Chalk Made Out from Seashells Essay Sample
Presents. people are acquiring to utilize to roll up seashells for merriment and for past clip. They made ornaments. even accoutrements for a doll out of it and most people collect seashells. Here in the Philippines. people made seashells for ornaments and accoutrements. They made seashells into accoutrements for them to sell it. But don’t you know that aside from those things seashells can besides be made into a much utile things. In add-on. seashells are besides used in doing jewellery. These shells are made into smooth perfect domains which. by themselves. could be mistaken to pearls.
We are cognizant that the instruction is the most powerful key to win. And to back up this. we need some installations and stuffs for us to do it easier and clearer. Of class. in our modern universe today we know that we already have some modernized equipments to do it clearer but still for those hopeless states and people who want to be sent in school. And the monetary value of about all commercialized or local merchandises continuously increasing. And this is a large facet to be considered in schooling. Some of the schools don’t have adequate support from authorities and this thing brings troubles for us pupils.
We already have whiteboards that merely need markers and projectors for those modernized. But merely the rich states and people can afford it. how about the hapless 1s? It would be expensive for them.
So. research workers made some tests and mistakes from different natural stuffs to be made into a more lasting and long lasting chalk. Until they found out that seashells is made up of Ca carbonate that can besides be found in chalk.
The term seashells normally refer to the exoskeleton of invertebrate animate beings. Most seashells are normally found at the beaches but in a assortment of home grounds it is besides possible to happen shells from fresh water animate beings. But what was known in these animate beings they are made up of Ca carbonate.
It will now be easy for the less fortunate state or people to afford a lasting and long permanent alternate chalk. We besides need to cognize the hardness and the texture of the chalk out of seashells.
Statement of the Problem
The survey is conducted to determine the production of chalk from seashells. Specifically. this survey sought to reply the undermentioned inquiry: 1. Be at that place any important difference between the chalk out from seashells and taking commercial one? 2. Be at that place any important difference between the experimental chalk from seashells and the taking commercial one in footings of quality and lastingness? 3. Is the merchandise is acceptable to the consumer in footings of handiness and economic value?
Statement of the Hypothesiss
Based on the aforesaid jobs. the undermentioned hypotheses are advanced: 1. There is no important difference between the chalk out from seashells and the taking commercial 1. 2. There is no important difference between the experimental chalk from seashells and the taking commercial one in footings of quality and lastingness. 3. The merchandise is non acceptable to the consumer in footings of handiness and economic value. Significance of the Study
This survey is focused on the possibility of replacing commercialized chalk with seashells. This survey opens another manner for us people to be able to salvage and do chalk that is more lasting with durable usage. The survey was conducted as a redress for the common job of disbursement much in. It aims to assist the less fortunate purchasing some expensive commercialized or local merchandises.
Scope and Restriction
This survey is focused on planing and bring forthing alternate chalk. It besides deals with the appraisal of its existent advantages as compared to the commercialised 1. The qualities and measures informations obtained in the testing of the merchandise against the control were limited to 3 trials merely.
This survey will be conducted at the abode of the research worker in his abode at Panitan. Capiz.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This portion presents the conceptual literature and related surveies.
A seashell is the common name for difficult. protective outer bed that was created by a sea animal or a marine being. The shells are the portion of the organic structure of a marine animate being. in most instances the exoskeleton. The word shell is frequently used to mention merely to the shells of marine mollusc. mollusc shells but it can besides be used to intend the shells of a broad assortment of marine animate beings from different phyla. The composing of seashells have three distinguishable substances involved: the outer bed of the horny substance conchiolin. the intermediate bed of calcite. and the smooth interior bed composed chiefly of Ca calbornate. The blood of a mollusc is rich in a liquid signifier of Ca. A soft outer organ called the mantle concentrates the Ca in countries where it can divide out from the blood. organizing Ca carbonate crystals. The mantle deposits sheets of the crystal in changing thickness. The single crystals in each bed vary in form and orientation.
Most of the seashells are normally found in beach impetus. natural debris that is deposited along strandlines on the beaches by the moving ridges and the tides. Shells are really frequently washed up onto a beach empty and clean it’s because the animate being has already died and the soft parts holding rotted off or holding eaten by either marauders or scavengers. Empty seashells are frequently found by beachcombers and roll uping these shells is a harmless avocation or survey.
The bulk of seashells which are offered for gross revenues commercially have been collected alive and so killed and cleaned. specifically for commercial trade. This type of development can sometimes hold a strong negative impact on the distribution of rarer species and on local ecosystems. Apart from mollusc shells. there are other types of shells that can be found on beaches are those of cirripeds. horseshoe pediculosis pubis. and lamp shells. Some of these seashells came from annelid worms in the household of Serpulidae create shells made up of chalky tubings cemented onto other surfaces. The shells of sea urchins are called trials and the shells of pediculosis pubis and lobsters are called exuviae. But most of these seashells are external.
Seashells have been admired. studied and used by worlds for many different intents throughout history and pre-history. But seashells are non the lone sort of shells. In a assortment of home grounds it is possible to happen shells from fresh water animate beings such as fresh water mussels and fresh water snails. and it is besides possible to happen shells from land snails.
A chalk is a soft white porous sedimentary stone. a signifier of limestone composed of the mineral calcite. Calcite is calcium carbonate or CaCO3. It forms under moderately deeps marine conditions from the gradual accretion of minute calcite home bases shed from microorganism called coccolithophores. It is common to happen chert or flint nodules embedded in chalk. Chalk can besides mention to other compounds including Mg silicate and Ca sulphate. Chalk has greater opposition to enduring and slouching than the clays which it is normally associated. Thus. organizing tall steep drops where chalk ridges meet the sea. Chalk hills. known as chalk down land. normally form where sets of chalk reach the surface at an angle and organizing a scarp incline. Because chalk is porous it can keep a big volume of land H2O. supplying a natural reservoir that releases H2O easy through dry seasons.
Chalk is composed largely of Ca carbonate with minor sums of silt and clay. It is usually formed underwater. normally on the sea bed so consolidated and compressed during diagenesis into the signifier normally seen today. During diagenesis silicon oxide accumulates to organize chert or flint nodules within the carbonate stone. Ninety million old ages ago the chalk down land of Northern Europe was ooze accumulating at the underside of a great sea. Protozoans such as Foraminifera lived on the marine dust that showered down from the upper beds of the ocean. Their shells were made of calcite extracted from the rich sea-water. As they died a deep bed bit by bit built up and finally. through the weight of overlying deposits. became amalgamate into stone. Later Earth motions related to the formation of the Alps raised these former sea-floor sedimentations above sea degree.
Chalk is used to do calcium oxide and slaked calcium hydroxide. chiefly used as lime howitzer in edifices. In southeast England. Deneholes are a noteworthy illustration of ancient chalk cavities. Such bell cavities may besides tag the sites of ancient flint mines. where the premier object was to take flint nodules for rock tool industry. The surface remains at Cissbury are one such illustration. but possibly the most celebrated is the extended composite at Grimes Graves in Norfolk. The traditional utilizations of chalk have in some instances been replaced by other substances. although the word “chalk” is frequently still applied to the usual replacings. Blackboard chalk is used for pulling on unsmooth surfaces. as it readily crumbles go forthing atoms that stick slackly to these surfaces. Although traditionally composed of natural chalk. modern chalkboard chalk is by and large made from the mineral gypsum. frequently supplied in sticks of tight pulverization about 4 inches long. Sidewalk chalk is similar to blackboard chalk. except that it is formed into larger sticks and frequently colored. It is used to pull on pavements. streets. and private roads. largely by kids. but besides by grownup creative persons. In agribusiness chalk is used for raising pH in dirts with high sourness.
The most common signifiers are calcium carbonate and Ca oxide. In field athleticss. including grass tennis tribunals. powdery chalk was used to tag the boundary lines of the playing field or tribunal. This gives the advantage that. if the ball hits the line. a cloud of chalk or pigment dust can be seen. Nowadays the substance used is largely titanium dioxide. In gymnastic exercises. rock-climbing. weight-lifting and jerk of war. chalk — now normally magnesium carbonate — is applied to the custodies to take sweat and cut down stealing. Tailor’s chalk is traditionally a difficult chalk used to do impermanent markers on fabric. chiefly by seamsters. Nowadays it is normally made from Mg silicate. Polishing chalk is chalk prepared with a carefully controlled grain size. for really all right shining of metals.
Gallinero. Reymark A. . et Al. In his survey about “Pulverizing Tuway Shells as a Potential Material for Chalk Production” there were three trial in this survey that were prepared. The tuway shells were burned to do one stick. delay until the shells brickle easy. A howitzer and stamp were used to powderize the shells. The sum of shells is half of the sum of Pbc grout that was put in the shells. The mixture were assorted and the mixture was put in the chalk molder. Then delay for 2 hours to do the chalk prohibitionist. After garnering informations. they found out that the chalk from Tuway shells are non the same as the commercialize chalk in footings of colour and texture but in footings of hardness the chalk from Tuway shells is more harder.
This portion describes the research design that will be used in the survey. recite the stuffs and tools that will be usedand nowadayss the different stairss on how the experiment will be carried out.
In carry oning this survey. the research worker used seashells to puverized. 500 g of manioc. howitzer and stamp to powderize the seashells. oven wassailer for boiling the seashells. grater and fabric is used to squash the juice from manioc. and a bowl as a container of the infusion.
Under the Sun and delay until it dries up and is ready to be used. In carry oning the experiment the research worker followed the undermentioned process: Collect seashells from the sea shore or left-over shell commissariats. and manioc. Pulverized the shells until it becomes all right as pulverization and put aside in a container. Grate the manioc and squash its juice utilizing fabrics. Separate the liquid from its residue. Mix the residue of the extracted manioc and the powdered seashells. Add a little sum of H2O at the right ratio of the measure of the mixture. Mold the mixture into different forms and sizes harmonizing to your desire. Put it under the Sun and delay until it dries up and is ready to be used.
The statistical analysis that will be used in this survey for the calculations of the consequences were average and analysis of discrepancy. The mean was computed determine the acceptableness of the merchandise in footings of factors used in this survey. The analysis discrepancy was computed to prove whether the peculiar chalk from seashells and the commercialised chalk are significantly different. Mean
Mean is besides known as the arithmetic mean. a value that helps sum up an full set of Numberss. A set’s mean is calculated by adding the Numberss in the set together and spliting their amount by the figure of members of the set. Average: ?=i=1NxiN
1-1. 80| Least Desirable|
1. 81-2. 61| Desirable|
2. 62-3. 42| Reasonably Desirable|
3. 43-4. 23| Highly Desirable|
4. 24-5. 0| Excellent|
* R = 5-4 = 4
* I = 5/4 = 0. 80
Analysis of Discrepancy
Analysis of discrepancy is the analysis of the difference in the results of an experiment and determines the factors that contribute to the variable. It is besides the method of dividing the entire fluctuation of the information into meaningful constituents.
Sum-of-Squares Computational Formula
SSC=i=1kT2. n-T2. . nk
SST = entire amount of squares
SSC = amount of squares for column agencies
SSE = mistake amount of squares
Analysis of Variance for the One-Way Classification
Beginning of Variation| Sum of Squares| Degrees of Freedom| Mean Square| Computed| Column meansError| SSCSSE| k-1k ( n-1 ) | s2=SSCk-1s22=SSEk ( n-1 ) | s12s22| Total | SST| nk-1| | |
Definition of Footings
For the lucidity and better apprehension of this survey. the undermentioned footings were defined: Cassava. Cassava is a fruticose tropical American works widely grown for its big. tuberous. starchy roots. The root of this works is eaten as a basic nutrient in the Torrid Zones merely after leaching and drying to take nitrile. Cassava amylum is besides the beginning of tapioca. In this survey. it is referred to the fruit to be used in acquiring its juice and to be assorted with the seashells. Extract. Extract is a concentrated substance obtained by first utilizing a dissolver to fade out this substance when nowadays in a mixture and so vaporizing the dissolver. In this survey. it is referred to the juice obtained from the fruit of the works which is the manioc and prepared into pure concentrations. Seashells. Seashell is a difficult. stiff outer bed. which has evolved in a really broad assortment of different animate beings. including molluscs. sea urchins. crustaceans. polo-necks and tortoises. armadillos. etc. Scientific names for this type of construction include exoskeleton. armor. trial. shell. and peltidium. In this survey the seashells are the chief topics to be used for the experiment and to be made into a chalk.