Cell Structure

1 January 2017

Plant Cells have cell walls, which makes them appear rectangular or square in shape, these structures are composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and other materials, plant cells have chlorophyll the light absorbing pigment required for photosynthesis. Animal cells do not have cell walls they only have a cell membrane, this makes their shape round, they have lysosones which plants do not. Both contain DNA unique to their species or type of plant. 4. Which of the following structures are present in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? Plasma Membrane- present in both cell types

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Golgi Apparatus- not present in the prokaryotic cell, present in the eukaryotic cell DNA- both have DNA Lysosomes and peroxisomes- prokaryotic cells do not have either, eukaryotic cells contain both Cytoplasm- both contain cytoplasm 5. Where is genetic material found in plant cells? Found on the DNA within the plants nuclei cells. 6. Mitochondria contain their own DNA (circular) and have a double membrane. What explanation for this observation can you come up with? (Hint 1: where else do we see circular DNA? ) (Hint 2: what do you know about the relative age of eukaryotic cells? )

At one point, mitochondria were believed to have been their own organism around the time of prokaryotic life dominance on earth. The prokaryotes would ‘eat’ the mitochondria, settling them in the cells for a mutual symbiotic relationship, in which the prokaryote gave the mitochondria proteins that weren’t fully necessary, but the mitochondria enjoyed, you might say. This actually helped form the eukaryotic life forms, and eventually mitochondria could not live outside a cell for very long, therefor it stays in the cell and simply replicates inside and moves the clone to another cell.

Circular DNA is also found in viruses, bacteria and archaea as well as in eukaryotic cells in the form of either mitochondrial DNA or plastid DNA. 7. How is the structure of the plant’s cellulose-based cell wall related to its function? This layer of cellulose fiber gives the cell most of its support and structure, it bonds together with other cell walls to form the structure of the plant. 8. Defects in structures of the cell can lead to many diseases. Pick one structure of a eukaryotic cell and develop a hypothesis as to what you think the implications would be if that structure did not function properly.

If the mitochondria of a cell stopped working, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) will not be produced properly, thus resulting in the death of the cell and possible the organism itself. 9. Using books, articles, the internet, etc. conduct research to determine if your hypothesis was correct. According to my research, my hypothesis is correct, if mitochondria stop working it results in a condition known as mitochondrial disease, this disease can cause muscle wasting, nerve damage, seizure, stroke, blindness, deafness and more. http://www. time. om/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1555122,00. html Experiment 2 1. What cell structures did you place in the plant cell that you did not place in the animal cell? Plant cell- chloroplast, cell wall Animal cell- Golgi apparatus, ER 2. Is there any difference in the structure of the two cells? Plant cells have a cell wall, this holds their structure and gives them a square shape, and allows for the cell to attach to other cells. Animal cells have no cell wall and take on a round shape. 3. What structures do organisms that lack cell walls have for support?

Cell membranes 4. How are organelles in a cell like organs in a human body? Golgi Apparatus- Similarly, arteries/veins which send [oxygenated/deoxygenated] blood from and [away from/to] the heart [to/from] the cells. Cytoplasm – similar to the skeletal system Lysosome contain enzymes which get rid of dead material amongst the functioning organelles, like the kidneys which get rid of waste but still absorbs stuff needed by the body. Cell Membrane protects the cells and keeps everything functioning and selectively permeable, somewhat similar to the skin.

Ribosomes are the place of protein production. Comparatively, Stomach is the place where energy is produced. Nucleus- this is the main center of a cell it controls the functions of the cells, similar to the brain in the human body. 5. How does the structure of a cell suggest its function? List three examples. 1. Cell wall- protects and surrounds the cell and gives it structure 2. Cytoskeleton- shape of sell and movement of its parts 3. Rough ER- studded with ribosomes used for protein synthesis

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