Christianity In Religion
The focus of this study is the contribution of signi? cant people, ideas, practices and ethical teachings to an understanding of Christianity as a living religious tradition. The study of Christianity is to be of the WHOLE tradition where applicable. Outcomes A student: H1 explains aspects of religion and belief systems H2 describes and analyses the in? uence of religion and belief systems on individuals and society H4 describes and analyses how aspects of religious traditions are expressed by their adherents H5 evaluates the in?
uence of religious traditions in the life of adherents H6 organises, analyses and synthesises relevant information about religion from a variety of sources, considering usefulness, validity and bias H7 conducts effective research about religion and evaluates the ? ndings from the research H8 applies appropriate terminology and concepts related to religion and belief systems H9 coherently and effectively communicates complex information, ideas and issues using appropriate written, oral and graphic forms. Signi? cant Person or School of Thought Criteria • explain the contribution to the development and expression of
Christianity In Religion Essay Example
Christianity of ONE signi? cant person OR school of thought, other than Jesus, drawn from: – Paul of Tarsus – Hildegard of Bingen – Martin Luther – Catherine Booth – Pope John XXIII – Billy Graham – Dennis Bennett – Sarah Maitland – Liberation Theology – Feminist Theology – another person or school of thought signi? cant to Christianity Content Paul of Tarsus Practices, traditions, non-Jewish inclusion into the Church are all a result of Paul Paul? s teachings are at the heart of Christian bioethics The church “we” worship may be described as a ?Pauline Church?. He has a contemporary in? uence
on Christianity today, and he spoke to the wider Christian community, not just the Catholics. Pre-conversion: Saul (Hebrew? ) Post-conversion: Paul (Greek? ) • analyse the impact of this person OR school of thought on Christianity Ethics 1 Wee-An Tan Criteria describe and explain Christian ethical teachings on bioethics OR environmental ethics OR sexual ethics Content Bioethics (Textbook Summary) Bioethics: Science which establishes a system of medical and environmental priorities for survival. It is a branch of ethics concerned with health care and biological sciences – the morality issues of abortion,
euthanasia, IVF and organ transplants. Some Christians believe in using natural law to determine their response. For most Churches, the principles of sanctity of life, stewardship and respect for unity and procreation of sexual intercourse are the basis of their ideas on bioethics. Seventh World Congress on Bioethics held in Sydney in 2004. Signi? cant Practices in the lives of believers: Criteria • describe ONE signi? cant practice within Christianity drawn from: – Baptism – Marriage ceremony – Saturday/Sunday worship Content Saturday/Sunday Worship • demonstrate how the chosen practice expresses the beliefs of
Christianity • analyse the signi? cance of this practice for both the individual and the Christian community Notes: • explain the contribution to the development and expression of Christianity of ONE signi? cant person OR school of thought, other than Jesus, drawn from: – Paul of Tarsus • analyse the impact of this person OR school of thought on Christianity About PAUL: First Christian theologian, interpreter, writer. Practices, traditions, non-Jewish inclusion into the Church are all a result of Paul Teachings are at the heart of Christian bioethics Church “we” worship may be described as a ? Pauline Church?.
He spoke to the wider Christian community, not just the Catholics. Primary sources for Paul are his letters, esp. Galatians and 1 & 2 Corinthians. 2 Wee-An Tan Secondary sources: The book of the Acts of the Apostles, but it is a secondary view (he did not write it). Later sources: Vatican Codex, C4 CE (Paul lived in C1 CE). From Tarsus, Paul was a Hellenistic Jew. He was a Roman Citizen and a Pharisee. From Acts, it is shown that he had a Pharisiac education (highest social standing among Jews). Although he was a Jew, he was a Roman Citizen (a major impact later), which meant that his parents were distinguished in some way.
Paul was born quite wealthy. The letters which he wrote demonstrate his training in Greek literature, philosophy (Aristotle, Plato) and rhetoric. Paul, in his youth, was a devout Jew. He believed that the preachers of the Messiah would fracture the Jewish community, and was an enemy of the Church. During a raid on Christians, journeying to/from Damascus (? ), he suddenly fell down, was blinded and heard a heavenly voice. He comes to realise that he has been misguided – he was healed in a similar process to Jesus? healing. He ? rst listened, and then in three days (3 = religious signi? cance), his sight was restored.
This was the moment of his conversion. Paul never met Jesus, merely the risen Christ. The focus of contemporary Christianity is the risen Christ, as well as the call to conversion that everyone can have (like Paul, they do not need to have ? met? Christ). Christ had not persecuted him, but shown him love. Paul preached a message of love: levels of love – a Greek concept… Eros, Filial, Agape. Paul realises that people did not have to be Jewish to convert – anyone could meet the risen Christ, and became known as the Apostle to the Gentiles. He was a Christian missionary in Syria, Asia Minor and Greece on a number of journeys.
At the time, Greek was the major language of commerce and trade – Paul preached in Greek to educated people. To non-educated people, he might have spoken Latin. He would have spoken in Aramaic to Jews, or Hebrew (in a religious context). He preached both in synagogues and to gentiles, and established the practice of house churches – meeting at houses, especially for Gentiles, separated to the Jewish practice. They were the ? rst churches – people who were clean and unclean (according to Jewish ritual) could meet together. Post-conversion, Paul travelled constantly, more than any other apostles did.
He was frequently opposed by both local Jewish and gentile leaders. He used letters to communicate to churches. He established both men and women in charge of a church group (e. g. Lydia). Explain the contribution to the development and expression of Christianity of Paul of Tarsus The GENERAL contribution of Paul to the development and expression of Christianity Established Christian communities throughout the Mediterranean area Wrote 14 letters and takes up over 50% of the New Testament Opened Christianity to Gentiles Fashioned foundational Christian beliefs Went on missions to spread Christianity 3 Wee-An Tan
Explain the contribution to the development and expression of Christianity of Paul of Tarsus Contribution of Paul to the understanding of theology and principal beliefs Teachings about God 1. The ethical God: Romans 2:4: “Do you not realise God? s kindness is meant to lead you to repentance? ” + Paul taught that God? s ethics were just, merciful and kind, and an ethical God allowed for redemption. + Knowing God through love, good work and learning about God would, according to Paul? s Phariseein? uenced ideas of imperfect humanity, allow for redemption in God (repentance and reconciliation lead to salvation).
2. God is merciful: Romans 9:15: “I will have mercy on whom I have mercy and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion” + Ethics and mercy go hand-in-hand – a believer who has faith and is sincere in wanting mercy will receive mercy. Teachings about Jesus 1. Jesus is the Son of God: Phillipians 2:6-11 “… he always had the nature of God… Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the father” + Paul taught that Jesus was, in his nature, inseparable from God. Jesus was a fully divine risen Christ. 2. Jesus? Humanity: Phillipians 2: 6-11 “… took the nature of a human being”.
+ Paul emphasised the two natures of Jesus Christ, divine and human – Jesus was the incarnation of God. He was born and lived a human, yet was the Son of God. Teachings about theology 1. The Trinity: Galatians 4:6 “God sent the spirit of his son” 1 Corinthians 12:3 “No one can confess that Jesus is Lord, without being guided by the Holy Spirit” + Tied into humanity of God – Father, Son and Holy Spirit. 2. Salvation: 1 Corinthians 15:2 “you are saved by the gospel, if you hold it ? rmly unless it is for nothing you believed” + Paul teaches theology of atonement, ideas of baptism and salvation.
Offers believers assurance that God is a saviour. + According to Paul, humans are saved in God through good works and faith in Jesus Christ. Example of the biblical patriarch Abraham, who received God? s blessing and passed it on through “the righteousness of faith” (Romans 4:13) 4 Wee-An Tan Explain the contribution to the development and expression of Christianity of Paul of Tarsus Contribution of Paul to the understanding of Ethics (as opposed to Jewish traditional ethics) Teachings about love, the Law of God Romans 12:8 “Love is the ful? lling of the law” Paul taught that love was the summation and ful? llment of the law.
The basic premise of Paul? s ethical teachings was love – love, and the love of others, was an ethic. 1 Cor 13 is a poetic essay on agape love (pure, unconditional love) He also taught that love was a call to action, and guided the lives of believers. Teachings about Behaviour Col 3:5 “Put to death, therefore, whatever in you is earthly: Fornication, impurity, passion, evil desire and greed. ” Col 3:8 “But now you must get rid of all such things – anger, wrath, malice, slander and abusive language… do not lie. ” Teachings on virtues and vice… Models of behaviour (Galatians 5:22-23, Phillipians 4:8) and behaviours to avoid.
According to Paul, faith in Christ is manifest through the words and actions of believers, and Christian love should be exempli? ed in all relationships. Teachings about the Law Galatians 2:21 “For if justi? cation comes through the law then Christ died for nothing” Galatians 3:18 “For if the inheritance (salvation) comes from the law, it no longer comes from the promise (to Abraham)” Romans 12:8 “Love is the ful? lling of the law” The ? Law? (mitzvot) as it has been handed down through the Jewish tradition since the time of Abraham & Moses has been superseded and set aside by faith in Jesus Christ and the laws of Christ (i.
e. love). Christian adherents need not submit to Mosaic Law to follow Jesus. A new covenant means a new understanding of faith in Christ. 5 Wee-An Tan Explain the contribution to the development and expression of Christianity of Paul of Tarsus Contribution of Paul to the understanding of Rituals, Roles and Prayer Teachings on Sat/Sun Worship Outline: Saturday or Sunday worship is the focus of Christian public worship, and during this act of worship, the Eucharist, Lord? s Supper or Holy Communion is celebrated. The main rite through which Christians worship God. Acts 13:13-14 [Paul visits the synagogue on the Sabbath]
Various Epistles of Paul [af? rm seventh-day rest, freedom from legalistic requirements to observe Sat/ Sun]. Teachings on the Eucharist Outline: The practice of a ritual meal in which the life, death and resurrection of Christ was recalled has its origins in the earliest Christian churches known as the Eucharist (Greek for thanksgiving) Corinthians 11 [Paul gave his authority to the way in which the Eucharist should be conducted; usually referred to as the Institution Narrative, in which Paul prescribes the wording of the ritual action of the Eucharist] Paul quotes a very early Christian source of Christ? s words: “This is my body
that is for you. Do this in remembrance of me. ” In the same way also the cup, after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me. ” + explanation of the meaning of the Eucharist and stipulations about its practice + Established the ritual meal of Eucharist then in? uenced the ongoing Christian tradition – even though great differences still exist between denominations as to the nature of the presence of Christ in the liturgical event. Teachings on Baptism Outline: Baptism is an initiation and ritual that a person must go through to become part of the church.
Christians have been baptising since the time of Jesus, because it was a direct command to the Apostles Romans 6:11 “dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus” + The importance of baptism, Paul explains, is that baptism initiates a new life of grace and purity. + The sinner symbolically dies, baptised into the death of Jesus, and the person who emerges is alive to God. Analyse the impact of this person OR school of thought on Christianity The GENERAL effect/impact of Paul on Christianity Immediate impact Established many churches very quickly because of his belief that the end of the world was imminent.
This energised and consolidated the churches Relied on his knowledge of the Hebrew Scriptures to answer any questions that people had at the time He laid down foundational beliefs of Christianity such as: Gods grace is for all, the church is the body of Christ and justi? cation of faith (salvation of faith) Long term impact Letters attributed to him are included in the bible Teachings in? uenced future generations on how to behave and live Teachings have infused every aspect of Christian teachings Letters are used in catholic liturgies and other prayer services 6 Wee-An Tan Paul continued Jesus?
view that women are important and are to be respected because they are part of God? s kingdom. Analyse the impact of this person OR school of thought on Christianity Overall impact of Paul: Cultural background, Roman citizen, knowledge of Greek was vital in the expansion of early Christian communities throughout the Mediterranean. He communicated the message of Christ outside of Jerusalem. His message of the justi? cation of faith (Rom 3:28) was instrumental in the Protestant Reformation (schism) in the 16th Century. Paul clari? ed the major teachings of the church, particularly those on Christ (1 Timothy 3:16 – ?
he appeared in human form, was shown to be right by the spirit? ) and Salvation (Rom 10:4 – ? everyone who believes is put right with God? ). Missionary Journeys: Three major missionary journeys in 44, 48, 55CE, established the church throughout the Roman empire. Paul preached to Gentiles and Jews – the communities he founded evolved into contemporary Christian churches. After establishing a group of followers, he would gather them in a house church for prayer, teaching and Eucharist. Over time he would appoint elders to lead the church. His missionary journeys increased the resilience of the Church. Council of Jerusalem 48CE
Con? ict about the status of Gentile believers, Council of Jerusalem centralised differences within communities. Paul opened the church to Gentiles – they did not have to circumcised or follow Jewish dietary laws (Rom 3:21-30). Paul? s Gentile Christianity survived as the Jewish-Christian movement died out, and Paul? s followers wrote much of the New Testament. Signi? cance for adherents today Letters of St. Paul are signi? cant in the lives of adherents, as they are used in Christian services (Sat/Sun worship). The letters are used in private devotion, and Paul is a source of inspiration and guidance because
of the example of his devout faith. • describe and explain Christian ethical teachings on bioethics OR environmental ethics OR sexual ethics Describe and explain Christian ethical teachings on bioethics OR environmental ethics OR sexual ethics Bioethics BIOETHICS: 1. Branch of ethics concerned with health care and biological sciences – issues of morality and implications of new biological discoveries and biomedical advances. 2. Ethics concerned with issues surrounding health care and the biological sciences. These issues include the morality of IVF, new research in genetic engineering including cloning and stem cell research.
CHRISTIAN ETHICAL ISSUES – Honouring God’s image – [Genesis 1:26-17]; one must consider God’s wisdom and power in the creation of mankind. 7 Wee-An Tan – Prevention of Suffering – [Acts 10:38, Luke 9:2]; embryonic stem cell harvesting: the embryo is in fact destroyed in the process. Stewardship of Creation – [Genesis 1]; prohibits exploitations and manipulations that would destroy natural balance or degrade God’s created world. Human Dignity – [Genesis 1:27, Acts 17:28] – People (despite their life stage) should be treated with respect for their individual qualities, not just used for scientific investigation.
Seventh World Congress on Bioethics held in Sydney in 2004. Some Christian denominations believe in using natural law. For most Churches, the principles of sanctity of life, stewardship and respect for the unity and procreation of sexual intercourse are the basis of their ideas on bioethics. STEM CELLS Every organ, tissue and cell has stem cells. They are able to divide and self renew; could regenerate the entire organ from a few cells. May be used to repair or replace damaged tissues – reversing diseases and injuries such as cancers, heart disease and blood disease. STEM CELL RESEARCH
– Human life begins at fertilisation: conception – Catholic/Orthodox concept of natural law. – The sperm from a human male and the ovum from a human female – living human being – a human embryo. – Ethical issues: – In Australia, legislation states that no embryo may be created for the purpose of this research or to generate stem cell lines. – Research Involving Human Embryos Act 2002 (Cth) – allows for regulate use of an appropriate number of excess embryos in approved search programs. – In Australia, all research involving humans must be approved by Human Research Ethics Committees. EMBRYONIC STEM CELL RESEARCH
– Human embryos: rich source of stem cells. – Differentiate into all types of cells. – Capable of becoming a more specialised type of cell, e. g. nerve cell, skin cell, etc. Advantages: Flexible – potential to make any cell; Availability – from IVF clinics. – Disadvantages: likely to be rejected; tumorigenic; destroys developing human life. – Use human embryos for: – Replace or heal damage tissues. – Study the development of diseases. – test drugs or trial new methods of reproductive technology. – Contrast in new life-saving treatments – death-dealing to the human embryos. NON-EMBRYONIC STEM CELL RESEARCH (ADULT STEM CELLS)
– Replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues. – Found in children, adults and umbilical cord blood. – Advantages: Does not experience immune rejection, ease of procurement, non-tumorigenic, no harm done to donor. – Disadvantages: Do not live as long, less flexible in application. – Adult stem cells shown to help more than 70 medical conditions, including Parkinson’s disease, spinal cord injury, blood diseases and heart damage. CATHOLIC ANGLICAN 8 Wee-An Tan SUPPORTS: PERS – Research and treatments involving bone marrow. PECTI – Ongoing research into the use of adult stem cells. VE – Adult stem cell research and therapies are
approved because they do not destroy life and may provide cure or improved quality of life for the infirm. SUPPORTS A): – Adult stem cell research and the use of the therapies that my result. – The Bible is the principle source of ethical teaching. – For and against stem cell research may use the same biblical text to explain their stance. SUPPORTS B): – Embryonic stem cell research uses a 14 day postOPPOSED: fertilisation criteria. – Research using embryonic stem cells that have – Creation, cultural or dominion mandate of Genesis been obtained through standard in-vitro fertilisation 1:26-28. procedures.
– God has called us to play God, using IVF to help people – Research using embryonic stem cells that may in have babies and using embryonic stem cells and genetic the future be created by cloning. research to heal people and shape humanity’s future. – Every human being is precious from the very – Humanity is often seen as co-creator with God in this beginning of his or her life, until natural death. example. – Human life and dignity should never be exploited OPPOSED B): or harmed for the sake of science. – Stem cell research on the basis that it is never permissible to do wrong (destroy the life of the embryo)
in order that good for some may result. – “For God knows that when you eat of it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil” [Genesis 3]. – Emphasises that humanity is not to play God – choosing whose life to save or not and interfering with the natural order. Biblical references: Provincial Synod: QUOT – Jeremiah 1:5 – “Before I formed you in the womb ES/ I knew you, and before you were born I EVID consecrated you”. ENCE – Exodus 20 – The Ten Commandments “You Shall not Kill”. Church Documents: – Donum vitae I, I – “Human life must be respected and protected absolutely from the moment of
conception…” – Domun vitae I, 5 – “It is immoral to produce human embryos destined to be exploited as disposable ‘biological material’”. IN-VITRO FERTILISATION (IVF) – Egg cells are fertilised by sperm outside of the womb; ova (eggs) are removed from the female’s ovaries, and sperm fertilises them into a fluid medium. The fertilised egg (zygote) is then transferred into the patient’s uterus. – Ethical Issues: – Bypassing the natural method of conception – Life in a laboratory. unnatural environment/substances – Fertilization of more embryos than necessary (a ‘waste of life’) – Discarding of excess embryos
– Keeping them in limbo – freezing them – Destruction of embryos in research – Creates embryos for medical purposes CATHOLIC ANGLICAN – Opposed to most kinds of in-vitro fertilisation. – Differs depending on the diocese. – The use of excess embryos and their destruction are – The Bible tells of God’s work in assisting infertile opposed due to the rights embryos receive as the couples to conceive (e. g. Abraham). Some PERSPE earliest stage of life. fundamentalists interpret IVF as intervening on CTIVE God’s behalf and therefore approve of the use of IVF in God’s creation. 9 Wee-An Tan
Catechism Of The Catholic Church: Anglican Primate, Peter Carnley, in 2002: 2375 – “Research aimed at reducing human sterility – Anglican church expresses concern over the loss of is to be encouraged”. fertilised ova. – Condemning the use of IVF for same sex couples. 2376 – “… dissociation of husband and wife…” – The right of the child to have a mother and a father. 2377 – “…They dissociate the sexual act from the QUOTES procreative act…” – We are “co-creators with god” through IVF and / stem cell research, and this is right/wrong EVIDEN Church Documents: (depending on Synod)
CE Donum vitae II – “…voluntary destruction of human embryos occurs too often. ” Donum vitae II, 4 – “… deprived of the meaning and the values which are expressed in the language of the body and the union of human persons”. CLONING – Precise genetic copy is created. – Reproductive cloning – creation of a clone for the purpose of allowing it to progress to the birth of a living child. – Therapeutic cloning – creates a clone and then destroys it at an early stage in order to harvest embryonic stem cells from it, or to use it to produce medicines, or for research. CATHOLIC PERSPECTIVE QUOTES/ EVIDENCE
– Strongly opposed to any form of human cloning. – Links to stem cell research – the creation of the embryos for the purpose of experimentation and their destruction are immoral acts. – Right to be born of a father and mother. – To separate the reproductive act from the sexual act is morally unacceptable. Donum vitae I, 4 – “Medical research must refrain from operations on live embryos, unless there is a moral certainty of not causing harm to the life of integrity of the unborn child and the mother…” Pope John Paul II – “…manipulation and destruction of human embryos, are not morally acceptable…”
“None of us lives to himself, and none of us dies to himself… in life and death we are the Lord’s” [Romans 14:7-9] PERSPECTIVES: ANGLICAN – Condemns human cloning. PROTESTANTS PRESBYTERIANS ORTHODOX – Same views on – Generally disapprove – No situation in which cloning as the Catholic all forms of cloning. cloning human beings Provincial Synod: Church. would be acceptable. “… the creation of a human life, either by – An attempt to create fertilisation or by any other means of human beings in man’s creation for the purpose of destroying that image rather than God’s.
life in research fails to recognise the value and purpose God assigns to human life…” ETHICAL TEACHINGS: BIOETHICS Authority for Christian Ethics: – Scriptures (The Bible) – Experience (inspiration from the Holy Spirit) – Tradition (Authority of leaders) – Logic (Reason) Natural Law: – The belief that God created everything perfectly so if we study the way life works and learn the laws of Nature, we will learn how to behave 10 Wee-An Tan Catholic Church: – Based on God? s revelation through the bible and natural law, the church? s tradition and the exercise of reason
– Donum Vitae (Gift of Life) > asserts that the life of every human being is to be respected in an absolute way from the very instant of the commencement of his or her existence until death – Abortion is therefore seen by Catholics as against natural law and God? s law – Genetic testing of unborn babies is permissible if the aim is to bene? t the child – Donum Vitae (Gift of Life) > use embryos as the object of instrument of experimentation constitutes a crime against their dignity as human beings – The CC is strongly opposed to voluntary euthanasia
– The document also argues that the natural method of conception is sexual relationships within marriage > the use of donor sperm, surrogate motherhood and arti? cial insemination = no Evangelical: – Rely on God? s revelation of himself through the bible – The Anglican Archbishop > life begins at conception ? abortion and stem cell research on embryos are wrong > life in the womb begins w/ conception it would be arbitrary to chose any other point at which the child develops value – Reject the concept of surrogacy Liberal: – Many see the bible as a pre-scienti? c book
– The best person to make the decision to proceed with an abortion is the pregnant woman, after consultation with her family, friends and trusted advisers. – Voluntary euthanasia might be an appropriate thing ETHICS: 1/3/2012 Preliminary Link: Decalogue – Ten Commandments (Ex 20:2-17, Deut 5:1-22). Essence of the Jewish collection of laws. Who God is, and what is required to live in right relationship with God. Still considered the foundation of all Christian ethics. Jesus was asked about the role of the Ten Commandments, Mosaic Law, Mitzvah. Jesus summarised the decalogue as a commandment of Love (Jesus?
Commandment of Love: Lk 10:25-27). SUMMARISES Hebrew and Christian ethical teachings. Double love commandment. The whole point of living an ethical life is the endgame – heaven. The Beatitudes: Mt 5:3-10, Lk:6-20-26 + Positive attitude to being – all you do should be done with peace and harmony in mind, etc. + Worded less black-and-white Jesus: Actions are the model for Christians. What should motivate and structure believers? actions. – e. g. advocate peace, be concerned for the poor and oppressed. Jesus also saw the inherent dignity of people, as they were created by God. Paul: The teacher of the ?
love ethic?. Paul is a SOURCE OF CHRISTIAN ETHICAL TEACHINGS, not just a teacher – he was a major theological contributor to Christian ethical understandings, esp. love. Especially important for Protestant Christians. Romans 12:10: Love is the ful? lling of (Mosaic) law. 1Cor 16:14: Let all that you do be done in (agape) love. Natural Law: 11 Wee-An Tan Ethics are systems, not values, not morals. Systems are informed by faith underpinnings e. g. magisterium of the church, patriarchal writings, theology, love, etc. Different denominations of Christianity place different focus on areas of ethics.
Natural law is one example of an ethical system. Natural law is based on the natural law of the universe, established in the period of creation – e. g. Genesis, tells us of the natural order of things (divinity + omnipotency + transcendence of God, God as a creator, God? s creations as goodness, the right relationship between man and woman, humans are stewards of creation etc. ). I. e. anything done that does not ? t in that natural law violates it. Thomas Aquinas: C13th theologian, key to the Catholic Church. Wrote that all human beings seek goodness. If anything wants to be good, it has to ful?
l what it was made to be. Some actions are, in and of themselves, good and evil. Particularly important to bioethics procreation, sex and abortion. Biblical ethics: Christians vary in the status given to the Bible. Love ethics comes from the Bible, and the reading + context of a text are important. E. g. Catholic Christians do not go to the Bible ? rst, but interpretations of the Bible and the Catechism, etc. Protestants: Lutherans, methodists, congregationalists, UCA (? ) go to the bible ? rst. Pentecostalists go to their minister ? rst. Situation ethics are secular ethics, interpreted from a Christian slant.
Fletcher, a Christian writer, believes that the situation determines what is right and wrong, e. g. Jesus rejecting traditional laws (harvesting wheat on the Sabbath) was ? right? while violating Mosaic Law. This MIGHT allow, in some circumstances, a woman to seek an abortion. • describe ONE signi? cant practice within Christianity drawn from: – Baptism – Marriage ceremony – Saturday/Sunday worship • demonstrate how the chosen practice expresses the beliefs of Christianity • analyse the signi? cance of this practice for both the individual and the Christian community 12 Wee-An Tan Describe one signi?
cant practice: Saturday or Sunday worship (NOT mass Catholic, divine liturgy – orthodox). Saturday or Sunday worship is the focus of Christian public worship, and during this act of worship, the Eucharist, Lord? s Supper or Holy Communion is celebrated. Baptism is mostly celebrated during Sunday worship. The main rite through which Christians worship God. Called Mass, Lord? s Supper, Service of the Mysteries or Divine Liturgy depending on church. General Characteristics: • Welcome, Opening Rite • Scripture readings – reading of and meditation upon the Word of God • Psalm prayer • Preaching or Homily, a re?
ection on the meaning of God? s Word in the lives of those gathered • Offertory – people process to the altar, to offer bread and wine • Improvised prayer of praise and thanksgiving for God? s work of salvation – later became the Eucharistic Prayer • Communion Rite – body of Christ is broken and shared among the community (terminology: Breaking of Bread, Eucharist, Lord? s Supper, Mass, Oblation, Sacrament of the altar). • [Some churches include Penitential Rite, Intercessions – Prayers of the Faithful, recitation of the Creed on Sundays and major feast days, the Eucharistic Prayer and the Dismissal Rite]
A number of actions contribute signi? cantly to Sunday worship: Gestures Elevating eyes and hands, kissing the altar + Gospel book + Cross, sign of peace, extension of hands for blessing or Communion. Actions Bowing, genu? ection, turning, processing Sacraments Imposition of hands, immersion, pouring water, anointment, breaking bread, pouring wine Origins: Original practice is found in the Jewish practice of honouring the Sabbath on Saturdays. The followers of Jesus transferred the day to Sunday, the day of Jesus? resurrection (Mk 16:2, Acts 20:7).
From 4CE, councils and Christian laws mandated the obligation of worship on Sunday, prohibiting work. There is no ? rm evidence that Christians believed Sunday was a day of rest, the only day of worship or the only day to celebrate the Eucharist on. Contemporary Christian Churches generally agree that Sunday is observed as the primary holy day of obligation. Orthodox and Eastern churches? (? Eastern rites? ) differ in Sunday worship. They are longer (several hours), use icons and incense, sing the liturgy and hide some of the liturgy behind