In the construction industry, there are several factors which must be taken into consideration. Keen attention must be paid to the building codes and regulations in order to ensure that all construction activities are carried out in a potentially safe and efficient manner. These may be sighted to include occupational safety and health of employees and the preservation as well as the protection of the environment.
Therefore, the main aim of this project is to determine the building codes, regulations as well as the environmental factors used in order to ensure occupational safety and health of employees as well as the protection of the environment. Career Opportunities on the Building Site Definition of a Career An occupation undertaken for a significant period of a person’s life and with opportunities for progress is known as a career. General Foreman A general foreman is always employed on small contracts. The foreman should have extensive knowledge of all aspects of building construction.
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This includes knowing how to organise the workers, materials and schedules. The clerk of works The clerk of works, who is usually employed by the client, is an expert in how buildings should be constructed. The clerk of works uses this knowledge to make sure that the contractor builds the building correctly and safely. The Quantity Surveyor The quantity surveyor prepares a bill of quantities for building projects so that contractors can accurately price the work. The quantity surveyor works out the size of the areas and the volume of required materials from the design team’s drawings and specifications.
Carpenter A carpenter is a craftsman with extensive skill and experience level at carpentry; the trade of cutting, joining, making and repairing wooden objects and other structures made of wood. They are also able to manage job sites with multiple employees and trade contractors. Mason A person whose trade is building with units of various natural or artificial mineral products, as stones, bricks, cinder blocks, or tiles, usually with the use of mortar or cement as a bonding agent. Plumber
One who installs, repairs, and maintains piping, fittings, and fixtures involved in the distribution and use of water in connection with the water supply, drainage systems, etc. , both in and out of buildings. Electrician One whose occupation is the installation, maintenance, repair, or operation of electric equipment and circuitry. An electrician is a tradesperson specializing in electrical wiring of buildings, stationary machines and related equipment. Painter A person who coats walls or other surfaces with paint, especially as an occupation.
Norms A norm is a principle of right action binding upon the members of a group and serving to guide, control, or regulate proper and acceptable behaviour. Some examples of norms which are to be used on a building site are as follows: Do not use indecent or obscene language. Workers must not smoke while on the building site. Employees must avoid from reaching late to work. Employees should not leave work before their scheduled time. Regulations Regulations are guidelines that keeps the worker on the building site safe and protected.
Regulations and roles are enforced mostly by the contractor on the site. Some of these are as follows: Personal safety equipment must be worn as prescribed for each job, such as: safety glasses for eye protection, hard hats at all times within the confines of the construction area where there is a potential for falling materials or tools, gloves when handling materials, and safety shoes are necessary for protection against foot injuries. Know where firefighting equipment is located and be trained on how to use it.
Do not use power tools and equipment until you have been properly instructed in the safe work methods and become authorized to use them. Never throw anything “overboard. ” Someone passing below may be seriously injured. Always ensure that all ladders and scuffles are secured on the ground. All workers must be punctual at all times. Identify and mark any hazardous materials. Determine any risk involved to personnel. Label and store any materials deemed hazardous in proper containers and secure them in a safe location. Post precautions for handling nearby.
Make sure there is an MSDS (material safety data sheet) for all potentially hazardous chemicals/materials. Inspect equipment to be sure it is working properly. Be on the lookout for unusual noises and jerky movements. Report any problems immediately and do not operate the machinery until repairs have been made. Use harnesses and other safety equipment when performing roof work or working on scaffolds. Provide personal protective equipment to all employees, including hard hats, safety goggles and boots, work gloves, ear plugs (or another form of protection) and face masks.
Prepare for emergencies. Operators and site workers should know what to do in case of electrical, mechanical, power failures, or injuries. Protect the public by barricading the construction site during work hours. After working hours, lock all points of entry. Building Codes A building code is a collection of laws, regulations, ordinances, or other statutory requirements adopted by a government legislative authority that is involved in assuring the adequacy of the physical structures and healthy conditions of buildings. Codes exist to ensure that buildings are safe and
easily accessible. Building codes establish predictable, consistent minimum standards that are applied to the quality and durability of construction materials. According to the International Codes Council, “minimum requirements” means that the construction meets the criteria of being both “practical and adequate for protecting life, safety, and welfare of the public. ” Building codes are adopted by a state or local government’s legislative body, then enacted to regulate building construction within a particular jurisdiction (city, county, or entire state).
The primary purpose of a building code is to regulate new or proposed construction. Building codes only apply to an existing building if the building undergoes reconstruction, rehabilitation, or alteration, or if the occupancy of the existing building changes to a new occupancy level as defined by the building code. Some of the building codes that must be met on a worksite are: The foundation must be deep and the soil must be compacted in order to construct a building. The material used should meet bureau of standards specifications in order to be used on a building site.
In order to construct the building, a certified and licensed contractor should evaluate the worksite. When the building is finished being constructed it must be inspected by a building inspector to make sure it meets building standards. Impact of Technology Technology as we know it is advancing every day and are used in almost everything we do. The impact of technology on the building site helps to make the work easier to do as well as to make it more efficient and takes less time in doing it. On the other hand, when doing the work manually, it can be time consuming and efficiency will not be as high when compared to a machine.
The workers should then be able or trained to use the necessary machines or equipment required for the specific job. Computer aided designs were used in order to automate the design process making changes easier and as a result reducing the design time. 3 dimensional job rendering were designed to fully explain the proposed computer design. Computer aided estimation gives them accurate information on bid pricing and provide detail estimates, which concealed with the contract and shows plans to give a completed cost analysis of the project. On the other hand traditional carpentry Businesses were not able to design carpentry programs on the
designing market. Computer has now lightened the work of the secretary. Computers are used to store important information, to create geometric models, objects, structures as well as assemblies. The company purchased relatively cheap software which is capable of multidimensional communication include sound, prints, graphics, animation, which resulted in the company’s development and growth. The machines that were used on the building site were a mechanical cement mixer, an electric saw, tile cutters, bulldozers (for land clearing), drill, chainsaws etc.
Therefore less manual labour would be required to get the job done. As a result some employees would be fired since there is no need for them because it only takes one or two persons to operate the machine. The impact of technology provides jobs for skilled persons and takes away from unskilled workers. Environmental Factors To minimise environmental impact it is important to understand the link between various construction activities and the potential for these activities to impact on the environment.
The environment is defined as living things, their physical, biological and social surroundings and the interactions between all of these. Environmental management measures will depend on the nature of the site activities and the sensitivity of the project area and surrounding land. For example, excavations resulting in steep slopes are likely to lead to soil erosion and water quality problems downstream and will require the installation of erosion protection measures. IMPORTANT STEPS TO REDUCE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS 1.
Walk the construction route to identify the limit of vegetation clearance, significant vegetation, ‘no go’ areas, locations for stockpiles, plant compounds and access roads. 2. Clearly identify the extent of the construction area and those areas to remain undisturbed. 3. Ensure machinery and equipment are clean before bringing to site. 4. Keep work and vehicles within the construction area. 5. Keep machinery and stockpiles on cleared areas. 6. Use the appropriate machinery for the task. 7. Plan vegetation removal (do not clear vegetation unnecessarily).
8. Topsoil should be stripped and stockpiled for use as soon as practicable. 9. Protect and maintain site erosion control measures, such as: replacing temporary cut-off drains at the end of the day’s work minimise exposed soil and slopes avoid damage to erosion control measures replace damaged erosion control measures, including silt fences, temporary bunds and straw bales Ensure the works drain to the erosion/sedimentation control structures. 10. Ensure waste is controlled and disposed of correctly. 11. Clean equipment before moving to another site. 12.
If unsure about any environmental controls contact the site supervisor. Major Findings The researcher has observed that during the inspection of various construction sites, several rules are being broken. Some of the rules being broken on the construction site are as follows: No protective clothing, gear or helmet were worn by most of the workers on the construction site. Steel rods, nails and other sharp materials were left exposed on the worksite which would result in severe injuries to workers. Exposed electrical wires were seen on the walls, ceiling as well as on floors.
At some construction sites, scrap material such as pieces of wood chippings, pipes, wires, empty cement bags etc. were scattered all around the worksite making it look unkempt and untidy. Recommendations The researcher recommends that the foreman or contractor should enforce rules and regulations on the construction site to their workers inclusive of: Workers should be trained on how to use power tools. Insulate all exposed electrical wire on the walls, floors and ceiling. Ensure that all of the workers clean up their various working area when finished working on the building site.
Workers should wear their safety gears at all times. Exposed materials should be taken care of. That is, cover up all the steel rod and bend all the nails on the floor so that workers don’t injure themselves. Conclusion In the fields of architecture and civil engineering, construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure. Far from being a single activity, large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking. Normally, the job is managed by a project manager, and supervised by a construction manager, design engineer, construction engineer or project architect.
A building site can be a dangerous environment. Powerful machinery, hazardous materials, scaffolding and trenches create risks for the building workers and other people in the construction area. For the successful execution of a project, effective planning is essential. Those involved with the design and execution of the infrastructure in question must consider the environmental impact of the job, the successful scheduling, budgeting, construction site safety, availability of building materials, logistics, and inconvenience to the public caused by construction delays etc. Bibliography