Brittle Star Essay Research Paper BRITTLE STARPHYLUM

9 September 2017

Brittle Star Essay, Research Paper


Phylum: Echinodermata

Species: Ophioderma panamense

GEOGRAPHIC RANGE: From Peru and through Southern California

Habitat: They have been observed in the mid and low tide zones, abundant on the sea floor underneath stones and in crannies and traveling about tide pools and in available home grounds in southern California

Niche: Omnivoire and filter feeder

Extra Notes: Sometimes frequently called snake starts due to their serpent like motions. The oral cavity is located on the bottom of the cardinal phonograph record. The aboral phonograph record and weaponries are dark brown to black, and the phonograph record is normally approximately 25mm. in diameter and the weaponries near 180 in length. They have rounded organic structures with five slender, flexible weaponries that are easy broken off by any external force but are readily regenerated. Their nutrient consists of disintegrating affair and microscopic beings. Their phonograph record is covered with thick granules, which obscure the radial shields, the phonograph record border is about consecutive between the weaponries, and the arm spinal columns are short. Pg. 276

Specimen # 2


Phylum: Echinodermata

Species: Patiria miniata

GEOGRAPHIC RANGE: It can be found from Alaska down through Mexico and is one of the most common species in Southern California. Besides common in Alamitos Bay, Cabrillo Bay, Corona del Mar, Dana Point and Marina del Rey.

Habitat: Found in tide pools in the low intertidal and subtidal zones concealing in protected bays on stones under stones and in and around wharf piles.

Niche: Omnivore and scavenger

Extra Notes: With short triangular weaponries it shape it genuinely & # 8220 ; star & # 8221 ; shaped. Bat stars scope in a assortment of colourss from milky to yellow or orange, ruddy, violet & # 8211 ; brown. The aboral face is scaly. They use tubed pess for motive power. Batstars scope from 1 inch in diameter to 6 inches. They don & # 8217 ; Ts have a bosom. The Bat star is about ever accompanied by a little commensal worm ( Ophiodromus pugettensis ) , which lives in the ambulacral channels of its host. They feed by widening their tummy over a great assortment of workss and animate beings, dead or alive. Normally holding 5 weaponries and sometimes found with less or more. Pg. 271

Specimen # 3


Phylum: Echinodermata

Species: Astrometis sertulifera

GEOGRAPGIC RANGE: They can be found in all countries from Washington to Baja and have been observed at Corona del Mar and La Jolla.

Habitat: Around zone 4 and surge pools and protected bouldery shores

Niche: Omnivore and scavenger

Extra Notes: The weaponries Numberss are 5 or 6 and the aboral surface is green to brown with orange and bluish spinal columns. The skeleton is composed of stray bonelets and the arm span is about 20 centimeter. . After the digested nutrient is absorbed, the sea star pulls its tummy back inside its organic structure and moves on. The skeletal construction allows specimens to readily cast their weaponries when handled. Pg.272

Specimen # 4


Phylum: Mollusca

Species: Serpulorbis squamigerus

GEOGRAPHIC RANGE: The know distributional scope has gone from cardinal to Baja California and around Corona del Mar.

Habitat: They are abundant in all avalible home grounds but are common on the under surfaces of stones in the low tide zone.

Niche: Passive filter feeder

Extra Notes: They are usually in big settlements attached to stones and piles. These animate beings are enclosed in twisted while chalky tubings and are frequently mistaken for polychaete segmented worms. Pg. 134

Specimen # 5


Phylum: Mollusca

Species: Aplysia californica

GEOGRAPHIC RANGE: This is an abundant species on all coasts of California from Elkhorn Slough to San Diego.

Habitat: Often observed swimming in shallow H2O or stranded on the beaches at low tide. They live in the intertidal zone and subtidally to about 40 pess.

Niche: Graze herbivores

Extra Notes: The organic structure may turn to a length of 45 centimeter. And like the octopus, it ejects a violet fluid when handled or disturbed. The organic structure is brown, or mottled brown with about black. They eat assorted sorts of algae and grass wrack. Sea hares can eat 10 per centum of their weight a twenty-four hours. They have a complicated multi system stomached digestive system so they can get by with such nutrient. Sea hares are coincident intersexs which means they can move as male and female at the same clip, nevertheless can non fertilise their ain eggs. A individual sea hare can put 1000000s of eggs at one time, which look like yellowish, xanthous viridity, to pick eggs that sort of resemble spaghetti. Pg.144

Specimen # 6


Phylum: Mollusca

Species: Megathura cremulata

GEOGRAPHIC RANGE: It is known for distribution is from cardinal T

o Baja California and Montery bay and Alamitos Bay.

Habitat: They have been observed in all available home grounds but known to populate in the low intertidal zone and to deepnesss of 110 pess on bouldery substrates.

Niche: Graze herbivore

Extra Notes: They frequently attain the length of 10 centimeters. They have an ellipse shaped shell. In colour they are celebrated, as the mantle is deep unicolorous black, or a tan with dark brown markers. Pg. 130

Specimen # 7


Phylum: Echinodermata

Species: Stronglylocentrotus purpuratus

GEOGRAPHIC RANGE: Known from Alaska to Southern California, and Cook & # 8217 ; s recess, and Baja California.

Habitat: Depth scope from the low intertidal zone to 10 m. normally found in tide pools mediate stones.

Niche: Grazing herbivore ; inactive carnivore

Extra Notes: Diameter about 3 to about 8.5 centimeter. , short purple spinal columns. The colour ranges from a light purple to a dark purple, They have a complex five-part jaw the five-part jaw described by Aristotle and cognize as Aristotle & # 8217 ; s lantern. The jaw is located on the unwritten surface. The three jawed squeezing variety meats are called the pedicellariae which they use to clean and support themselves with and it contains a powerful toxin. Kind or resembles the expression of a pincushion. The spinal columns and tube pess are what assist the urchin to garner nutrient. They feed on algae. Pg.281

Specimen # 8


Phylum: Arthropoda

Species: Pachygrapsus crassipes

GEOGRAPHIC RANGE: It is know to be anyplace from Oregon to Baja California.

Habitat: It is omniprescent in tide pools and among stones and breakwaters.

Niche: Chiefly a scavenger

Extra Notes: The shell varies in colour from green to red, and is distinguished from other grapsids by the transverse chevrons on the back of the shell. The shell of mature persons is between 3 & # 8211 ; 4 centimeter. in length. Like lobsters and runts, a female crab carries her eggs under her venters for protection until they hatch into little larvae. Pediculosis pubiss have a difficult outer shell, or exoskeleton, that protects them from crashing moving ridges every bit good as from seize with teething fish. They are really nimble and can scurry quickly over the crisp, jaggy stones on their agile pess. The tips of their walking legs have short stiff spinal columns that grab on to the stone and prevent have oning off of the legs on the unsmooth surface. Pg. 240

Specimen # 9


Phylum: Mollusca

Species: Stenoplax conspicua

Geographic RANGE: From Southern California and particularly in Dana Point.

Habitat: Found on the bottom of big stones during the daylight hours. Found in the low tide zone.

Niche: Graze Herbivores

Extra Notes: They have an eight portion chalky shell that is embedded in a leathery tegument. They are nocturnal. It is negatively phototaxic and as a effect will be found under stones. Their colour is a grey green with a pinkish dorsal and colour of the girdle is grey green. Chitons are slow moving, but are non immobile. A chiton can turn over itself up into a ball, exposing merely the difficult shell, when it feels threatened. Chitons feed upon seaweed and algae. Chitons clamp themselves to sway utilizing their pes and their & # 8220 ; girdle & # 8221 ; ( the portion of the shell that encircles the chiton & A ; 8 home bases ) to defy conditions & A ; wave action. It crawls by agencies of muscular waves of the pes. The oral cavity, located in forepart of the pes, contains a toothed scraping organ, the radula. Mature persons are about 10 centimeter. in length. Pg.124

Specimen # 10


Phylum: Arthropoda

Species: Panulirus interruptus

Geographic Scope: San Luis Obispo, California to Rosalia bay and Baja California

Habitat: Depths scope from 10 to 60 m. Tide pools but normally little if seen at that place.

Niche: Scavengers

Extra Notes: Spinal columns cover their long aerial and the forepart of their organic structures. They lack holding the big claw features of the Atlantic lobster. Mostly nocturnal and scrounging at the underside at dark. Can make the length to about 60 centimeter. and can weigh 25 lbs. Mature persons can be observed in fish markets and on occasion a specimen is observed in the H2O at times of the lowest tide. 45 species of spinous lobsters of the Palinuridae household. The to a great extent armoured aerials can bring down a lacrimation lesion when the lobster thrashes them whip-like against an opposition. Unlike the American lobster, spinous lobsters seem to bask each other & # 8217 ; s company and frequently portion their lairs. They may warn other lobsters of danger with loud rasping sounds they make by rubbing the base of their aerial against serrated ridges below their eyes. Hundreds, sometimes 1000s, of spinous lobsters form columns of every bit many as 60 lobsters to migrate en masse, frequently after a storm.


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