizabeth?
42 Articles of Faith 1552 by Cranmer. In 1562 & # 8211 ; modified to 39, and in 1571 was imposed by the Parliament as the philosophy of C of E & # 8211 ; till presents. More extremist but proved to be the aureate mean, meant different for different people.
40. What does Elizabethan religious colony imply?
Protestants wanted to travel farther, to Calvinism, Catholics to continue Catholicism. She was a Protestant, but non spiritual, didn & # 8217 ; t care much ; motivated by political grounds had to come back to the C of E. In 1559 & # 8211 ; Act of Supremacy ( eventually abolished foreign intervention in English ecclesiastical personal businesss ) . Act of Uniformity ( 1559 ) . She wanted moderate Protestantism, but bulk wanted more extremist signifier. Under force per unit area in 1552 issued the 2nd
Prayer Book, which was more extremist than she wanted.
41. Elizabeth versus Mary Stuart.
Mary was the Queen of Scotland ( Elizabeth & # 8217 ; s cousin ) . She has been married to the Dauphin, the inheritor of the Gallic male monarch. As the Roman Church ne’er recognized the matrimony ( Henry VIII & A ; Anne Boleyn ) , she claimed the English Crown. Mary was accused of slaying of her 2nd hubby and was imprisoned, signed her stepping down, so managed to get away to England. Elizabeth didn & # 8217 ; t want Mary to be executed. Mary spent in prison 19 old ages, so executed for high lese majesty.
42. Elizabethan foreign policies and their consequence on the exchequer.
England was non a great power, European states dominated. England in secret did injury to them ( pirates & # 8211 ; got a batch of money to the exchequer, so she didn & # 8217 ; t penalize them ) , and aided the Netherlands against Spain. Philip II, the Spanish King and & # 8220 ; bloody & # 8221 ; Mary & # 8217 ; s hubby, besides back uping Mary Stuart & # 8211 ; conflicted with Elizabeth. Sent fleet to get the better of England, but England won the Invincible Armada and became the Mistress of the Seas. Financial jobs, Elizabeth considered to be really miserly.
43. The chief causes of the struggle between King and Parliament in the mid-17th century.
2 chief jobs when Stuarts replaced Tudors & # 8211 ; spiritual and fiscal. Lack of money in the exchequer, the Parliament refused to present any ordinary revenue enhancement. James I got rid of the Parliament. Besides James stated that Puritanism in his state couldn & # 8217 ; t be tolerated.
44. In what war was the conflict of Naseby fought?
14th June 1645. The First Civil War. The first licking of monarchists.
45. Name the Stuart male monarchs and Queenss.
James I, Charles I. After Restoration – Charles II, James II, Mary II, William III, Queen Anne.
46. What do you cognize about Guy Fawkes?
The Gunpowder Plot. 5th November 1605. He wanted to blow up the Parliament, when the King, the Lords and the Commons should be at that place. The Plot was disclosed, Fawkes imprisoned, found guilty, executed.
47. What event is normally referred to as Regicide? How popular and lawful was it?
The executing of Charles I. Peoples considered this to be a atrocious event because they believed him to be lord-anointed. He was convicted non by the tribunal of jurisprudence but by a legislative assembly.
48. Under what fortunes was it possible for English male monarchs to govern without Parliament? What kings did it? When was this eventually stopped?
James I got rid of the Parliament. Charles I besides. When Charles I had to cite the Parliament because he needed money severely ( Scotts invaded the state and demanded money, to forestall from active war ) & # 8211 ; summoned the Long Parliament. It started go throughing Torahs & # 8211 ; no disintegration of the Parliament without its consent, no type of revenue enhancement without its consent, king able to cite the Parliament when wanted, but at least in 3 old ages.
49. What events took topographic point in England between 1642 and 1649?
In 1642 the King went to the North to piece the ground forces to contend with the Parliament. Cipher wanted the war but the opportunity for via media was lost, Charles refused to get rid of the royal privileges, so the war was inevitable. The Parliament created the & # 8220 ; New Model Army & # 8221 ; which defeated the Royal Army. Charles was captured but fled to the Isle of Wight, so arrested, set on test, executed ( 1649 ) .
50. What period is called the Personal Rule? How did it stop?
1629-1640, Charles I, had jobs with money, wanted to avoid wars, to raise money by royal privileges, granted new monopolies, remembered old revenue enhancements, conflicted with the Parliament and eventually he didn & # 8217 ; t summon. Peace with France and Spain, commercial prosperity. Ended with 2 civil wars and executing.
51. Who are Cavaliers and Roundheads?
Cavaliers were the people, largely aristocracy, who supported the King during the English Civil War. Roundheads, largely puritans, aristocracy, & # 8211 ; supported the Parliament.
52. What do you cognize about Inigo Jones?
A British designer, who was the spouse of Charles I ( who was the frequenter of humanistic disciplines ) . Designed many of import edifices, clairvoyance. in London. He was the first individual to present the Italian Palladian manner. Besides designed scenery for the theater.
53. Why are the events of 1642 – 1649 sometimes referred to as the Puritan revolution? What were its consequences?
Because the Parliament consisted chiefly of Puritans. They criticized the C of E, were persecuted for this, they wanted to acquire rid of all remains of Catholicism. Results & # 8211 ; extreme Puritans did off with the C of E and set new political system, the Republic.
54. What period in English history do we name the Protectorate?
The period after Oliver Cromwell dissolved the Parliament and proclaimed the Protectorate, presuming the rubric of Lord-Protector. 5 old ages ( 1653-1658 ) . Then his boy Richard, boulder clay 1659.
55. When and between what states was the War for the Spanish Succession fought? What were its consequences?
In 1701-1713, England ( + Holland ) , France and Spain & # 8211 ; for the Spanish throne after the Spanish King & # 8217 ; decease. England won, got Minorca, Gibraltar, Newfoundland. Gallic enlargement stopped.
56. Why are the events of 1689 called either the Glorious or the Unexpected revolution? What were the effects?
James II conflicted with the Parliament, the 2 parties decided to take James and ask for his girl with her hubby William of Orange. James fled to France, people didn & # 8217 ; t object. No blood, no resistance, no conflicts. Absolutism in England came to its terminal, England became limited monarchy.
57. What does the term “ Restoration ” base for?
No parliament, no stableness, and at last the monarchists invited Charles II ( Charles I & # 8217 ; s boy ) to go the King in 1660.
58. What function did the Duke and Duchess of Marlborough drama in English history?
John Churchill for his triumphs in the War for the Spanish Succession ( the conflict of Blenheim ) got the rubric of Duke of Marlborough, was granted the land. His married woman Sarah Jennings was the Queen & # 8217 ; s front-runner.
59. Who are the Dissenters?
Members of one of the Protestant groups that separated from the C of E, refused to accept the philosophy of the established church.
60. When did the party system emerge? What were the first parties, how did the system alteration with old ages?
1670 & # 8217 ; s. foremost there were two parties & # 8211 ; Tory ( tribunal party that supported the King ) and Whigs ( who supported the Parliament & # 8211 ; state / aristocracy, wanted reforms ) .
61. When did the King go king-in-Parliament? What did it intend?
1694, William of Orange, III. He ruled under certain conditions: accepted the Bill of Rights ( no standing ground forces, no Torahs without parliament & # 8217 ; s consent ) , the Act of Settlement ( no Catholic win ) . Didn & # 8217 ; t regulation on his ain, but a portion of the Parliament.
62. When was the Civil List foremost introduced?
In William of Orange & # 8217 ; s reign, 1698. The Parliament started giving money for maintaining king & # 8217 ; s family, so that he couldn & # 8217 ; t fade out it.
63. Who are the Hanovers?
After the Queen Ann & # 8217 ; s decease there was a alteration of dynasty, because she didn & # 8217 ; Ts have kids. George I was from German, but James I & # 8217 ; s remote comparative.
64. How and when did the office of the Prime Minister arise? What did the office imply? Who was the first PM?
1720 & # 8217 ; s. The first PM was Robert Walpole, he became the King & # 8217 ; s representative in the HC.
65. What were the chief periods of the reign of George III?
The first period 1760-1789, believed in an absolute monarchy, was an idealistic politician. When the settlements in America got independency, the Whigs returned to power. Besides after the Gallic Revolution, England felt that it was a great menace. After the War with Napoleon, the triumph, he got national regard. The monarchy began to alter.
66. Who are the Black Prince, Bonnie Prince Charlie and the Prince of Wales?
The Black Prince was the Prince of Wales, during the Hundred Years War he defeated the Gallic. Bonnie Prince Charlie & # 8211 ; the grandson of James II, believed to hold the right to be the king alternatively of George II. The Prince of Wales is the eldest boy of the King / Queen, started when Wales joined England in Edward I & # 8216 ; s reign.
67. What period is called “ the regulation of the elite ” ? How did the political system work? When and why did it stop?
The period of Whigs & # 8217 ; opinion, during the reign of George I and II, the state was efficaciously controlled by the curates ( Robert Walpole & # 8211 ; the caput ) . It ended with the accession of George III ( who was brought up in England ) ; he subjugated the Parliament.
68. What event is called “ the Boston Tea Party ” ?
A protest in Boston in 1773 against the British revenue enhancement on tea, when tea was thrown from the ship into the H2O in the Boston Harbour. This is considered to be the event that started the American Revolutionary War.
69. What period is referred to as Regency? Why was it necessary?
The period 1811-1820 when the state was ruled by the Prince Regent ( George IV ) , because the King himself was mentally sick.
70. When was the first British Empire created? When did it stop?
Created after the triumph in the War for the Spanish Succession. It ended in 1783 when the settlements in America became independent.
71. Who is William Pitt the Younger? What function did he play?
He was the caput of the fraction of the Whig Party, George III preferred him, became the PM & # 8211 ; great stableness, support of both King and the Parliament.
72. Who were the heroes of the wars against Napoleon?
Horatio Nelson defeated Napoleon several times, the conflict of Trafalgar, he was fatally wounded ; Duke of Wellington, defeated Napoleon in the conflict of Waterloo in 1815.
73. How did the look “ to run into one ‘s Waterloo ” originate?
Bonaparte was eventually defeated in the conflict of Waterloo in 1815.
74. The alterations in the nature of monarchy and the opinion elite in the early nineteenth century.
The Monarchy became the symbol of the state & # 8217 ; s integrity. After the war with Napoleon. Great proud. The governing elect underwent great alteration. Peoples meriting regard & # 8211 ; non merely birth and belongings, but industry and morality. A position that wealth and rank meant responsibility, private morality. Political power based on birth and belongings.
75. What is the Great Reform Bill? Why was it necessary and what were its chief commissariats?
It was a measure which gave a vote right to more societal groups and large metropoliss were now represented in the Parliament. Necessary & # 8211 ; because industrial metropoliss emerged and they had no representatives.
76. What were the chief characteristics of Victorian society and authorities?
The state was efficaciously ruled by the PMs, who were elected from the party that got the bulk in the Parliament. 2nd
Reform Bill in 1867 ( blue regulation declined ) , electorate doubled, secret ballot introduced. Society: category division formed but no confrontation. Fiscal independency, reputability, philanthropic gift, difficult work, seriousness. Police force created, public wellness, instruction for the lower categories. Free unregulated market.
77. The extension of franchise after the Great Reform Act of 1832, its effects.
received a ballot. Redistribution of seats. Now large metropoliss were represented, belongings making for campaigners. Social effect & # 8211 ; tied the in-between category to the blue bloods.
78. What was the function of Prince Albert in British history?
He was the Prince-Consort, was non fit for concern, but had good influence on the immature queen. He was interested in humanistic disciplines, music, scientific discipline and industry, planned and organized the Great Exhibition in 1851. Many edifices are named after him.
79. What were the two chief parties in the Victorian age and who were their most outstanding leaders?
Tory & # 8211 ; & gt ; Conservatives ( Disraeli ) , Whigs & # 8211 ; & gt ; Liberal ( Gladstone ) . They alternated.
80. When did authorities societal policy originate? What countries did it cover?
Social reforms in Victorian reign & # 8211 ; public wellness, instruction for all kids, province undertook the responsibility to supply schools, school attending became mandatory, simple instruction free.
81. What is the Boer War?
The war in South Africa against 2 Boer democracies ( Transvaal and Orange Free State ) , made them a portion of the British Empire. Huge loss of life, Britain became unpopular in Europe.
82. What period do we name Edwardian? What were its typical characteristics?
The reign of Edward VII. Society became cosmopolitan, new wealth was added to the old wealth of great landowning households ( from Victorian clip ) . Appearance of the Labour Party, societal reforms. Crisis, suffragette motion. Poverty and unemployment. Irish inquiry.
83. What do you cognize about the People ‘s Budget?
Was introduced by David Lloyd George. It was designed to pay the costs of societal public assistance and naval rearmament. But the Lords rejected the undertaking in 1909.
84. What were the effects of WWI on British society?
Had really of import effects, affected everyone, traumatized the whole coevals, nil was the same after it. It had provided the juncture for monolithic governmental experiments in economic endeavor, in insurance. It was the urge for societal and economical alteration. Rising unemployment. Rise of Labour Party and diminution of Liberals. Very extended plan of societal reforms & # 8211 ; Liberals failed to react.
85. The rise and autumn of the Second British Empire.
1850 the 2nd British Empire, India added, exceeded the 1st. During the period from 1940 to 1980 old ages more than 40 British settlements became independent. Remained friendly with Britain, most of them & # 8211 ; & gt ; the Commonwealth.
86. When did authorities economic policy Begin?
After the WWI, the Government started supporting the place market by presenting protectionist duties.
87. When did the Labour party emerge? How did it later alter the party system? The alterations in the Labour programme at the terminal of the twentieth century, their chief cause.
Emerged in 1906. In 1920 & # 8217 ; s rose and replaced the Liberal Party. Was traditionally the socialist party, but in 1980-90 & # 8217 ; s changed and travel towards the political centre ( New Labour ) .
88. What were the chief effects of WWII?
The economic system declined, there was nil to export, no money for import. Britain was efficaciously a totalitarian province, the Government had limitless power, rationing introduced, luxuries had 100 % revenue enhancement on them, everyone of contending age was conscripted, retainers disappeared. Defeat of Conservatives and triumph of the Labour Party.
89. What function did Mrs. Simpson, a divorced American, drama in English history?
Wallis Simpson, had a relationship with Edward VIII. Because she had already been married twice earlier, Edward was non allowed to get married her. Then he decided to renounce, she became the Duchess of Windsor.
90. What is a Welfare province? When was it created? What does the term “ Welfare ” mean today?
State with a system of societal aid provided by the province, giving money to people who are hapless or unemployed, supplying medical attention. 1945-51. The section of societal security.
91. What is meant by the “ epoch of consensus ” ?
92. What is Affluent Society?
Affluent society, which was created by enlargement of the in-between category. In 1990 & # 8217 ; s the society was defined by a prosperity that involved the bulk of people.
93. What events are sometimes referred to as “ The Winter of Discontent ” ?
The winter of 1978-79 when many workers refused to work in protest against the Labour authorities & # 8217 ; s thought on restricting wage rises. The Labour party lost power after this.
94. What events are called “ The Battle of Britain ” ?
The battles between German and Britain aircraft during the summer and fall of 1940, when British aircraft tried to forestall German aircraft from bombing British metropoliss. The bombardment was stopped at the terminal of 1940 and it was considered as a great triumph. Main consequence & # 8211 ; prevented from invasion.
95. Why was Thatcher ‘s period in office called a revolution? What did she intend when she proclaimed a return to Victorian values?
Changed a batch, reduced revenue enhancements, took away power from trade brotherhoods, started the programme of denationalization, and created immense in-between category. Free market. Everybody should work hard, be earnest, thrifty, and independent.