Chapters 5 and 6–People

King George
Became king at 22
King George
People worried about the rule of this monarch although in public, they praised him
King George
His youth led a sheltered, loveless life, as his father was a playboy who had died in 1751
King George
Although he had mechanical ability, he had received very little education, causing his grandfather to view him as being dull-witted
King George
Hated everyone associated with George II
King George
Corrected people for small faults to hide his intellectual inadequacies
King George
Unable to grasp the larger implications of governmental policy
King George
Selected his friend, the Earl of Bute, to be his chief minister, outraging the Whigs
King George
Showed little interest in the American colonies because he had enough troubles to deal with in England
King George
“I am not sorry that the line of conduct seems now chalked out…the New England Governments are in a state of Rebellion, blows must decide whether they are to be subject to this country or independent.”
Ben Franklin
In 1775, helped organize a group in Philadelphia called the Society for the Relief of Free Negroes, Unlawfully Held
Ben Franklin
“I have…often in the course of the session…looked at [the sun] behind the President without being able to tell whether it was rising or setting; but now at lenght I have the happiness to know that it is a rising and not a setting sun.”
Ben Franklin
Served as the chair of the “grand committee” to resolve persistent differences between the large and small states, leading to the Great Compromise
Ben Franklin
Pleaded to the French for official recognition of American independence or for outright military alliance
Ben Franklin
Hinted that the Americans might accept a British peace initiative if the French didn’t jump in
Ben Franklin
“The Parliament has no right to make any law whatever, binding on the colonies…the king, and not the king, lords, and commons collectively, is their sovereign.”
Ben Franklin
“It grieves me to hear that our Frontier People are yet greater Barbarians than the Indians, and continue to murder them in time of Peace.”
Ben Franklin
Helped influence Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act
George Washington
Head of the Continental Army
George Washington
“What astonishing changes a few years are capable of producing. Have we fought for this? Was it with these expectations that we launched into a sea of trouble, and have bravely struggled through the msot threatening dangers?”
George Washington
“To please all is impossible, and to attempt it would be vain. The only way, therefore, is…to form such a government as will bear the scrutinizing eye of criticism, and trust it to the good sense and patriotism of the people.”
George Washington
Released his slaves
George Washington
Formed the Society of the Cincinnati in 1783 but was forced to reform the bylaws since a republic did not support hereditary organizations
George Washington
Believed that military success depended on endless drill, careful planning, and tough discipline, contrary to the methods of the minutemen
George Washington
Felt that the Continental Army not only served as a fighting force but also as a symbol of the republican cause
George Washington
Avoided “general actions” in war
George Washington
Failed to comprehend the political importance of the militia
Thomas Paine
Moved to America in 1774 after meeting Benjamin Franklin
Thomas Paine
Sold 120,000 copies of Common Sense in only three months
Thomas Paine
“My motive and object in all my political works…have been to rescue man from tyranny and false systems of government, and enable him to be free.”
Thomas Paine
His work stripped kingship of historical and theological justification
Thomas Paine
Attacked the idea of a mixed and balanced constitution, and thought that George III was a “royal brute”
Thomas Paine
“Europe, and not England, is the parent country of America. This new world hath been the asylum for the persecuted lovers of civil and religious liberty from every part of Europe.”
Thomas Paine
“We have it in our power to begin the world over again…the birthday of a new world is at hand.”
Thomas Paine
Wrote American Crisis
Thomas Paine
“These are the times that try men’s souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country, but he that stands it now deserves…love and thanks…”
Thomas Paine
“The sun never shined on a cause of greater worth….’Tis not the concern of a day, a year, or an age; posterity are virtually involved in the contest, and will be more or less affected, even to the end of time, by the proceedings now.”
John Adams
A representative assembly “should think, feel, reason, and act like” its constituents
John Adams
“It has taken Us much Time to get acquainted with the Tempers, Views, Characters, and Designs of Persons and to let them into the Circumstances of our Province.”
John Adams
Thought that his timid colleagues possessed “the vanity of the ape, the tameness of the ox, or the stupid servility of the ass” when they did not declare independence from the beginning
John Adams
“Yesterday the greatest question was decided, which ever was debated in America, and a greater perhaps, never was or will be decided among men.”
George Washington
“The possession of our Towns, while we have an army in the field, will avail them little…It is our Arms, not defenceless Town, they have to subdue”
John Adams
Served as the chief architect of the governmental framework of Massachusetts
John Adams
Worried that “If we push reforms too far, women will demand a vote…and everyman who has not a farthing, will demand an equal vote with any other.”
Abigail Adams
“I desire you would Remember the Ladies, and be more generous and favourable to them than your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the Husbands.”
Abigail Adams
“It always appeared a most iniquitous scheme to me to fight ourselves for what we are daily robbing and plundering from those who have as good a right to freedom as we have.”
Sam Adams
Refused to accept the notion that the repeal of the Townshend duties had secured American liberty, reminding the people of Boston that the tax on tea remained
Sam Adams
Organized public anniversaries commemorating the repeal of the Stamp Act and the Boston Massacre
Sam Adams
Seemed obsessed with the preservation of public virtue
Sam Adams
The goal of America is to be a “Christian Sparta,” guarding against the spread of corruption, degeneracy, and luxury
Sam Adams
Suggested the formation of a committee of correspondence
John Adams
“This Destruction of the Tea is so bold, so daring, so firm, intrepid, and inflexible, and it must have so important consequences, and so lasting, that I can’t but consider it as an epocha in histoy.”
John Adams
“It has taken Us much Time to get acquainted with the Tempers, Views, Characters, and Designs of Persons and to let them into the Circumstances of our Province.”
Sam Adams
Opposed a national bank
George Washington
“Gentlemen, you must pardon me. I have grown gray in your service and now find myself growing blind.”
Thomas Jefferson
Young Virginia lawyer and planter who enjoyed a reputation as a graceful writer
Thomas Jefferson
Wrote the Declaration of Independence with evidence
Thomas Jefferson
Worried that western expansion and poor transportation methods would make governing very difficult
Thomas Jefferson
Drafted the Northwest Ordinance of 1785, wanting to carve ten new states out of the western lands located north of the Ohio River and recently ceded by Virginia
Thomas Jefferson
Abolishing laws of primogeniture and entail would eradicate “antient and future aristocracy; a foundation [has been] laid for a government truly republican.”
Thomas Jefferson
Insisted that rulers had no right to interfere with the free expression of an individual’s religous beliefs and therefore, advocated the disestablishment of the Anglican Church, which had gained taxes and other benefits
Thomas Jefferson
“The appointment of a woman to office is an innovation for which the public is not prepared, nor am I.”
John Dickinson
Lawyer who had written Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania
John Dickinson
Envisioned a strong central government, placing western territories under congressional control and calling for equal state representation
John Dickinson
Thought taxes should be paid on the basis of a state’s total population (including slaves)
John Dickinson
Headed the committee that drafted the Articles of Confederation
John Dickinson
Served as the president of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania and thought that the Indians “must now depend upon us for the preservation”
James Madison
Wasn’t thrilled about putting a Bill of Rights in the Constitution, but decided that “We have in this way something to gain, and if we proceed with caution, nothing to lose.”
James Madison
Wanted to avoid a Second Constitutional Convention, in fear that people would want to completely revise the Constitution
James Madison
The greatest dangers to popular liberties came from “the majority [operating] against the minority.”
James Madison
Nationalist
James Madison
The Federalist No. 10
James Madison
Advocated a large republic
James Madison
The secrecy during the Constitutional Convention saved “both the convention and the community from a thousand erroneous and perhaps mischievous reports.”
James Madison
Author of the Constitution
James Madison
“There never was an assembly of men, charged with a great and arduous trust, who were more pure in their motives, or more exclusively or anxiously devoted to the object committed to them.”
James Madison
“It seemed now to be pretty well understood that the real difference of interest lay, not between the large and small but between the N. and Southn. States. The institution of slavery and its consequences formed a line of discrimination.”
Paul Revere
Provided propaganda for the Revolutionary War, especially with his etching of the Boston Massacre
Paul Revere
Silversmith and patriot who warned the colonists that the redcoats were coming
Patrick Henry
Proposed his 5 resolutions in opposition to the Stamp Act to the Virginia House of Burgesses when most of the conservative members had left
Patrick Henry
Didn’t attend the Philadelphia Convention because he opposed a strong central government, announcing he “smelled a rat”
Patrick Henry
An antifederalist
Thomas Hutchinson
No middle ground existed “between the supreme authority of Parliament and the total dependence of the colonies: it is impossible there should be two independent legislatures in one and the same state.”
Thomas Hutchinson
Royal governor of Massachusetts
Thomas Hutchinson
Almost had his house demolished by a mob opposed to the Stamp Act
Thomas Hutchinson
Left America after the Revolutionary War
Comte de Rochambeau
French general who led thousands of well-trained troops under the leadership of George Washington during the Battle of Yorktown
Phillis Wheatley
Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral
Phillis Wheatley
Boston’s celebrated “African muse”
Phillis Wheatley
Made it difficult for white Americans to maintain credibly that African Americans could not hold their own in a free society
King Louis XVI
Explored ways to aid the colonists in the hope of embarrassing the English
King Louis XVI
Sent tons of military supplies to the Americans but was weary of openly backing the revolutionary cause
Thomas Paine
Tried to appeal to those who were Loyalists by stating that he would never support an offensive war. He states that Britain has already done so much to oppress the colonies, therefore causing him to rather be a rebel than “suffer the misery of devils.”
Nathan Hale
21-year-old Yalie who stepped up to be a spy for Washington
Nathan Hale
Six feet, 3 inches tall with electric-red hair, a face scarred by a gunpowder explosion, and an honest manner
Nathan Hale
Hanged by the British within a week of setting foot on Long Island
Benedict Arnold
U.S. commander at West Point who tried to sell American military strongholds to the enemy and then escaped to New York
Nathan Hale
Born in Connecticut in 1755, the 6th of 12 children
Nathan Hale
Handsome, athletic Connecticut schoolteacher and Yale graduate who joined the Continental Army and was promoted to captain in 1776
Nathan Hale
“I wish to be useful, and every kind of service necessary to the public good becomes honorable by being necessary”
Nathan Hale
“I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.”
Nathan Hale
Was named Connecticut’s offical state hero in 1985
John Adams
“The revolution was effected before the war commenced. The revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people…The radical change in the principles, opinions, sentiments, and affections of the people was the real American Revolution.”
Ben Franklin
Considered printing his most important career
Marquis de Lafayette
French officer who was willing to bear hardship
Marquis de Lafayette
Was thought, by George Washington, to be concerned with only his image, but turned out to be caring
Marquis de Lafayette
Recognized every man’s importance by offering a soldier half of his blanket and his stockings
Ben Franklin
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