Characteristics of a National Hero Essay Sample

9 September 2017

Executive Summary No jurisprudence. executive order or announcement has been enacted or issued officially proclaiming any Filipino historical figure as a national hero. However. because of their important functions in the procedure of state edifice and parts to history. there were Torahs enacted and announcements issued honouring these heroes.

Even Jose Rizal. considered as the greatest among the Filipino heroes. was non explicitly proclaimed as a national hero. The place he now holds in Philippine history is a testimonial to the continued fear or acclaim of the people in acknowledgment of his part to the important societal transmutations that took topographic point in our state.

Aside from Rizal. the lone other hero given an implied acknowledgment as a national hero is Andres Bonifacio whose twenty-four hours of birth on November 30 has been made a national vacation.

Despite the deficiency of any official declaration explicitly proclaiming them as national heroes. they remain admired and revered for their functions in Philippine history. Heroes. harmonizing to historiographers. should non be legislated. Their grasp should be better left to faculty members. Acclaim for heroes. they felt. would be recognition plenty. 1. Choice and Proclamation of National Heroes 1. 1 National Heroes Committee

On March 28. 1993. President Fidel V. Ramos issued Executive Order No. 75 entitled “Creating the National Heroes Committee Under the Office of the President” .

The chief responsibility of the Committee is to analyze. measure and urge Filipino national personages/heroes in due acknowledgment of their sterling character and singular accomplishments for the state.

1. 2 Findingss and Recommendations of the National Heroes Committee

In conformity with Executive Order No. 75 dated March 28. 1993. the National Heroes Committee submitted its findings and recommendations.

1. 2. 1 Criteria for National Heroes

The Technical Committee of the National Heroes Committee held a series of meetings on June 3. 1993. August 19. 1993. September 12. 1994 and November 15. 1995. specifying. discussing and considering upon the virtues of the assorted definitions and standards of a hero. The Committee adopted the undermentioned standards as footing for historical research workers in finding who among the great Filipinos will be officially proclaimed as national heroes:

Standards for National Heroes

( Adopted by the Technical Committee of the National Heroes Committee on June 3. 1993. Manila. Members of the Committee included Drs. Onofre D. Corpuz. Samuel K. Tan. Marcelino Foronda. Alfredo Lagmay. Bernardita R. Churchill. Serafin D. Quiason. Ambeth Ocampo. so known as Dom Ignacio Maria. Prof. Minerva Gonzales and Mrs. Carmen Guerrero-Nakpil )

1. Heros are those who have a construct of state and thenceforth aspire and battle for the nation’s freedom. Our ain battle for freedom was begun by Bonifacio and finished by Aguinaldo. the latter officially declaring the revolution’s success. In world. nevertheless. a revolution has no terminal. Revolutions are merely the beginning. One can non draw a bead on to be free merely to drop back into bondage.

2. Heros are those who define and contribute to a system or life of freedom and order for a state. Freedom without order will merely take to anarchy. Therefore. heroes are those who make the nation’s fundamental law and Torahs. such as Mabini and Recto. To the latter. fundamental laws are merely the beginning. for it is the people populating under the fundamental law that genuinely constitute a state.

3. Heros are those who contribute to the quality of life and fate of a state. ( As defined by Dr. Onofre D. Corpuz )

Extra Criteria for Heroes
( Adopted by the Technical Committee of the National Heroes Committee on November 15. 1995. Manila )

1. A hero is portion of the people’s look. But the procedure of a people’s internalisation of a hero’s life and works takes clip. with the young person organizing a portion of the internalisation.

2. A hero thinks of the hereafter. particularly the future coevalss.

3. The pick of a hero involves non merely the relation of an episode or events in history. but of the full procedure that made this peculiar individual a hero. ( As defined by Dr. Alfredo Lagmay )

1. 2. 2 Historical Figures Recommended as National Heroes

On November 15. 1995. the Technical Committee after deliberation and careful survey based on Dr. Onofre D. Corpuz’ and Dr. Alfredo Lagmay’s standards selected the undermentioned nine Filipino historical figures to be recommended as National Heroes:

a. Jose Rizal
b. Andres Bonifacio
c. Emilio Aguinaldo
d. Apolinario Mabini
e. Marcelo H. del Pilar
f. Sultan Dipatuan Kudarat
g. Juan Luna
h. Melchora Aquino
i. Gabriela Silang







1. 2. 3 Status of the Report/Recommendations Submitted by the National Heroes Committee.

Since the entry of the report/recommendations by the National Heroes Committee to so Secretary Ricardo T. Gloria of the Department of Education. Culture and Sports on November 22. 1995. no action has been taken. This was likely because this might trip a inundation of petitions for announcements. Another possibility is that the announcements can trip acrimonious arguments affecting historical contentions about the heroes.

2. Laws Honoring/ Commemorating Filipino Historical Figures

2. 1 Heros

2. 1. 1 Jose Rizal

2. 1. 1. 1 Decree of December 20. 1898. issued by General Emilio Aguinaldo. declared December 30 of every twelvemonth a twenty-four hours of national bereavement in award of Dr. Jose Rizal and other victims of the Filipino Revolution.

2. 1. 1. 2 Act No. 137. which organized the politico-military territory of Morong into the Province of Rizal. was the first official measure taken by the Taft Commission to honour our greatest hero and sufferer.

2. 1. 2 Andres Bonifacio

2. 1. 2. 1 Act No. 2946. enacted by the Filipino Legislature on February 16. 1921. made November 30 of each twelvemonth a legal vacation to mark the birth of Andres Bonifacio

2. 1. 2. 2 Act No. 2760. issued on February 23. 1918. confirmed and ratified all stairss taken for the creative activity. care. betterment of national memorials and peculiarly for the hard-on of a memorial to the memory of Andres Bonifacio

2. 1. 3 Other Heros

2. 1. 3. 1 Act No. 3827. enacted by the Filipino Legislature on October 28. 1931. declared the last Sunday of August of every twelvemonth as National Heroes Day.

2. 1. 3. 2 Proclamation No. 510. issued by Pres. Fidel V. Ramos on November 30. 1994. declared the twelvemonth 1996 as the twelvemonth of Filipino Heroes as a testimonial to all Filipinos who. straight and indirectly. gave significance and drift to the cause of freedom. justness. Filipino independency and nationhood.

2. 1. 3. 3 R. A. No. 9070. April 8. 2001. declaring the eighteenth of December of every twelvemonth as a particular working public vacation throughout the state to be known as the Graciano Lopez-Jaena Day

2. 2 Other Historical Figures

2. 2. 1 R. A. No. 6701. February 10. 1989. declaring September One of every twelvemonth. the decease day of remembrance of Gregorio Aglipay y Labayan. as Gregorio L. Aglipay Day and a particular non-working vacation in the Municipality of Batac. Province of Ilocos Norte

2. 2. 2 R. A. No. 7285. March 24. 1992. declaring February Nineteen of each twelvemonth as Dona Aurora Aragon Quezon Day a particular nonworking vacation in the Province of Aurora in order to mark the birth day of remembrance of Dona Aurora Aragon Quezon. the first President of the Philippine National Red Cross. and Foundation Day of the State

2. 2. 3 R. A. No. 7805. September 1. 1994. declaring January 28 of every twelvemonth as a non-working particular public vacation in the City of Cavite to be known as Julian Felipe Day

2. 2. 4 R. A. No. 7950. March 25. 1995. declaring December Eighteen of every twelvemonth as “Araw ng Laguna” and a particular on the job twenty-four hours in the Province of Laguna and the City of San Pablo to mark the memory and decease of the late Governor Felicisimo T. San Luis

2. 2. 5 R. A. No. 9067. April 8. 2001. declaring April 15 of every twelvemonth as President Manuel A. Roxas Day which shall be observed as a particular working public vacation in the Province of Capiz and the City of Roxas

*From the Reference and Research Bureau Legislative Research Service. House of Congress

WHAT IS A NATIONAL HERO?
On our national hero’s 150 birth day of remembrance. I am forced to rethink my reply to this inquiry one time more. In the non so distant yesteryear. there has been a batch of inquiry as to why Dr. Jose Rizal is the country’s national hero. Renato Constantino argues that he is an American-sponsored hero ; that Rizal symbolized non-violence and peaceable promotion of reforms. traits that the American residents wanted for Filipinos to follow and therefore forestall farther rebellions against their hegemony. Others have hailed Andres Bonifacio as the “true” national hero for forming the first Filipino authorities and taking the first anti-colonial revolution in Asia. The Retraction Controversy has besides placed uncertainties on Rizal’s patriotism and his anti-clerical stance. The inquiries stem from the fact that our usual impression of a national hero is person who is brave. strong. able-bodied. and leads a military force into war against a colonial/imperial power — people such as George Washington. Simon Bolivar. or Sun Yat Sen. Apparently. machismo is still in the mind most Filipinos.

This impression has to alter in our clip when even the smallest workss of selflessness can be considered gallantry. In my sentiment. for one to be a hero. one must give him/herself for the release its people or as an drift of such release. Andres Bonifacio and Emilio Aguinaldo falls under this class. both holding bravely fought the Spaniards in the battleground. However. Andres Bonifacio ne’er won any of his conflicts and normally goes off to salvage himself one time his forces are routed. He truly sees it of import that people’s leader remains alive at the terminal of the conflict instead than give life and limb. The same manner with Emilio Aguinaldo who alternatively of confronting the Americans in the battleground. has decided to evade them until his apprehension in Palanan and subsequent pledge of commitment to the United States. Dr. Jose Rizal is possibly the prototype of such self-sacrifice though.

He sacrifices his love life and a quiet life to garner cognition around the universe that would be helpful in the battle for reforms in the state. He translates celebrated literary plants into Filipino for his countrymen to see ( such as plants by Hans Christian Andersen and Schiller ) and labours to guarantee a just position about his state abroad ( such as footnoting Morga’s Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas ) . He uses his ain luck. clip and attempt to care for his countrymen. as he did when he opened his clinic in Hong Kong or in Dapitan. He enlightens his people about their position in society by composing the Noli and the Fili. His ultimate forfeit possibly is when he refuses to be saved by Bonifacio’s revolution and alternatively gives his ain life at executing so that the revolution can hold the ultimate inspiration.

Both Bonifacio and Aguinaldo recognized his forfeits by idolizing him as the revolution’s inspiration. Aguinaldo was foremost to declare him national hero in 1898. even before the Americans “sponsored” it. Rizal’s selflessness has been modeled throughout history by other heroes. such as Manuel L. Quezon ( who sacrificed clip. money and attempt for the constitution of the Commonwealth ) . Jose P. Laurel ( who sacrificed repute to join forces with the enemy and salvage more Filipinos from the Japanese ) . Ninoy Aquino ( who sacrificed his life at blackwash so that the People Power Revolution could force through ) and Efren Penaflorida ( who sacrificed clip. money and attempt to learn the street kids of Cavite ) . In the terminal. there is no uncertainty that Rizal is the first to visualize himself and his state as a state of Filipinos and to continue its autonomy from the residents. At his 150th birth day of remembrance. Dr. Jose Rizal will stay as the bosom of the Philippine revolution and the Philippine national hero.

Originally posted at hypertext transfer protocol: //soksay. blogspot. com

On December 20. 1898. Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo. as caput of the Philippine Revolutionary Government. issued a decree proclaiming Dec. 30 of every twelvemonth a national twenty-four hours of mourning in award of Dr. Jose Rizal and the other sufferer of the revolution against Spain. This was merely two old ages after the executing of the hero by the Spanish colonial authorities. On Feb. 16. 1921. the members of the Filipino Legislature passed Act No. 2496. proclaiming Nov. 30 of every twelvemonth a legal vacation to mark the birth of Andres Bonifacio. laminitis of the Katipunan. This was merely 25 old ages after the launching of the nationalist revolution against Spain by the Kataastaasan Kagalang-galang na Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan ( Highest Honorable Association of Children of the Nation ) . or Katipunan. Since so. the names of Rizal and Bonifacio have led the parade of celebrated and valiant heroes honored by coevalss of Filipinos for their parts to national integrity. freedom and societal advancement.

Revisionist positions
But since the 1960s. there has arisen a revisionist historical tendency oppugning the standing of both Rizal and Bonifacio in the vanguard of that parade of heroes. One school of idea contends that Rizal was non worthy to be considered our first national hero because he was “made in USA. ” In an article written in 1970. coroneted “Veneration Without Understanding. ” the historian Renato Constantino referred to Rizal as an “American-sponsored hero. ” This point of view was expressed during the period of societal and political activism led by pupils. workers and provincials against the brewing Marcos absolutism and against the American war on Vietnam as an look of renascent US imperialism.

Constantino claimed that US Governor General Howard Taft set up Rizal as a national hero because Rizal was considered a “reformist” and a “pacifist. ” while Bonifacio was a revolutionist who resorted to violence to derive national independency. Since the US colonial swayers of course wanted to deter revolution against their government. they chose Rizal over Bonifacio as the Philippines’ national hero. The message was interpreted by the militants as reflecting their position that it was Bonifacio who most deserved the rubric of No. 1 Filipino hero. The Taft Commission. which functioned as the US colonial disposal in the Philippines from 1900 to 1904. passed Act No. 37. making the State of Rizal out of the military territory of Morong in award of Dr. Rizal. The act did non officially declare Rizal a national hero. nor proclaim a national vacation in his award. Besides. the Taft Commission represented a foreign authorities that had gained power through force and could non talk for the Filipino people. Popular sentiment

General Aguinaldo. acknowledged leader of the de facto Philippine Republic. proclaimed Rizal a national hero in front of the American colonial disposal. In conformity with his edict of Dec. 20. 1898. the people of Daet. Camarines Norte. instantly started a subscription for the edifice of a memorial for Dr. Rizal at the town’s place. The memorial was inaugurated in February 1899. shortly after the eruption of the Philippine-American War on Feb. 1. Hence. the announcement of Rizal as a national hero was an reliable act of the Filipino people even before the United States officially consolidated its regulation.

By no agencies can it be said that he was an “American-sponsored” hero. If at all. in purportedly taking Rizal as our national hero. Taft was merely staying by the popular sentiment of the Filipino people as already expressed through General Aguinaldo. whose authorities was so autonomous throughout the full state. except in Manila. The announcement of Bonifacio as a national hero was made by the Filipino Legislature. composed of duly elected Filipino representatives of the Filipino Legislature. so basking self-government under the American colonial government. He. excessively. should be considered a echt pick of the Filipinos as a national hero despite the expostulation of the American disposal that he was excessively much of a revolutionist.

Bonifacio revised
Bonifacio. like Rizal. has besides suffered from historical revisionism. The most recent revisionist composing about Bonifacio was that by Bryan C. Paraiso. a senior historical sites development officer of the National Historical Commission. In Paraiso’s article published by the Filipino Daily Inquirer on Nov. 30. 2012. on the juncture of Bonifacio’s 149th birth day of remembrance. the hero reveals fervor in his Hagiographas. Paraiso described Bonifacio as an “elusive” historical character. Paraiso went so far as to favourably cite an American historiographer. Glenn Anthony May. that “the Bonifacio celebrated in history text editions and memorialized in statues around the Philippines is in world something closer to a national myth. ” May. who has written a figure of controversial books on Philippine history stressing the function of the elite in the Filipino revolution and in the armed opposition against American business. is a history professor at the University of Oregon.

Paraiso rejected the judgement of Filipino historiographers like Epifanio de los Santos. who had tried to justify the image of Bonifacio against his disparagers. Paraiso considered the Hagiographas of De los Santos and other Filipino historiographers “subjective” reading. connoting that the foreigners’ reading of Philippine history is “objective. ” In fact. the observations of the American historiographers on our anticolonial battles could merely every bit good transport prejudice to warrant the colonial conquerings of our state. But is it necessary and helpful for Filipinos to oppose their heroes against each other. infinitely debating who are more deserving of popular worship? Unique function

Every hero plays his ain alone function in history. which is that to support and advance the involvements of the state at any peculiar clip of national crisis. giving his or her ain life and opportunism. George Washington and Abraham Lincoln are both American primary heroes executing different functions at different times in their country’s historical development. They. excessively. had their critics. Rizal consciously planted and nourished the seed of patriotism. In his novels. essays and announcements he promoted the thought of freedom and the contingency of national independency. At first Rizal advocated reforms. But when the supplication for reforms failed. he advocated independency. even through revolution. This is apparent in his novel “Noli Me Tangere. ” which emphasized reforms. and its subsequence. “El Filibusterismo. ” which preached revolution. Rizal’s chief essays. “The Indolence of the Filipinos. ” and “The Philippines a Century Hence. ” argued for an terminal to colonialism. by reforms if possible. and. if non. through revolution. Bonifacio read the novels of Rizal and perchance his two chauvinistic essays that were published by La Solidaridad. the periodical of reformer Filipino emigres in Madrid. which Rizal had joined but which he subsequently left when he eventually realized that their agitation for reforms were falling on the deaf ears. It was so that Rizal wrote the “Fili. ” La Liga Filipina

It was Rizal’s Hagiographas and his turning repute as a leader of Filipino patriotism that led Bonifacio in 1892 to fall in Rizal’s La Liga Filpina. an organisation that was in kernel a shadow authorities for an independent state. The organisation of the Liga by Rizal was cited in the indictment against him as one of the Acts of the Apostless of lese majesty he allegedly had committed against the Spanish government. The declared purposes of the Liga. including. “To unite the whole archipelago into one compact. vigorous and homogeneous organic structure. ” were right interpreted by the Spanish governments as an effort at segregation. This led the Spanish authorities to expatriate Rizal to the speeds of Mindanao. He was finally executed upon strong belief of lese majesty.

In his memoirs of the Filipino Revolution. Apolinario Mabini recalled that he met Bonifacio at the organisation of the Liga. After Rizal’s ostracism on July 6. 1892. Bonifacio and a smattering of other members of the Liga tried to maintain it alive by go oning to beg parts for La Solidaridad. Mabini. was elected secretary of the Supreme Council of the Liga after Rizal’s apprehension. He subsequently became president of the Cabinet of President Aguinaldo and secretary of foreign personal businesss in the first Philippine Republic that fought the United States for independency. The late former Sen. Claro M. Recto. the greatest Filipino patriot of our clip. in a address in 1960 to a civic convention in Baguio City. identified “Rizal. the poet. mind. realist ; Bonifacio. the idealist adult male of action ; and Mabini. the solon. ” as “three of the greatest patriots this state has produced. ” Katipunan

When the Liga eventually dissolved because of dissensions among its officers. Bonifacio formed the Katipunan. which was wholly dedicated to the aim of subverting the Spanish colonial authorities through armed revolution. Bonifacio had come to the decision that the period for requests had ended. and that revolution had become an imperative. The Katipunan was hence a direct branch of the Liga Filipina. Bonifacio used the name of “Jose Rizal” as one of the watchwords for the members of the secret society. It was an recognition by Bonifacio that Rizal was his wise man and inspiration. if non his leader. All revolutions start out with requests for reforms. Thus it was with the Gallic. Russian and American revolutions. The US Declaration of Independence provinces: “In every province of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most low footings: Our perennial Requests have been answered merely by perennial hurt. ”

The rejection of the requests for reforms by the La Solidaridad propagandists. including representation in the Spanish parliament. paved the manner for the bloody Katipunan revolution for segregation. In his seminal essay. “The Philippines A Century Hence. ” published by La Solidaridad from Sept. 30. 1898. to Feb. 1. 1890. Rizal wrote that if the reforms were non granted. “the Philippines one twenty-four hours will declare herself necessarily and unmistakably independent … . Necessity is the strongest God the universe knows. and necessity is the consequence of physical Torahs put into action by moral forces. ” Rizal planted the seed of revolution. and Bonifacio watered it. They were the twins of historical necessity. The moral force of history brought them together. each to carry through doomed functions in the battle of our people for nation-building and independency. That their bequests should be made to vie against each other goes against the jurisprudence of history. which mandates that each historical figure. like every coevals. has a definite function to play in the fate of a state. Divide and regulation

Revisionists are using the time-honoured colonial maneuver of “divide and rule” to enforce and perpetuate their laterality over conquered peoples. Those who play this game. opposing our heroes against each other. and seting seeds of intuition about their worth. are playing the game of our former colonial Masterss. As Recto said in the same address. “A steadfast belief in the mastermind of our race and in the capacity of the people for advancement toward the attainment of their fate is another basic constituent of patriotism. ” Destroy that patriotism and you destroy the state. After all. colonialism does non stop in the mere overthrow of the colonial power. Colonial establishments are left behind. particularly after 400 old ages of foreign domination ( 350 by the Spaniards and 50 by the Americans ) . There are leftovers of colonialism that must be swept off wholly before the colonial topics can be wholly free. particularly when they are embedded in the wonts of the head. The devastation of the characters of national heroes are equivalent to undermine of the nation’s strength and baronial intents.

Continued attempts to eliminate the message of Rizal by prophesying that he had retracted his Hagiographas is a blind to destruct patriotism. The same goes with attempts to mythologise the character of Rizal’s spouse in patriotism and revolution. Bonifacio. Bertolt Brecht. European poet and dramatist. in his drama. “Galileo. ” has written. “Unhappy the land that needs heroes. ” The Philippines is an unhappy land of wretchedness. poorness and underdevelopment. It needs heroes. Why destruct them? Paraiso denigrated Bonifacio even on the juncture of his decease day of remembrance. which the state reverentially observed. Paraiso said. “Fate has been unkind to Bonifacio. His mystery-shrouded life ended in black decease. ” Harmonizing to the American Heritage Dictionary. “ignominious” means “marked by shame or shame: dishonourable. ” It is bad plenty that this honest and brave “son of the people” ( anak ng bayan ) should be called a “myth” by an vague American historiographer. and his decease should be called black or scandalous by an employee of the National Historical Commission of the Philippines. The bravery of Bonifacio

It is true that Bonifacio was executed by an order of Aguinaldo in a battle for power within the radical motion. But Bonifacio faced his destiny courageously. with the same unbeatable bravery that he had mustered in constructing the radical motion from a smattering of nationalists to 1000s of ill armed avid zealots eager to put down their lives for freedom and independency. Bonifacio did this through four long old ages of painstaking enlisting in secret rites in darkened suites under the very olfactory organs of the progressively nervous colonial and clerical governments. with every minute fraught with the danger of find. anguish and decease. And eventually. when the motion was unwittingly discovered. he launched the revolution armed merely with a six-gun. assailing a military armory. lighting the radical war that vindicated and upheld the award and manhood of coevalss of Filipinos who had been chained in colonial bondage for three and a half centuries.

Following dissensions in the ranks of the revolutionists. Bonifacio was shot and wounded as he resisted gaining control by soldiers he considered renegades to the revolution. His capturer. Col. Lazaro Makapagal. claimed that Bonifacio shed “bitter tears” when. together with his brother. he faced certain decease. but he did non implore for his life. and the cryings he shed were surely due to his defeat that the radical motion that he led to fruition was in danger of catastrophe. Bonifacio’s background showed that whatever his mistakes. deficiency of bravery was non one of them. As the quintessential revolutionist. Mao Zedong said. “A revolution is non a dinner party. or composing an essay. or painting a image. or making embellishment ; … . A revolution is an rebellion. an act of force by which one category overthrows another. ” It is non so orderly like romantic fiction. Ratified by the people

Yes. Bonifacio’s decease was a personal calamity. But it was non “ignominious. ” Even as he considered himself a victim of unfairness by some of his fellow revolutionists. he did non abandon the revolution. He decided to go forth Cavite. the state of his factional antagonists. to go on to contend the revolution elsewhere. “Heroes are those who have a construct of state and hence aspire and battle for the nation’s freedom. ” said the proficient commission of the National Heroes Commission in a study to President Fidel V. Ramos on June 3. 1993. Rizal and Bonifacio met that standard wholly. They are. so far. the lone heroes who have been honored by edict and jurisprudence with national vacations. The remainder are every bit honored with particular vacations. The members of the commission who drafted the standards for heroes were recognized historiographers and authors: Dr. Onofre D. Corpuz. Samuel K. Tan. Marcelino Foronda. Alfredo Lagmay. Bernardito R. Churchill. Serafin D. Quiason. Ambeth Ocampo ( so known as the monastic Dom Ignacio Maria ) . Prof. Minerva Gonzales and Carmen Guerrero-Nakpil. Other historical figures

The commission recommended nine other historical figures to be recognized as national heroes in a study to the Department of Education. Culture and Sports ( Decs ) in a study on Nov. 22. 1995. But the Decs took no action on the recommendation for fright that it would stir contention. Rizal and Bonifacio. who had already been declared national heroes by Acts of the Apostless of Congress. led the list of heroes made by the commission. The pick of Rizal and Bonifacio as the first national heroes has been ratified by the Filipino people through many coevalss as evidenced by the statues erected spontaneously in their award in towns and metropoliss throughout the archipelago. Historical revisionism. for whatever ground. will non wipe out this heartfelt fear in concrete and rock by all Filipinos nationwide.

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