Case Study of Nayabazar Vdc, Ilam District Nepal

9 September 2016

This perception is still persisting in many developing countries like Nepal. But in recent years people have started realizing the importance of Women’s participation in the economic and social development. So, it would not be out of context to accept the socio-economic status of women as a variable of development. Recent changes in the world for women have imposed a positive effect in society due to the long-term attempt made by the national and international women organizations and the supporters of the feminist movements. In recent world scenario, women shave been actively participating in the political and social aspect.

A large number of women are working as doctors, engineers, lawyers, pilots and scientists. Moreover women have also travelled in the space. As such women have now perceived as productive potentials of the nation. In Nepal, women comprises more than 50% of total population but only 42. 49 % female are literate (CBS 2001). Women are heavily engaged in domestic chores along with the socio-economic activities. They have major role in household management and they have to do more than 50% of household works in spite of having low decision making power. They are discriminated since their childhood.

Case Study of Nayabazar Vdc, Ilam District Nepal Essay Example

During childhood, they have to live under their parents’ life, in adulthood; they should follow their husbands and the later past, their children. They have no liberty to decide freely even their own personal lives. The majority of women in Nepal live in rural areas where the choice for livelihood is limited to agriculture works on the farms which are owned in most cases either by fathers, husbands, brothers or landlords. Most of females are economically dependents, very few women are economically independent and they have higher decision making power.

Socio-economic status of female affects the role of women in society. As female are less educated; they have low decision making power. Women, who have higher education and higher economic background, have higher chance on decision making. Female are not considered to participate in decision making process in most of the socio-economic, religious and other activities. There are very few households which are headed by female. According to the census 2001, only 17. 18% households are headed by women. Though women have the sole responsibility of household income they are not considered as the head of the household.

Prior to the UN declaration of 1975-1985 as the UN decade for women, well-defined women organization in Nepal was practically nonexistent. Few women’s organizations which emerged as an outcome of the political movement during 1950 and 1960’s were primarily interested and motivated, designed to serve their own circle of families and friends instead of women at large. The focus of the Nepal Women’s Organization (NWO) established in 1960 was directed more towards social welfare activities like knitting, sewing and weaving.

Although, its interests were not purely in upliftment of women, nevertheless, its efforts to indicate an interest and concern for women and their development cannot go unappreciated. It was only after the UN declaration of 1975 as the international year of women and 1975-1985 as the UN decade for women that a national committee on international women year in Nepal was formulated. This committee attracted considerable foreign funds for seminars on conferences on women issues headed by women leaders. Women are more ignored in Asian countries.

A large number of women in South countries are victimized by social evils, conservative tradition and blind folded culture. In these countries, the birth of son in celebrated with a great joy but a girl brings a great disappointment and frustration in the family. Very few women are involved in main stream of development and few women also in service sectors. There are few women in policy maker level. More than 71% female are involved in agriculture sectors. Only few percent women are in service. Recently, only one women is nominated as a member of national planning commission [NPC report 2004].

It is essential for the development that male and female should enjoy equal opportunities for the decision making either in lower or higher level of policy making, plan formation or in programs implementation as well as monitoring evaluation sector. Rural women in Nepal are affected by social evils, tradition and culture. Nowadays Nepalese women are actively participating in political as well as economic sector. Sailaja Acharya, Anuradha koirala, Sunita Giri, Angoor Baba Joshi, Gita Rana and like others can be taken as examples of women in public life.

Women also have got the opportunities to attend in co-education schools and colleges and to go to study abroad as per their wishes. Women’s issues were started in Nepal from the sixth plan period in the field of education, health, employment, agricultural forestry, co-operative development and legal system with the help of non-governmental agencies. In fact, women contribute more labor to household economy than a man does. Women generally work from the dawn to dusk and even remain busy at night as per physiological needs of men.

Besides agriculture, they have to perform many household activities that in child care, cooking, washing, cleaning and other accessories task. But in the case of decision making process, oppressing and suppressing women still persists even in higher class society. This is reflected in almost all aspects of their lives including their power of decision making in the households. Women are considered as unimportant matters in decision making process and they still remain excluded in our society. In rural areas of Nepal, women are fully dominated by men. Women’s works are regarded as unproductive and considered as wifely duties.

Their opinions are hardly sought for in household decision-making. Without women’s participation, goals of development activities cannot be fully attained. So men and women are the two main pillars of development. They are inevitable to fulfill the goals of development activities. It shows that if women do not capture the household sphere, men cannot go outside to secure a job. The role of men and women are interdependent. The women’s overall burden is higher than of men, women spent on the conventional economic activities. Most of women are engaged in subsistence farming and livestock.

They maintain their need by borrowing and exchange goods This is because they depend on men as mediator withe the outside world i. e. the market economy, legal system government, bureaucracy etc. Economically women of this area contributing greater share in number of the farm workers. Besides, they have to take care of their children, cattle and manage family in preparing food and serving males. Thus, women do not get chance for involvement in other economic activities due to the time constraints and their various roles in society such as reproductive and community roles.

In this study area many women have the traditional views. In the community we find less involvement of women in different community based programs like ward meeting, community forest, school management and various other programs. The women restricted within the four walls of house. They are not involved in the official work, business and other governance. Women decision making power is very low in all over the Nepal. Comparatively, the condition is even very poor in rural area than urban. Ilam district is one of the hilly districts of eastern development region.

Nayabazar VDC is far from district headquarter. That’s why the decision making power of women may be low in this VDC which may cause huge gap in decision making process between male and female in this VDC. 1. 2 Statement of the problem More than half of Nepal’s population comprises women. In spite of this dominant majority, the irony of fate lies here. The pathetic condition of women in society is itself an indicator of the low value set on women’s lives and their suffering is very well in tune with the social system and life pattern.

Women have various problems which are centuries old. They suffer much oppression all over the country. More in the rural areas than urban areas, they are the victim of circumstances which have been created due to the gender discrimination, which persists in Nepal from cradle to grave. Women’s role is very important and crucial for family and society. But they perceive decision making process as an unimportant and inferior matter. That’s why women status is getting low in every aspect of men. It creates the high gap and disparity between men and women.

Low education status and less decision making power of women are the main causes of social fragmentation and unsustainable plans of rural household. Power of decision making makes a person strong and powerful. Women’s decision making power is very low than that of men in our society which has made the woman weak and handicapped. Many examples have proved that women can work even better than men if they are provided opportunities. Women are as laborious and potential as their male counterparts but still they are confined to their traditional rules of mother and housewives.

Women of today are not merely contended in her role of mother and beautiful housewife only. She thrives for equal opportunities as men and once to make a place for herself among the men and not below. She is powerful not a weak, active not a passive and capable of destroying and not easily destructible. Without women the world remains incomplete and it is very hard to have peace, perseverance, love, justice, etc. The metal and materialistic development of the country is possible with the equal share of women in every aspect of development. As we all know that less decision making power of woman has pushed far back to our society.

As consequences our society is being damaged day by day instead of being prosperous and developed. The situation of decision making power of woman is much neglected. Here this study focus to analyze that why woman are deprived from decision making responsibilities, what are the influencing factors of decision making and what are the appropriate suggestions to enable them. Here, this study emphasis to find out the degree of woman decision making power in their household and areas of decision making factors that influence woman for household decision making.

Analyzing the situation of household decision making power of married woman is supportive to understand the proper situation of woman and to recommend appropriate suggestions that enable their power for decision making. 1. 3 Objective of the study The general objective of the study is to find out the aspects of decision making power of women in Nayabazar VDC of Ilam district. The specific objectives are as follows. • To examine the socio-economic status of woman in the study areas. • To assess the role of woman in household decision making process. To assess the influencing factors of household decision making process. 1. 4 Significance of the study The significance of the study is that it provides information about women. In this study, an attempt is made to analyze the some useful problems of women and recommendations are being made for the improvement and situation of women sit. Though there are many hue and crises about women development, the condition of women is very poor in reality. The study consists of explorations and inspections of women’s socio-economic status, roles, activities and conditions. So, it is useful for planners.

This study is very useful for those individuals and institutions who are interested to know the women’s decision making power. This can also be useful for policy makers and planners at national level because they need to know the actual conditions of the problem while devising appropriate policy and program to address the problem. The significant of the study can be summarized in the following points: • This research helps in overall empowerment of the women. • This study provides the real picture of women in the study area. The findings of the study area may represent the women in other various areas. This research helps to determine the influencing factors of women in household decision making process. • It may be helpful for the research students, teachers, researchers, and sociologists, NGO/INGO and other organizations to formulate and implement appropriate policies, plans and programs focusing the issues of women mainly in decision making sector. • Only macro- level researches are done in this sector of studies but micro- level studies are very limited. Thus, this type of micro-level research will help in policy formation for local and regional level. 1. 5 Limitation of the study

The study has been done to examine the socio-economic status of woman and role of the woman in household’s decision making process of particular area. It also analyzes the influencing factors of household decision making process. This study is limited to find out the decision making power of married women only in household affairs but not in other affairs. It does not cover the study of all women but covers only married women. Geographically it has not covered wide area, it just covers study of married woman of Nayabazar VDC of Ilam which may or may not applicable in the other part of the nation.

CHAPTER – TWO LITRATURE REVIW This chapter consists of three sections as theoretical framework, national context and framework of Study. 2. 1 Theoretical Framework The Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 states that everyone has the right to take part in the Government of his/her country. The empowerment and autonomy of women and the improvement of women’s social, economic and political status is essential for the achievement of both transparent and accountable government and administration and sustainable development in all areas of life.

The power relations that prevent women from leading fulfilling lives operate at many levels of society, from the most personal to the highly public. Achieving the goal of equal participation of women and men in decision-making will provide a balance that more accurately reflects the composition of society and is needed in order to strengthen democracy and promote its proper functioning. Equality in political decision-making performs a leverage function, without which it is highly unlikely that a real integration of the equality dimension in government policy-making is feasible.

In this respect, women’s equal participation in political life plays a pivotal role in the general process of the advancement of women. Women’s equal participation in decision-making is not only a demand for simple justice or democracy but can also be seen as a necessary condition for women’s interests to be taken into account. Without the active participation of women and the incorporation of women’s perspective at all levels of decision-making, the goals of equality, development and peace cannot be achieved.

Mazumdar (1982) stressed on the women who have been subjected to acute social, economic and political prejudice and oppression in the past and which continues even to this day, may be to a lesser degree. There are three components to balance the inequality i. e. a) economic, b) political power and c) knowledge. Asian women’s works are considered as unproductive. It is closely associated with their inferior social status and loss of countries where the extension of capitalism has further marginalized the economic and social roles of women.

She has concluded her study making, which includes family constraints, illiteracy, traditional barrier, attitude and women’s ability. She has suggested to from grass root level organization responsive to the need of the poor, the social organizations like families and households. UNICEF report (1987) depicts the women’s contribution to economic and social progress is still constrained by their limited access to education and information which the full development of utilization of their intellectual and productive capacities for large proportion of women, the written world still finds no meaning.

May rural women, who do become literate however, will lose their skill because there is few opportunities educational attainment among the women and prejudice in favor of male recruitment may also negatively affects the formal employment of women. In 1982 in government service only 7% of grate officers and 5% of supporting staff were women, constitute less than 7% of decision making position at the national and local level. Kaur (1987) carried out a case study upon the female decision- making, especially in the areas of home and farm affairs among the rural families.

She has emphasized on women education as an important factor in the matter of decision-making. She has stressed, “Women have greater input in household decision-making if they are from medium status. ” And socio-economic strata are also closely linked with illiterate women who have limited access to income and cannot take good care of their children. They use their daughters for generating/ saving income, which constrains them from having good education and training. And they always are in vicious circle of poverty.

As such women are more involved in making day-today decisions as to what is to be done that day by which she concluded that women are not best word with adequate status (in terms of decision-making) in proportion to the task they perform. Therefore, planned programs should be designed which support women’s potentials as capable and worthy decision-making. UNDP,(1995) Women in Nepal, as elsewhere, hold the triple work responsibilities of reproduction, house holding and farm work. However, reproduction is not treated as work and house holding is not considered as productive work by government system.

Women also suffer from discriminatory practices in opportunities for education, personal mobility, which is required among other for skill development and independent decision-making. Jiggins (1989) in the article has highlighted on the condition of women who are involved mostly in household based agriculture activities she shows that about 30% of women were supporting the household works and about 80% of agricultural labor was mainly as unpaid labor. They produce 60% of the food consumed by rural household and contribute over one third of all household income via small business, trading and casual labor.

But despite their major input to household food, social structures deny women’s real property right in land and limit women’s access to control over the process of their decision-making roles. Their activities were under stress and they have less access to credit and social support. As such unequal household responsibilities have worsened their position. The UNDP (1990) has stated that Women in Nepal as elsewhere hold the work responsibilities of reproduction, house holding and work.

However, reproduction is not treated as work and house holding is not considered as productive work by government system. Women also suffer discriminatory practices in opportunities for education, personal mobility, which is required among other for skill development and independent decision-making. Paediatrica (1992) explores that women’s involvement in household decision making as social capital- crucial factor for child survival in Ethiopia. In her study household decision making scores were based to four decision making questions; 1.

Who makes ‘Supreme decision’ (decision to change place of residence, buy sell or reconstruct a house, rent land etc. ) 2. Who makes routine household decision that include decision on buying and selling food items and day-to- day activities in the household 3. Who makes decision to visit to relatives and friends and 4. Who makes decision to take a sick family member to a health institution The decision-making scores were initially categorized as decision only by the head (which was generally the husband), by spouse (mostly wife) and both husband and wife and other family members.

Analysis of decision-making scores showed a higher proportion of childhood of deaths when the husband alone decide. Wives alone decide in only 5% of the cases. This study concluded that, combined efforts to improve women’s involvement in household decision making, social capital improved the health seeking in general and immunization in particular may decrease the high child mortality in this setting where level of poverty is high and no appreciable trend in mortality declines has been noted over the years.

An IFAD (1995) study of survival, change and decision-making, undertaken between 1994 and 1995 in three villages in the Taforalt-Taourist Region of the Oujda Province in Eastern Morocco found that women had a surprisingly large decision-making role at the household level. However, their decision-making is often ‘behind the scenes’, and therefore socially invisible. A woman’s decision-making within the household depends on her age and household status. The adult married woman has the power to decide what tasks are to be carried out and who is to do them.

She usually supervises her daughters or any other younger women in the household. Men usually do not interfere in women’s control of day-to-day household decisions, unless something that affects the men personally is not done (for example, if a meal is not cooked). Impact of household decision making power on women in India (2004) stated that rural women show less autonomy than urban women. Age groups and educational attainment has a positive relation with the increment of autonomy.

Working status (paid), better nutritional status, standard of living index, and female headed household act as a stimulator for the enhancement of autonomy. So it is proved that higher female earnings make women unambiguously better off giving them more power in household decision making, health care and mobility. A striking feature is that household and domestic female workers have greater decision making power than paid workers. Thus improvement of household wealth may not enhance female autonomy rather it may reduce the autonomy of female.

It also supports the view that women’s education helps to increase the autonomy. To sum up, to answer the question why women’s autonomy varies over different regions/states, the analysis through the selected explanatory variables is not enough. One has to have an in-depth knowledge about the cultural beliefs and practices that exist in the different zones and the states and also among different castes and religious groups. The empowerment of women increases with the age of women and remains almost same among different occupational groups.

Husband’s education or occupation does not contribute much to the empowerment. Working women have distinct advantage as against non-working or unpaid working women. Though maximum percentage of empowered women has been observed about cooking but its nature is different from others. Unlike others, this percentage decreases as SLI increases, is less for literate women and female headed households. Behaviour of North-East region is also a bit different due to matriarchal societal norms from other regions in India which becomes evident if one compares the coefficients of the logistic regression.

The World Bank (1995) has highlighted that the movement for women’s status all over world has emphasized the role of education. It is believed that education will bring about the education in the inequalities between sexes and uplift women’s subjugated position of society. In general, educated women have a higher status in the society and the family size become smaller as the educational level of the mother rises. In fact women’s education is low in Nepal and the lowest in SAARC countries that is adult female illiteracy is 88% for Nepal compared to India 71% Pakistan81% and Bangladesh 78%.

This study concludes that in addition to the activities being performed under national and international auspices, activities involving women in development process status of women in Nepal can be improved by giving attention of such things as making specific study about the economic, social and cultural activities of women in Nepalese society. To provide similar school and curriculum for girl and boys student, eliminating inequalities in inheritance right, family rights and all over legal rights involving the educated women in office and involving then into seminar and symposia from time to time etc.

Rural women did not activity participate in decision making on agriculture policies. Agricultural policies were usually influencing by the opinion on farmer organization, unfortunately most of the farmer’s organization were consisted of men farmers. Recently rural women’s organizational activities have been activated; rural women’s opinion has been gradually influencing rural policy (Asian productivity Organization, 2002). To sum up, the question of autonomy in terms of household decision making to women is different from nation to nation.

But in Nepal, an average man has higher autonomy those women. The power in decision making is higher with men in rural remote areas that in the urban areas than in decision making power rather it is also influenced by earning capacity, market access, ethnicity group, demographic, social, cultural, educational level, dowry bother modern family structure like Nuclear versus joint family structure, economic status, etc. Women now have more influence than ever before in the world but for all their gains, they are still struggling for parity with men.

From New York to Tokyo, women still bear most of the burden of household work and child care though some studies show that men also are beginning to lend to helping hand. The participation of women in economically gainful activities has increased considerably but they continue to lay behind men in wages that they earn just one half to three quarter of man’s wages. Women are working in roads, involved in politics but they still do not have an equal influence of policy. Men continue to hold the majority of parliamentary seats and key government position. 2. 2 National Context

Decision making power women is very much neglected in our country side than in the city area. There are number of factors that determine the decision making power for women in Nepal. The household decision- making autonomy to women is associated with their economic strata. Low income earning opportunities together with absence of right to property have the role of women in the decision- making about the allocation of household income. As such individual’s higher income level, multiple sources of income, higher in influences in using personal income as per will and saving power definitely enhance the power of women in a household.

Women in modern age are also involved in social affairs. The situation now has changed. It is not as in ancient times. The societal factors for women are greatly interwoven with social meetings. The female attendances in societal work are widely accepted in modern times. They at present involve in local affairs, feast and festival community (VDC) meetings and various cultural programs. Acharya and Bennett (1981) have conducted a number of studies relating to women status in Nepal. Firstly, the thing revealed is the time allocation attern of men and women at household level, where women perform almost all kinds of agriculture activities and their daily labor input is 9 hours against 5 hours for men. But the degree of involvement varies considerably across ethnic groups and social classes. Women are generally involved in farming as well as in household chores. But their input in decision- making in the household level is very low. Acharya, Bennet (1983) have highlighted that women are the primary supporters of the domestic and subsistence sector.

The decision- making data shows women’s major role in agriculture production both as laborers and managers of the production process. It has been signed out decision- making from multi- dimensional concept of status which reflected the internal dynamics of sexual stratification within the household. In the study, the village women were actively participating in the four activities, household domestic work, agriculture production activities, local market economy and shorter migration to employment in the wider economy beyond the village. According to the economic data, women from upper economic strata are involved in earning activities.

But women from bottom economic ground are involved in agriculture sector. Labor- intensive work mainly covers the low caste women. Women also play role in decision on domestic expenditures but not as high as farm. Women development and publication centre (1992) has stated that a higher percentage of male was more inactive in comparison to women because they had been engaged in labor force. Out of 24 hours women were found to be investing 11 hours in household works like cattle grazing, fodder and fuel collection, fetching water and cooking. This absorbed 75% of the time worked.

With the 20 % allocated to farming and remaining being devoted by 5% income generating activities. Hill women were found contributing more labor in farming than women of terai region which may be the manifestation of socio-cultural differences of the population, constraints imposed by topography and level of socio-economic development including level of mechanization existing in different districts. As per the study on decision making information, the decisions mostly concerning to farm were made by men. It was shown that 58% of decisions were made by men, 11% jointly and nly 31% of the decisions were made by women. According to Shrestha (1991), decision making power may increase with an equality of participation at all levels of planning and policy making not as recipient and beneficiaries, labor an input contribution and consultants bursar change agent at the concerned level. It does not mean the involvement of women and men in the same proportion in decision making as their proportion in the community at large. She further added that the women of Nepal are so dependent to men that if the partner denies giving shelter to them, it is a question of basic survivals.

This system has made women too helpless, houseless and dependent that without men they will not survive, so in this, in human systematic, the right of survival is laid on the heart of them. It can be concluded that only strong status of female may increase the decision making power otherwise they have to play subordinate role of their male partners. Women of Nepal are not suffering from lack of resources in some extent (like property right, the generating income goes to family’s pocket), but from the lack of power to asset their own rights.

They are suffering from exploitation and injustice. To uplift the women from this stage, women strategies need like consciousness raising increasing self-confidence educating people, increased women participation in development should be practiced and only then, the decision- making power may exist at large extent. Women in Nepal, as elsewhere, hold the triple work responsibilities of reproduction, house holding and farm work. However, reproduction is not treated as work and house holding is not considered as reproductive work by government system.

Women also suffer from discriminatory practices in opportunities for education, personal mobility which is required among other for skill development and independent decision making (UNDP, 1995). The movement of women’s status all over the world has emphasized the role of education. It is believed that education will bring inequalities between sexes and uplift women’s subjugated position of society. In general, educated women have a higher status in the society and the family size become smaller as the education level of the mother rises.

In fact, women’s education is low in Nepal and the lowest in SAARC countries that is adult female illiteracy is 88% for Nepal compared to India 71%, Pakistan, 81% and Bangladesh, 78% (World Bank, 1995). Gurung,(1999) Nepali women are daughter, wives and mother are not recognized as individuals with their own identity, despites the fact that they are as human as men. Society has relegated women to the lowest rank and to a submissive role, confined to the home and farm and their responsibilities there due to their martial function, They are discouraged and prevented to taken to taken part in public life (subedi, 1993).

Women’s economic dependence on men, mainly stemming from the fact that men earth cash incomes, contributes so their social status. The few women who earn a salary are often held kin higher esteem than women who do not. Enabling State Program (2000) has stated that Nepalese women have very limited involvement in decision making from the household level through to high level negligence and bureaucratic positions. The causes of these are deep- rooted and are chiefly the patriarchal, social structure, the male biased socializing of children, legal and educational discrimination and economic limitations.

The political and bureaucratic structures also prevent the entry into the important decision making domains. Rana (2002) mentioned in his thesis, of women awareness in income – generating activities through education in Ugratara Jangal, Kavre that women had been discriminated in terms of recruitment, promotion, work assignment, overseas, travel, outside job posting and sexual harassment. The higher promotion of complain about discrimination had been recorded as cited in the office book of personal service.

Equality in society cannot be achieved through slogans, demands, conflicts or through wishes and blessing along experiences by also some that laws and regulations are not adequate. What is indeed required is a climates of public opinion were feeling of equality emanates from the heart of all. Women are bounded by socio-cultural norms. Even parents discriminate against the girl child. That is because of lack of knowledge, awareness and education. So, if a nation wants to gain something from women, the first duty should be giving equal opportunity of education, health empowerment etc. nd this drastic change will change the nation automatically in every field like economic development, status of women, women’s decision making power etc. Nepal human development report (2004) has stated that for Nepalese women, independent decision-making is highly restricted. Lack of decision making has deprived women of the basic elements of decent life such as food and nutrition, education, skill development, health and family planning. This has ultimately undermined their success to gain employment opportunities and participation on professional jobs.

Economically, women have no rights to parental property as well as in the husband’s home. They bear 70% of the household work burden and yet have no success to economic resources. Even doing the same work, they get lower wage. Karki’s (2011) study shows that women’s role of household decision making of women the have the highest contribution in the decision making regarding fuel/energy use, scoring a 72. 7% of the total as compared to only 18. 2% by the husbands. This may be dye the responsibility of the wives to utilize energy/fuel.

However, the other female members have no say regarding this issue as compared to the 9. 9% scored by the other female members. Recalling the discrimination against women violence, the principle of equality and respect for women dignity, is an obstacle to the participation of women on equal term with man in the political, social, economic and cultural life of their countries which hampers the growth of the prosperity social and family and makes more difficult the full development of the potentialities of women in the service of their countries and humanity. CEDAW) On the international front, the importance of gender equality is reflected in the millennium development goals (MDGs) and in the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) endured by all member states of the UN. The challenges yet remain in implementing effectively all the gender related specific conventions ratified by Nepal and in ratifying the optional protocol too (CEDAW). Equality in society cannot be achieved either though slogans, demands, conflicts or though wishes and blessing along.

Experience has also shows that laws and regulation are not adequate what is indeed required. Women are bounded by socio-cultural norms. Even parents discriminate against the girl child. This is because of lack of knowledge, awareness and education. So, if the nation wants to gain something from women, their first duty should be to give equal opportunities of education, health, empowerment etc. and control of family, by the use of family planning measures and drastic change will come in the nation automatically in every field like economic development, status of women, women’s decision-making power etc. . 3 Framework of the study Based on the literature review and identified variables to assess the information, education and communication the following conceptual framework is formulated for this study. Figure: Framework of the study Socio-economic variables such as ethnicity, landholding, education, occupation and beliefs on medical treatment are related with independent variables for the role of household decision making of married women.

Different caste/ethnic group determines women’s role and access to education, information in household decision making and that is related to education which plays important role in the level of understanding of women about the household decision making. Educated women have more confident and are independent than uneducated therefore family member accept their decision. According to religious practice the involvement of female in household decision making may also vary.

Those women who are engaged in job can make their household decision properly than women who are not engaged in job. The independent variables are considered as the major factors influencing the household decision making of women. The socio-economic variable determines the level of role in household decision making of married women. CHAPTR – THREE REARCH METHODOLOGY 3. 1 Research design Study is based on both exploratory cum descriptive research design. It tries to explore and investigate socio-economic status of the women as compare to the men this of study area.

This research has also attempted to explore the factors and realities. This research is descriptive as well as analytical too. It means that the interpretation has been supported by tabular analysis followed by their exploitations. This research has been described the farm management, purchase and sale of livestock, domestic, expenditure and transaction, buying and selling of agricultural products, choice of crops to plants, buying households decision regarding education of the children, women’s education , communities activities etc. f study areas. Based on the theoretical and empirical review of literature, this chapter adopts the suitable method for the collection of data and on the basis of conceptual framework; area of data analysis was identify 3. 2 Sample size According to the 2001 census, there were 4,664 populations in 943 households in the study area. But according to the village profile 2011, there is 5,401 total populations and 1,155 households in the study area. There are 2836 male and 2565 female. There are nine wards in Nayabazar VDC (study area).

These nine wards were divided into six clusters according to human settlements and geographical location. Cluster 1 and 3 were selected by using lottery method for study. After selecting the clusters, by identifying the households with married women by using the purposive method 28 respondents from cluster 1 and 25 respondents from cluster number 3 were interviewed. From each household only one respondent was included in the study. In total 53 households altogether 53 respondents were enumerated. Table: 1 Cluster and sample size distribution Cluster No |Ward No |Sample Cluster |Number of Household |Total Respondents | |1 |5 |1 |110 |28 | |2 |4,2 |- |173+120=293 |- | |3 |3 |3 |120 |25 | |4 |6,7 | |135+91=226 |- | |5 |1, 9 |- |78+128=206 |- | |6 |8 | |200 | | |Total |9 | |1155 |53 | Source- Field survey 2012 village profile 2011 3. 3 Sources of data collection Data is the most important tool for research. The study aims to bring the social status of the woman in Nayabazar VDC. Both primary & secondary sources of data were use in this study. Primary data had been collected through field survey, interview and field observation of the study area. Similarly the secondary data had also been used for the study which was collected from various published and unpublished sources and CBS (Central Bureau of statistics), T. U. central library, different books, thesis, and many more sources related with the woman role. 3. Techniques and tools of data collection The structured questionnaire or unstructured interview and observation methods were applied to generate the primary source adopted to carry qualitative information. Questionnaire survey The primary data has been collected with the help of household questionnaires by using both structures, non-structures questionnaire. Household questionnaire are used in interviewing the sampled women regarding their farm management, purchase and sale of domestic expenditure and transaction, buying and selling of agricultural products, choice of crops to plants, buying households things decision regarding education of the children etc.

The decision makers in the households activities include husband, wife, other members, other female member, jointly structured questionnaire for study has been displayed in the appendices. Key informant interview The primary data has been collected with the help of the key informants. Key informants are also considered for the informal discussion and accidental interview. Basically the key informants are the local teacher, elder person, social workers, Local politicians, etc. of the study area. This study has taken information from the key informants by asking question about women’s education, social, economic, political and family background of the study area. Observation

Direct observation has been also used to collect relevant information regarding the study area observation in the field has provide more information which is not actually obtained through the questionnaire. Observation has been done whether the household were really capable to perform different activities related to this study or not. Focus group discussion Focus group discussion will be done for collection of essential information from the mass. For this purpose, related personalities like teachers, political leaders, respected personalities and other people be gathered and discussed about the chapter. The findings and conclusion of the FGD will be taken as primary information. Secondary data collection The secondary data is also the key role of the required information.

Mainly published and unpublished books, census of 2011, articles, research reports, Nayabazar VDC profile and different sources have been used in the requirement. Moreover to generate the secondary information, VDC profile has been used along with other previous studies. 3. 5 Process of data analysis This study has mainly relied upon tabular analysis for data interpretation. Both qualitative and quantitative data have been analyzed with appropriate statistical tools accordingly however simple statistical tools like percentage, ratio and average have also been used during the analysis. Information generated by the field survey has been displayed in table formats.

However, the data, thus generate was grouped into mainly two categories, all tables containing the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and the tables consisting of the decisions made by different household members on Prepared for analysis as seen in the fourth chapter. Frequency tables & cross tables are used for analysis & to describe the basic characteristics of the respondents. Simple & statistical tools such as frequency counts, mean value, ratio analyze is used as a necessary tools to explain & interpret the data & overall findings. 3. 6 Presentation of data The collected data during the study was processed through the different way like validation, editing & coding at first & secondly tabulation and analysis. CHAPTER – FOUR STUDY AREA 4. 1 General introduction of study area Nayabazar is a Village Development Committee (VDC) in Ilam which is situated in the eastern part of the district.

There are The VDC comprises 9 wards and numerous villages in it. Nayabazar VDC is situated between 87o58’56” to 88o3’34” east Longitude and 26o54’48” to 26o59’36” Northern Latitude. The lowest part of the village is situated in the altitude of 834 meter from the sea level whereas the highest point is in 2513 meter atop. Various types of climate and vegetation are found in this VDC because of the varied altitude factor. The southern part of the VDC which is situated in the banks of Jogmai River is lowland having a fertile land in the river basin has got warm climate. Some vegetation found in this area are similar that are found in the plain of Terai.

Thumke, a mountain peak in the Mahabharat range is the highest point in this VDC with 2513 meter height is often covered with snow in winter season. Vegetation found in this area is alike to that of the Himalayan region. The trees are not much taller. Most of the forest is made of small bush of Chutro and Burcho etc. The trees found below the Thumke hill are covered with a fungus like. A mixture of coniferous and deciduous trees is found in the rainforests of Nayabazar VDC. Nayabazar town is the gateway of eastern VDCs of Ilam district i. e. Pyang, Soyang, Jamuna etc to the Mechi Highway. It connects these areas to Jaubari the bordering market to India by jeep road. The village situated towards north side of the Jogmai River which is one of the major four rivers of Ilam District.

It has got some streams named Sugure Khola, Setikhola, Horme Khola, Ghatte Khola, Malu Majuwa etc which are the source of water in different villages. As the most fertile agreeable land, Sugure Besi, Horme and Sanghubesi are mentionable river basins where most of the paddy and other food grain grown. Sange Chholing Gumba in Sankhabung is a famous Buddhist monastery where Lamas from various part of world come for pilgrimage. Sange Gumba in Premejung is another Buddhist monastery situated in this VDC. There are two community High Schools, 4 primary schools, two private boarding schools and many pre-primary learning centers but the village but some people are still illiterate.

Most of the village people have dropped their study before completing the high school level. Some people have got opportunity of higher education and have occupied higher position in the government, public and private sector in various districts as well as in the capital. Source: Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA CHAPTER – FIVE SOCIO- ECONOMIC CHARACTRISTICS OF HOUSHOLD This chapter provides demographic and socio- economic characteristics of the household of the study area. Out of the total 1155 households, 53 households were taken as sample and structured questionnaires were asked to the households for married women. In this chapter ethnic composition, education, occupation and other activities are included.

The area in which this study was undertaken reveals marked diversity in the ethnic composition among its population. However, it has included selected ethnic groups such as Brahmin, Chhettri, Rai, thami, Bhujel, Jaishi, and sharki in accordance with our random sampling. Generally observations reveal Brahmin, chhetri, Jaishi as the most economically advanced group in terms of livestock and landholding, the Rai, Thami, Sarki and Bhujel as second which are lagged behind occupationally. The major source of income for almost all the selected households was from agriculture. No significant inclination towards industry, small business and entrepreneurship could be depicted among these households.

Women undoubtedly showed a greater input into the domestic and subsistence sector, their activities ranging from household chores, fodder collection and child care down to all kind of agriculture activities. Therefore, their working hours were naturally higher than that of their male counterparts. Greater confinement of women to the domestic sector is probably one of the reasons for a very low literacy rate evident among them as compared to the male literacy rate. Besides these general observations, efforts have been made to include all possible socio-economic aspects of the respondents into our present study. Tables have also been illustrated to support these findings. 5. 1 Ethnic composition of households

Table: 2 Distributions of the households by ethnicity |S. N |Ethnic Group |No. of Household |Percentage (%) | |1 |Brahmin |15 |28. 3 | |2 |Chhetri |6 |11. 32 | |3 |Jaishi |4 |7. 55 | |4 |Rai |10 |18. 7 | |5 |Thami |7 |13. 21 | |6 |Bhujel |7 |13. 21 | |7 |Sarki |4 |7. 55 | |Total |53 |100 | Source: Field Survey, 2012 Above table shows the ethnic composition of households. The ethnic groups revealed a tendency to stay clustered among their own communities.

However, people from different groups were also found to be living together in certain area of settlement. Among the total household, Brahmin is the highest, Rai contains the second position and Thami and Bhujel stated third position which Brahmin, Rai, Bhujel, Thami are 28. 3%, 18. 87%, 13. 21%, 13. 21% respectively. Similarly, Chhetri, Jaishi and Sarki remain 11. 55%, 7. 85%, 7. 55% respectively. 5. 2 Educational status of the married women Education is the basic valuable foundation of social and national development. It is an important part of our life which helps to develop personality of all individuals. It is one of the important elements to maintain quality of life.

An individual can upgrade the living standard by involving in quick and easy income generating activities. It also helps to establish mutual understanding of co-operation, good faith, peace and reconciliation in a family and society. Without education nobody can achieve success. Human life passes in dark in the lack of education, as a result the social and national development process cannot go ahead. So, it has vital role for the personal as national development. Due to the poor educational status of our country, most of people are deprived of education particularly the women. Still most people have misconceptions regarding the women education.

Education is also the fundamental rights of every citizen which is essential for public awareness, changes and overall development. Fameless education has also brought a lot of changes in several areas. The following table presents the educational status of women in the study area. Table : 3 Education status of married women |S. N |Education |No. of Respondents |Percentage (%) | |1 |Can’t read & write |8 |15. 09 | |2 |Primary Level |18 |33. 6 | |3 |Secondary Level |8 |15. 04 | |4 |Higher secondary class |12 |22. 64 | |5 |Bachelor level |2 |3. 77 | |5 |Adult Literacy class |5 |9. 43 | |Total |53 |100 | Source: Field, Survey 2012

In this study literacy rate of women seems to be higher than illiteracy rate. Most of the women (33. 96%) have studied only up to primary level and (15. 09%) have studied up to secondary level. But they have only been house wives. Similarly 9. 58% women have studied up to higher secondary level,( 22. 64 %)women have studied up to higher secondary level,( 3. 77%) women have studied up to bachelor level and (20. 075%) women have taken adult class. 5. 3 Occupational composition of the married women Table: 4 Occupation of the married women |S. N |Occupation |No of Women |Percentage (%) | |1 |Agriculture |33 |62. 6 | |2 |Business |10 |18. 86 | |3 |Service |3 |5. 66 | |4 |Labor |7 |13. 20 | |Total |53 |100 | Source: field survey, 2012 The above table shows that 33 out of 53 females are involved in agriculture, 10 in business (small shops), 3 in service and 7 in labor. Most of the women are engaged in agriculture (62. 26%) comparative to other occupation. 5. 4 Land holding of households Table: 5 Land holding of households |S. N. Area |Number of Households |Area(Ropani) |Number of Households | | |(Ropani) | | | | | | |Bari land |% | |Khet land |% | |1 |1-2 |8 |15. 09 |1-2 |18 |33. 9 | |2 |3-4 |13 |24. 52 |3-4 |18 |33. 96 | |3 |5-6 |18 |33. 6 |5-6 |8 |15. 09 | |4 |7-8 |5 |9. 43  |7-8 | 3 | 5. 66 | |5 |9-10 |6 |11. 32 |9-10 |4 |7. 55 | |6 |11+ |3 |5. 66 |11+ |2 |3. 77 | Sources: Field Survey, 2012 As table shown above all Households have Khet and bari land for their livelihood. Most of the HHs has 5-6 Ropani Bari land and 3-4 Ropani Khet land. All households have at least 1-2 Ropani Bari and Khet Land. 5. Method of coping with deficit production Table: 6 Method of coping with deficit production |S. N |Activities |No. of Household |Percentage (%) | |1 |Agriculture labor |30 |56. 60 | |2 |Livestock farming |10 |18. 86 | |3 |Service |2 |3. 77 | |4 |Business |7 |13. 0 | |5 |Other |4 |7. 54 | Source: Field Survey, 2012 This household survey shows that almost all the household did not have enough crop production to sustain them throughout the entire year. Table 4. 5 shows the various alternative ways of fulfilling the food deficiency due to low production in agricultural sectors. The main means of compensation for deficit production is agriculture-labor which covers 56. 60% followed by livestock farming 18. 86% followed by a business 13. 20% and similarly service 3. 77% and other 7. 54% are also the means of compensation for deficit production.

Therefore agricultural way labor appears as most popular means of compensating deficit production among the 53 household. 5. 6 Beliefs on medical treatment Table :7 Belief of medical treatment |S. N |Beliefs |No. of Household |Percentage (%) | |1 |Doctor |18 |33. 96 | |2 |Dhami/ Jhakri |5 |9. 43 | |3 |Both |30 |56. 60 | Source: Field survey, 2012 The above table shows the beliefs on medical treatment of households.

The households believed purely on either doctor 33. 96% or traditional which doctors called “Dhami/Jhakri” (9. 43%) a large majority 56. 60% believed in both of them. This clearly indicates a strong sense of superstition still evident among these rural people. CHAPTER – SIX ROLE OF WOMAN IN HOUSEHOLD DECESSION MAKING In this chapter, concerned effort have been made to analyses women’s status with in the household with special emphasis on their decision making power as compared to their male counterpart. The information included is in consonance with its methodology used with was collected from women of for different ethnic communities namely Brahmin ,Chhetry ,Rai, Vujel, Thami and Sarki.

In analyzing the role of women household decision maker, we have made attempts to cover all relevant aspect with would reflect their degree of decision making power in different matters within in the household Role of women in household decision making process in different aspect has been described and presented in different tables. 6. 1 Control over household cash/expenditure/ transactions Table: 8 Control over household cash |S. N |Person |No. of Household |Percentage (%) | |1 |Husband |17 |32. 7 | |2 |Wife |30 |56. 6 | |3 |Both |6 |11. 32 | Source: Field Survey, 2012 The wives make up the highest percent (56. 6) among the other members of the household as the ones to keep the household money. However, the other female members appear to have no such control as companied to their male counterpart. 6. 2 Control over bazaar purchases Table: 9 Control over bazar purchases |S. N |Persons |No. f Households |Percentage (%) | |1 |Husband |17 |32. 07 | |2 |Wife |25 |47. 17 | |3 |Male member |8 |15. 09 | |4 |Female member |3 |5. 66 | Source: Field Survey, 2012 The wives alone have a greater control over purchases required from the bazaar as compared to the other members of the household. The other female members, however, show very little control in this matter (which is in fact the least among the rest of the household. )

While the household alone make up 32. 07% for control over bazar purchases, they together with other male member make up a considerable 47. 16% this is than the combined control of both wives and other female member which contributes 52. 83% 6. 3 Livestock holding Table: 10 Livestock holding |S. N | No. of Livestock |No. of Household |Percentage (%) | |1 |Cow |20 |37. 74 | |2 |Buffalo |1 |1. 9 | |3 |Ox |5 |9. 43 | |4 |Goat |5 |9. 43 | |5 |Chicken |10 |18. 87 | |6 |Duck |- |- | |7 |Pig |10 |18. 87 | Source: Field Survey, 2012 Cow is found as maximum (37. 4) among the livestock holding of the 53 households. Goat and pig as second (18. 87%), ox and chicken as third (9. 43%) and buffalo as the last with only 1. 89%. The table also shows a greater livestock holding among the Bramin/ Chhetri community and the lowest among the occupational groups. The Rai, Thami, Bhujel and Sarki fall somewhere in between these communities; in this respect. 6. 4 Decision making in livestock holding Table: 11 Decision making in livestock holding |S. N |Decision Maker |No of Household |Percentage (%) | |1 |Husband |10 |18. 6 | |2 |Wife |7 |13. 20 | |3 |Both |36 |67. 92 | Source: Field survey, 2012 Livestock is key profession of people of study area. It is a main source of income. It is seemed that must of the husband and wife jointly make decision to sell or buy livestock and use money. As per table shown above 18. 86% husband and 13. 20 wives alone make decision about livestock keeping. 67. 92 husband and wife jointly make decision about livestock. 6. 5 Decision on planting of crops Table: 12 Decision on planting of crops |S.

N |Crops |Male |Percentage | |1 |Husband |5 |9. 43 | |2 |Wife |10 |18. 87 | |3 |Both |38 |71. 69 | Source: Field Survey, 2012 Hundred percentages are found to send their children to school. 9. 43% of male, 18. 87% of female and 71. 69% of both have made decision to send children to school. 6. 8 Decision making to buy in educational instruments for children. Table: 15 Decision making to buy educational instruments for children |S.

N |Education |Male |Percentage (%) | |1 |Husband |10 |71. 42 | |2 |Wife |3 |21. 14 | |3 |Both |1 |7. 14 | |Total |14 |100 | Source: Field Survey, 2012 Only the 14 of women among the 53 households are found to participate in adult literacy classes. For the 14 women who participate in these classes ,their husbands dominate as decision makers for their education, making up 71. 2% of the total while the wife decisions only 21. 14% of the total and joint decision of husband and wife is 7. 14% of the total women. 6. 10 Women’s participation in community activities Table: 17 Women’s participation in community activities |S. N |Yes/No |No of Household |Percentage (%) | |1 |Yes |40 |75. 4 | |2 |No |13 |24. 52 | Source: Field Survey, 2012

We see that women from 40 out of them 53 households participate in community groups like mother group, community forest, rural cooperation and agricultural group etc. these women from the large majority of 75. 47% of the women who participate in such activities. 6. 11 Freedom for women in participation for community activities Table: 18 Freedom for women in participation for community activities |S. N |Yes/No |No of Household |Percentage (%) | |1 |Yes |18 |33. 96 | |2 |No |35 |66. 03 | Source: Field Survey, 20112 Out of the 53 household only 33. 6% of the women professed at having freedom in their participation in community activities. But the remaining 66. 03% women denied having any such freedom. Therefore, women input as decision maker for their participation in community activities is very low. 6. 12 Decision making in the selection of the family size Table: 19 Decision making in the selection of the family size |S. N |Decision Making |No of household |Percentage (%) | |1 |Husband |10 |18. 87 | |2 |Wife |13 |24. 3 | |3 |Both |30 |56. 60 | Source: Field Survey, 2012 Regarding the no. of children to be had the point decision of husband and wife appears to be the strongest (56. 60%) among the 53 women who responded to this question. While decisions of the wives alone are also seem as significant (24. 53%) the husbands alone shows the least contribution in this particular decision making process. 6. 13 Decision making of family planning measures a) Use of family planning measures. b) Types of family planning measures used. c) Decision making for the use of family planning measures. Table: 20 Decision making for the use of family planning measures HHs using Family Planning Measure |Types of Family Planning |Decision Maker Using Family Planning | | | |Measure | |Yes |No |Total |Type |Number of HHs |Decision Maker |Number of HHs | |26(49. 65%) |27(50. 94) |53 |Permanent |11(42. 3) |Husband |7(26. 9%) | | | | |Temporary |15(57. 69%) |Wife |10(38. 5%) | | | | | | |Jointly |9(34. 6%) | Source: Field Survey, 2012 Only 26 out of 53 households past currently married women use family planning measures. They constitute only 49. 5% of these 53 women, while the women who do not use any family planning measures from a large majority of 50. 91 among the 53 women. Among the 26(39. 4%), out of the 53 households) who practice family planning measures, a large majority are found to use the temporary methods (56. 7%) as compared to the permanent onset 42. 3%. These 26 women using family planning measures reported their decision for its use as being the strongest. Their input in this process constitutes 38. 5% of the total percent age and 18. 7% of the 53 households. The joint decision rank second (34. 6%) among the 26 household with the decision of the husbands following closely behind with 26. 9%. 6. 14 Decision making for medical treatment

Table: 21 Decision making for medical treatment |S. N |Decision Maker |No. of Household |Percentage (%) | |1 |Husband |10 |18. 86 | |2 |Wife |30 |56. 60 | |3 |Both |13 |24. 52 | Source: Field Survey, 2012 Sound health is the main thing of human life. Decision making on health treatment in households is important to maintain good health of family members.

The above table 18. 86% of the husband, 56. 60% of wives and 9. 43% of both of them made decision to medical treatment. 6. 15 Decision making for marriage of family members Table: 22 Decision making for marriage of family members |S. N |Decision Maker |No. of Household |Percentage (%) | |1 |Husband |15 |28. 30 | |2 |Wives |25 |47. 17 | |3 |Other |13 |24. 53 | Source: Field Survey, 2012

The above table shown the decision making on marriage of family members made by male, female and other family member of family. In which 28. 30% of male, 47. 17% female and 24. 53% of other family members of them made decision on marriage of their sun/daughter and other family members. 6. 16 Labor utilization pattern Four distinct labors were found to be practiced in the area where this study was undertaken. Such labor was either an alternative means to compensate deficit household production or performed for social/ humanitarian reasons. This different labor can be listed as, a) Exchange labor (locally known as Parma) b) Wage labor (agriculture) c) Wage labor (non agricultural) d) Voluntary labor a) Exchange labor (Parma) Table: 23 Exchange labor (Parma) Decision Maker |Who thought first |Percentage (%) |Who was consulted |Percentage (%) |Final decision maker |Percentage (%) | | |(No of HHs) | |(No of HHs) | |(No of HHs) | | |Husband |8 |26. 67 |12 |40 |12 |40 | |Wife |13 |43. 33 |8 |26. 67 |7 |23. 33 | |Other Male |5 |16. 67 |4 |13. 33 |5 |16. 67 | |Other Female |- |- |- |- |- |- | |Jointly |4 |13. |6 |20 |6 |20 | |Total |30 |  | 30 |  | 30 |  | Source: Field Survey, 2012 Exchange labor which is usually known as “Parma” among the communities is practiced by 56. 60% (30 of the 53 household). Here, the wives are seen as the major initiators for exchange labor. However, the husbands are the ones to be consulted the most 40% among the other household members. The wife consults decision remark second with 26. 67%. It is found that other male members in some households also make decision on it. Although, jointly have little input in all three stages of decision making. (b) Wage labor (Agriculture) Table: 24 Wage labor (Agriculture) Decision Maker |Who first |Percentage (%) |Who was |Percentage (%) |Final decision |Percentage (%) | | |thought | |consulted | |maker | | | |(No. of HHs) | |(No. of HHs) | |(No. of HHs) | | | | | | | | | | |Husband |16 |42 |13 |34. 2 |26 |68. 4 | |Wife |22 |57. 9 |13 |34. 2 |4 |17. | |Male member |- |- |7 |18. 4 |2 |5. 3 | |Jointly |  |- |5 |13. 15 |6 |15. 8 | |Total |38 |  |38 |  |38 |  | Source: Field Survey, 2012 This type of wage labor refers to non-agricultural activities like construction of house, roads, carrying loads etc. Such labor can also be seen as an alternative source of family income. Only 38 (57. 6%) out of 53 household are engaged in this activity.

The wives predominate as initiators (57. 9%) and husbands as final decision maker (68. 4%) in the decision making process. But both appear to contribute equally as persons consulted (34. 2%) each. The other female members have no contribution what so ever in his decision making process. The decision of the male members and the joint and traditional decision again show a low contribution to the process. (d) Voluntary labor Table: 26 Voluntary labor Decision Maker |Who thought first ( No. of HHs) |Percentage (%) |Who was consulted (No. of HHs) |Percentage (%) |Final decision maker (No. of HHs) |Percentage (%) | |Husband |18 |45 |14 |35 |25 |62. 5 | |Wife |15 |37. |18 |37. 56 |5 |12. 5 | |Male member |5 |12. 5 |6 |15 |4 |10 | |Female member |- |- |- |- |- |- | |Jointly |2 |2 |2 |5 |6 |15 | |Total |40 | |40 | |40 | | |Source: Field Survey, 2012 Voluntary labor refers to community activities like constructing schools, canals and roads for which the members of the household spontaneously put in their share of labor. This may be done out of humanitarian reasons activity supporting the upliftment their communities. Only 75. 47 % (40) out of 53 households appear of the main initiators 45% and final decision makers 62. 5% for this activity. But the wives are seen as the persons who are consulted the most 37. 56%

The joint final decisions are also quite high scoring 15%. The input from male members, although low, is evidently in all three stages of the decision making process. The other female members have no say at all regarding the decision making of voluntary labor. CHAPTER – SEVEN INFLUENCING FACTORS OF HOUSEHOLD DECESSION MAKING There are many factors which influence in household decision making. In the time of study such major factors were noted which could play vital role in decision making. Those factors have been explained below. 7. 1 Education It is said that education is the back bone of society. In the time of study education of family member seemed dominating factor on decision making.

It is found that educated member of family make almost decision in HHs. HHs decision depends upon of family members’ education. Usually Most of the Male members use to take decision in HHs but if the Woman is educated then she can take decision herself. 7. 2 Patriarchal Family As Nepal is a country with patriarchal family pattern so most of decisions are taken by male members of family. In study area also same thing found. Patriarchal family pattern is an important influence factor in decision making. There is high domination of male family member in decision making. In only some HHs woman also can take decision if they are educated. 7. 3 Caste and Religion

In the time of study Cast and religion found one of the major influence factors in HHs decision making. Generally in Chhetri and Brahman HHs male member is the supreme decision maker and in Rai, Bhujel, Sarki HHs woman are also decision maker. Similarly HHs adopting Hindu Religion male are main decision maker and in other religion participation of woman in decision making seemed significant. 7. 4 Employment In the time of study employment of HHs member seemed next influencing factor in decision making. Generally in all HHs employ member of a family use to make decision. As other member is depending in employ member of HHs they silently accept his/her decision.

So it seemed major influencing factor in HHs decision making. 7. 5 Awareness Awareness remained another influencing factor in HHs decision making in study area. If family member are aware on woman right, right of equality and Participation, decision making seemed participatory. In aware family role of woman in HHs decision seemed significant. In such a family male members do not intervene to female but support for proper decision. CHAPTER – EIGHT FINDINGS In this chapter, women have included a summary of our findings generated from the data analysis and interpretation. The major conclusion drawn are strictly based up on our assessment of women’s role in the household decision making process.

The findings regarding the socio-economic characteristics of the selected 53 households have also been listed. But we have to keep in mind that this conclusion drawn can be applicable only at the micro level within the VDC households. A few pragmatic recommendation have also been included with the intend of raising women’s status in term of their decision making power in our present area of study. These suggestions, we hope, would infinite policy makers and local development practitioners to design appropriate and effective policies and programmers regarding the uplifttment of women and their status within the household. 8. 1 Summary This study the role of women in household decision making particularly is Nayabazar VDC of Ilam district.

This study is based upon the primary data collection from the field survey. There are 1155 households in the study area. Among these households 53 are taken as sampled households to collect the required formation. This study is attempt to analyze the socio-economic status of females, their role in household decision making process and influencing factors of the household decision making process. This analysis focus on relative status women in term of women’s household decision making powers via their male counterparts. However, decision making is envisaged to be a strong indicator of different powers and position held by the deferent member with in the household.

This study includes households from four different ethnic communities comparing of Brahmin/chhettri, Rai, Bhujel, Thami and Sarki. However, our issue in questions has been limited only within the household’s irrespective castes and inter-class relationships. Within these prescribed limits women’s role in decision making have been perceived from different aspects of household affairs, via- farm management and its use and the labor utilization pattern. 8. 2 Major Findings a) Socio Economic Characteristics • The Study area is Brahmin dominated community. 28. 3% respondents are Brahmins. • Most of the women are just literate (completed Primary education only) • Profession of 55. % respondents seemed agriculture, 18. 6% respondents depend upon labor work and 13. 95% are involved in business. • 56. 6% of the household depend upon agriculture labor as an alternative means to compensate deficit production. • There is not found any landless people in Study area. • It is found that no women have immovable property (Land, house) in their own name. • The superstitious belief is prevailed in study area. Still 25% people believed in so-called witch doctor. b) Role of women in household decision making • Most of the decision relating to planting of crops like paddy, maize, millet, fruits and vegetable were made by male in comparison to women. The women have a greater input in the decision to purchases of livestock while the men are initiators and final decision maker for its sale. • The wives make up the height percent 56. 6% among the husband as the to keep the household money. Accordingly they have a greater control 47. 17% over the required purchases from the bazar. However the other female members have the least input in other male member respects as compared to the other household member. • Regarding family the expenditures, the wives are seem as final decision makers for items like medical treatment, social, religious and ceremonies. • The decision to purchases household’s things like Radio, TV, Telephone and furniture are found to have relatively more said of male. While wives have the greatest say regarding the use of family planning measures the joint decision of both husband and wife also appear to be quite strong the same trend is evident in the selection of the family size. • The wives have a greater contribution regarding the decision in sending the children to school. This can be associated with their greater concern for the children’s education. • In the context of the decision relating to education of the children and buying books/stationeries most of the decision are made by the males. • Regarding the women participation in adult literacy classes the husbands have a greater control 71. 42% over the decision making of this particular issue. • 75. percent of the women participate in community activities such as mother groups, community forestry groups, co-operatives, etc. their freedom to participate in such activities are highly restricted as they require the consent of their husbands. The labor utilization pattern is subdivided into four aspects agricultural wage labor, non-agricultural wage labor, exchange labor and finally voluntary labor. The wives are seen as the main initiators for the labor utilization pattern while the husbands appear the main final decision makers. Regarding the person to be consulted, husbands score the highest in few cases while the wives do the same in others.

Although women play greater role and taken major responsibility in every aspect but the vital and crucial area men make decision where women’s have been narrowed down only to follow or obey. The crucial area are sailing of property, marriage of children, migration or other decision factors which in a long run effect in household or family. Therefore the women have the least or rather no power over the decision making of issues that solely concerns them. 8. 3 Conclusion As this study is concentrated to analyze the decision making power of women in terms of social as well as household activities, it can be concluded that females have lower decision making power and having sub-ordinate role in family and in society. They are deprived from their right and basic facilities.

They have lower decision making power than their male counterparts. As our society is male dominated, males have superior status in most of the causes and female have to follow to them. They cannot take perfect decide for selection of relating to planting of crops, purchases and sales of livestock, buying of household things and books/stationeries, child admit school, participation in communities activities, child births and using of family planning measures. The major influencing factors for such inequalities are education, Patriarchal Family, cast & religion, employment and awareness. 8. 4 Recommendations Women who constitute almost half of the total population play an important role in every society in.

Women’s involvement in decision-making is very important in each and every sector but at present women participation is far behind as they are not given the equal opportunities as men. Hence gender discrimination is a major issue of development in Nepal. These recommendations are listed below for taking steps towards raising the household’s decision making power of women. • To provide employment opportunities to the women, proper management should be made to increase girl’s enrollment in educational and training institutes. The overall literacy rate should be increased with special emphasis upon promoting higher literacy rate among the women.

This could be achieved by adult literacy class and providing incentives to encourage greater enrollment of girls in school. Their enrollment can be increased by adopting the provision of fee and compulsory elementary education. The girl students can be motivated to enroll school by providing different facilities such as mid-day meal and scholarship scheme. • Bring the women into the market economy is another approach to increase their decision making powers. Policies and programmed intended to encourage entrepreneurial skills among the women should be promoted. • Late marriages among the women should be encouraged with the aim of reducing their child bearing age and consequently lesser confinement to their reproductive roles. Family planning programs should be promoted for greater practice and adoption of these measures by both men and women. Again the purpose is to reduce the confinement of women to their reproductive roles within the domestic sector and encouragement of economic participation among them. The mobility and the freedom of women to partake in income generating and community activities should not be restricted by the male members of the family. All these can be make possible aware of women as productive potentials. This also implies graduals changes in the conventional social norms and perceptions which believed that women belong to the domestic sector. • Promotion of joint decision within the household should be stressed upon via informant education programmed.

These joint decisions by both the male as well as female member see more favorable to reach at effective decisions. Reforms should be made regarding the various women related government policies and programmed. Though various programmed have run by NGO’s, INGO’s and Human right organization to uplift the status of women in every field in national level, these programmed should not only be confined within cities and headquarters but it should be practice from the grass root level. Then lonely the aim to improve the equally among male and female can be achieved. • The concept of gender equity and the attitude towards women need to be modified in our patriarchal society to boost up the women’s status in the family and society.

Discriminatory acts/laws and practices in all sector such as legal, political, social and economically should be addressed carefully to enhance women’s participations not only in household decision making process but along with in all multi-dimensional areas. A few pragmatic recommendations have also been include with the intent of raising women’s status in terms of their decision making power in current study. These suggestions can be used for policy making and local development schemes to design the appropriate and effective policies and programs regarding the uplift of women and their status within the households. REFERENCES Acharya M. and Bennett. (1983).

Women and the Subsistece Sector Economic Participation and Household in Nepal. The World Bank. Acharya, M. and Bennett. (1991). The Rural Wonem in Nepal -An Aggregate Analysis and Sumary of Eight Village Studies. Nepal: CEDA, T. U. CBS. (2011). National Population Census of Nepal. Kathmandu: Center Buerue Stastics . Gurung, J. (1999). Searching for Women’s Voice in Hindhu Kajh Himalayan. lalitapur: ICOMOD,Nepal. IFAD. (1995). Women’s Role in Household Decisions in Morocco. Eastion, Morocco. Ilam, D. P. (2011). Introduction of Ilam. Ilam: DDC, ilam. Jiggans, J. (1989). How Poor Women Earn Income In SUb-Saharan Africa and What Works Against then. Africa: pergamon. Kumar, S. 1987). Women in Rural Development. New Delhi: Mittal Publication. Mazandar, V. (1982). Another Development with Women: A view from Asia Development Dailogue. Dag Hammarskjold Foundation. Mira, B. (2008). Women in Household Decision Making. Nepal: T. U, kirtipur. Negi, Nalin and Ajeet Kumar. (2004). Impact of Household Decision Making Power on Women Empowerment. NFH,India. Paediatrica, A. (1992). The Women’s Involvement in Houhehold Decision Makingand Strengthning Social Capita-Crucial Factors for child. Ehtiopia. S. , R. J. (2002). Women Awareness in Income Generating Activities Though Education. T. U, Sociology/Athropolpgy. Sociology Department.

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