Camel Rating Of Brac Bank
Camels rating system is a common phenomenon for all banking system all over the world. It is used in all over the country in the world. It is mainly used to measure a ranking position of a bank on the basis of few criteria. Camels rating system is an international bank-rating system where bank supervisory authorities rate institutions according to six factors. The six factors are represented by the acronym “CAMELS”. The six factors examined are as follows: C – Capital adequacy A – Asset quality M – Management quality E – Earnings L – Liquidity S – Sensitivity to Market Risk
Bank supervisory authorities assign a score on a scale of one (best) to five (worst) for each factor to each bank. If a bank has an average score less than two it is considered to be a highquality institution, while banks with scores greater than three are considered to be less-thansatisfactory establishments. The system helps the supervisory authority identify banks that are in need of attention. Origin of Camels Rating System: There were many banks rating system available in the world. However, Camels rating system is the most successful bank rating system in the world.
The ‘Uniform Financial Institutions Rating System (UFIRS)’ was created in 1979 by the bank regulatory agencies. Under the original UFIRS a bank was assigned ratings based on performance in five areas: the adequacy of Capital, the quality of Assets, the capability of Management, the quality and level of Earnings and the adequacy of Liquidity. Bank supervisors assigned a 1 through 5 rating for each of these components and a composite rating for the bank. This 1 through 5 composite rating was known primarily by the short form CAMEL. A bank received the CAMEL rate 1 or 2 for their sound or good performance in every respect of criteria.
The bank which exhibited unsafe and unsound practices or conditions, critically deficient performance received the CAMEL rate 5 and that bank was of the greatest supervisory concern. While the CAMEL rating normally bore close relation to the five component ratings, it was not the result of averaging those five grades. Supervisors consider each institution’s specific 3 situation when weighing component ratings and review all relevant factors when assigning ratings to a certain extent. The process and component and composite system exist similar for all banking companies.
In 1996, the UFIRS was revised and CAMEL became CAMELS with the addition of a component grade for the Sensitivity of the bank to market risk. Sensitivity is the degree to which changes in market prices such as interest rates adversely affect a financial institution. The communication policy for bank ratings was also changed at end of 1996. Starting in 1997, the supervisors were to report the component rating to the bank. Prior to that, supervisors only reported the numeric composite rating to the bank. Six Factors of Camels Ratings System: Capital Adequacy Capital adequacy focuses on the total position of bank capital.
It assures the depositors that they are protected from the potential shocks of losses that a bank incurs. Financial managers maintain company’s adequate level of capitalization by following it. It is the key parameter of maintaining adequate levels of capitalization. Asset quality determines the robustness of financial institutions against loss of value in the assets. All commercial banks show the concentration of loans and advances in total assets. The high concentration of loans and advances indicates vulnerability of assets to credit risk, especially since the portion of non-performing assets is significant.
Management quality of any financial institution is evaluated in terms of Capital Adequacy, Asset Quality, Management, Earnings, Liquidity and Sensitivity to market risk. Moreover, it is also depended on compliance with set norm, planning ability; react to changing situation, technical competence, leadership and administrative quality. A Sound management is the most important pre-requisite for the strength and growth of any financial institution. Earning and profitability is the prime sources of increasing capital of any financial institution.
Strong earnings and profitability profile of a bank reflect its ability to support present and future operations. Increased earning ensure adequate capital and adequate capital can absorb all loses and give shareholder adequate dividends. An adequate liquidity position refers to a situation, where an institution can obtain sufficient funds, either by increasing liabilities or by converting its assets quickly at a reasonable cost. 4 It access in terms of asset and liability management. Liquidity indicators measured as percentage of demand and time liabilities (excluding interbank items) of the banks.
It means that the percentage of demand and time liabilities gets a bank as per its liquid assets. The sensitivity to market risk is evaluated from changes in market prices, notably interest rates; exchange rates, commodity prices, and equity prices adversely affect a bank’s earnings and capital. Process of Camels Reporting: The reporting process of CAMELS rating is given below: Figure : Reporting Process of CAMELS rating Process: 1. Data collection of reschedule status of overdue loans from CRM, Retail, SME and Ops. 2. Data collection of lending rates and deposit rates from Treasury.
Data collection of average borrowed amount and rate of interest expenses from Treasury. 4. Data collection of maturity wise investments from Treasury. 5. Collect information of training programs arranged by the Bank’s training institute from Human Resources Division. 6. Collection of other required reports and statements from other divisions. 7. Preparation of CAMELS report as per guideline of BB & Core Risk Management Guidelines. 8. Meeting arranged with MANCOM. 5 Camels Rating System of Bangladesh: All over the world, CAMELS rating is a common figure to all banking industry.
Like all other countries, it is also used in Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, the five components of CAMEL have been used for evaluating the five crucial dimensions of a bank’s operations that reflect in a complete institution’s financial condition, compliance with banking regulations and statutes and overall operating soundness since the early nineties. In 2006, Bangladesh Bank has upgraded the CAMEL into CAMELS. ‘Sensitivity to market risk’ or ‘S’ is the new rating component which is included in CAMEL and make it into CAMELS. The new rating component makes the system more effective and efficient.
The new system needs bank’s regular condition and performance according to predetermined stress testing on asset and liability and foreign exchange exposures, procedures, rules and criteria and on the basis of the results obtained through risk-based audits under core risk management guidelines. A bank’s single CAMELS rating has come from off-site monitoring, which uses monthly financial statement information, and an on-site examination, from which bank supervisors gather further “private information” not reflected in the financial reports. The development of “credit points” examination result is ranging from 0 to 100.
The six key performance dimensions – capital adequacy, asset quality, management, earnings, liquidity and sensitivity to market risk – are to be evaluated on a scale of 1 to 5 in ascending order. Following is a description of the graduations of rating: Rating 1 indicates strong performance: BEST rating. Rating 2 reflects satisfactory performance. Rating 3 represents performance that is flawed to some degree. Rating 4 refers to marginal performance and is significantly below average and Rating 5 is considered unsatisfactory: WORST rating. Table : Composite CAMELS and their Interpretation Rating Composite range
Description Rating Analysis interpretation 1 1 to 1. 4 Strong Sound in every respect, no supervisory responses required. 2 1. 5 to 2. 4 Satisfactory Fundamentally sound with modest correctable weakness, supervisory response limited. Combination of weaknesses if not redirected will become severe. 3 2. 5 to 3. 4 Fair Watch category. Requires more than normal supervision. Immoderate weakness unless properly addressed could impair future 4 3. 5 to 4. 4 Marginal viability of the bank. Needs close supervision. High risk of failure in the near term. Under constant supervision/cease 5 4. 5 to 5 Unsatisfactory and desist order.
Capital adequacy: Capital adequacy focuses on the total position of bank capital. It focuses on the risk weighted assets which proposed to protect from the potential shocks of losses that a bank might incur. It is assessed according to: the volume of risk assets, the volume of marginal and inferior assets, bank growth experience, plans, and prospects; and the strength of management in relation to all the above factors. The major financial risk like credit risk, interest rate risk and risk involved in off-balance sheet operations are absorbed by it.
The CAMELS components are also required for Basel Committee of Bangladesh Bank. As regards the capital adequacy, they grouped the factors like a) size of the bank, b) volume of inferior quality assets, c) bank’s growth experience, plans and prospects, d) quality of capital, e) retained earnings, f) access to capital markets, and g) non-ledger assets and sound values not shown on books (real property at nominal values, charge-offs with firm recovery values, tax adjustments). Capital to Risk-Weighted Assets ratio (CRWA) is the most widely used indicator for capital adequacy ratio.
According to Bangladesh Bank, a bank has to maintain a minimum capital adequacy ratio (CAR) of not less than 10 percent of their risk weighted assets (RWA, with at least 5 percent in core capital) or Taka 2 billion, whichever is higher. Basel II Basel II is a capital adequacy management framework for banks. Basel II is the second of the Basel Accords, which are recommendations on banking laws and regulations issued by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision; adopted by Bangladesh Bank. The main objectives of Basel II are as follows: Promote safety and soundness in the financial systems
Constitute a more comprehensive and more sensitive approach to addressing risks Better alignment of regulatory capital to underlying risk Encourages banks to improve risk management These guidelines are structured on following three aspects: a) Minimum capital requirements to be maintained by a bank against credit, market, and operational risks. b) Process for assessing the overall capital adequacy aligned with risk profile of a bank as well as capital growth plan. c) Framework of public disclosure on the position of a bank’s risk profiles, capital adequacy, and risk management system.