Caribbean Studies Essay Sample
Natural catastrophes are defined as natural calamities which cause great harm by interrupting the operation of a society. Natural catastrophes are inevitable and omnipresent worldwide. Within the Caribbean. three chief natural catastrophes are hurricanes. temblors. inundations. The great amendss caused by natural catastrophes may be divided into two classs: societal and economic and environmental. However. this essay will turn to the societal and economic impact of these natural catastrophes on the Caribbean and how to cut down the effects of these catastrophes. In respects to the essay. Hurricanes ( with particular accent being placed on Hurricane Gilbert ) and inundations every bit good as two Caribbean districts. Jamaica and Haiti will be utilised severally. The undermentioned points will be discussed in footings of hurricane: loss of lives and homelessness. break of communities. employment ( societal impact ) procedure of money being diverted into alleviation activities and Reconstruction. Gross Domestic Product ( economic impacts ) .
Conversely points that will be discussed for deluging are: nutrient deficit and the taint of H2O.
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loss of places ( societal impacts ) and the overall impact on the economic system every bit good as aid received from foreigners ( economic impacts ) . A hurricane is a type of tropical cyclone. which is by and large formed in the Torrid Zones. This tropical cyclone is accompanied by electrical storms. heavy rainfall. implosion therapy and strong air currents. The economic and societal effects of this phenomenon are terrible. particularly in less developed Caribbean states. Haiti for illustration. A hurricane can do major loss of lives and besides homelessness. Hurricane Gilbert struck the Caribbean and the Gulf Coast of Mexico in 1988. doing comprehensive harm in Jamaica. Haiti. Guatemala. Honduras. Dominican Republic. Costa Rica. and Nicaragua.
Approximately 21 lives were lossed in Jamaica during this hurricane. and it left over 400 people homeless. Crops were destroyed ; farm animal husbandmans were left to dispose of farm animate beings that were perished during the hurricane and public-service corporation poles uprooted. As a consequence of the amendss from a hurricane. unemployment can go a major societal impact. as the installations for occupations can be severely damaged. The economic impact of Hurricanes on Caribbean districts can retard development. The money that a state has. is now diverted into alleviation activities and Reconstruction of damaged belongingss. All these losingss can pass over out whatever gain that may hold been achieved in economic development. Approximately $ 4 billion was diverted into Reconstruction. when hurricane Gilbert came to Jamaica
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Once the hazard posed by hurricanes is understood. specific extenuation steps can be taken to cut down the hazard to communities. substructure. and economic activities. Human and economic losingss can be greatly reduced through well-organized attempts to implement appropriate preventative steps. in public consciousness and in publishing timely warnings. Thankss to these steps. states in the part have experienced a drastic decrease in the figure of deceases caused by hurricanes.
Extenuation steps are most cost-efficient when implemented as portion of the original program or building of vulnerable constructions. Typical illustrations are the application of edifice criterions designed for hurricane-force air currents. the turning away of countries that can be affected by storm rush or implosion therapy. and the planting of shelterbelts to protect wind-sensitive harvests. Retrofiting edifices or other undertakings to do them hurricane-resistant is more dearly-won and sometimes impossible. Once a undertaking is located in a flood-prone country. it may non be executable to travel it to safer land.
The overall record on extenuation of hurricane hazard in the Caribbean and Central America is non really encouraging. Cases abound of new investings in the populace or productive sectors that were exposed to important jeopardy hazard because of inappropriate design or location. and even of undertakings that were rebuilt in the same manner on the same site after holding been destroyed a first clip. Other instances can be cited of schools and infirmaries funded with bilateral assistance that were built to plan criterions suited for the donor state but incapable of defying hurricane-strength air currents prevalent in the recipient state.
The touristry sector in the Caribbean is ill-famed for its evident neglect of the hazard of hurricanes and associated jeopardies. A hotel composite built with deficient reverse from the high-water grade non merely risks being damaged by wave action and storm rush. but interferes with the normal procedures of beach formation and dune stabilisation. therefore cut downing the effectivity of a natural system of protection against wave action. After the first serious harm is incurred the proprietors of the hotel will most likely decide to reconstruct on the same site and put in a breakwater. instead than see traveling the construction to a recommended reverse. The effectivity of national exigency readiness offices of states in the part is frequently earnestly limited because of unequal institutional support and a deficit of proficient and fiscal resources. In the smaller Caribbean islands. these offices are largely one-man operations. with the individual in charge responsible for many other non-emergency affairs. It would be unrealistic to anticipate them to be able to move efficaciously at the local degree in instances of area-wide exigencies. such as those caused by hurricanes. It is hence indispensable to heighten the capacity of the population in little towns and small towns to fix for and respond to exigencies by their ain agencies.
From 1986 through 1989. the OAS/Natural Hazards Project has worked with several Eastern Caribbean states to measure the exposure of little towns and small towns to natural jeopardies. and develop local catastrophe directors and community leaders in forming hazard appraisals and extenuation in their communities. These activities have resulted in the readying of a preparation manual with attach toing picture for usage by local leaders. This attempt has focused on lifeline networks-transportation. communications. H2O. electricity. sanitation-and critical installations related to the public assistance of the dwellers. such as infirmaries and wellness centres. schools. constabularies and fire Stationss. community installations. and exigency shelters.
The balance of this chapter is dedicated to a drumhead overview of the procedure by which the leading in a little town or small town can present effectual jeopardy extenuation. D. COPING WITH HURRICANES IN SMALL TOWNS AND VILLAGES
1. Inventory of Lifeline Networks and Critical Facilities 2. Learning the Operation of Lifelines and Facilities and Their Potential for Disruption by Hurricane 3. Checking the Vulnerability of the Lifelines and Facilities through Field Inspection and Investigation 4. Establishing a Positive Working Relationship with the Agencies and Companies that Manage the Infrastructure and Services of the Community 5. Developing an Understanding of the Total Risk to the Community 6. Explicating a Extenuation Scheme
The grade to which local communities can last harm and break from terrible storms and hurricanes besides depends to a big extent on how good the basic services and substructure. the common goods of the community. stand up to the air current and rain attach toing these storms. Whereas single households bear full duty for fixing their ain shelter to defy the effects of storms. they have a much more limited function in guaranting that their common services are safeguarded. yet one that can non be neglected.
Non-governmental bureaus involved in low income lodging building and upgrading have developed practical and low cost steps for increasing the opposition of self-built houses to hurricane force air currents. Typical of attempts of this nature is the work performed by the Construction Resource and Development Centre ( CRDC ) in Jamaica. which produced educational stuffs and organized workshops on house and roof Reconstruction following Hurricane Gilbert.
The chief duty for presenting an consciousness and concern in the community sing the