Clash of Cultures
The Economic Structure of the Native Americans were the trading of food, weapons, Traveling Items Routs, and the trading of jewelry. After the Europeans has settle with the Native Americans in the early seventeen and eighteen century the trading grounds were to be called the middle ground between the Natives and the European trader. New England colonists had tapped into a sprawling Atlantic trade network that connected them to the English homeland as well as the West African slave coast, the Caribbean’s plantation islands, and the Iberian Peninsula.
Colonists relied upon British and European imports for glass, linens, hardware, machinery, navigational instruments, paint, and other household items. In contrast to the southern colonies, which could produce tobacco, rice, and indigo in exchange for imports, New England’s colonies could not offer much to England beyond fish, furs, and naval stores.
Nevertheless the New Englanders built a thriving mercantile network and a lucrative shipbuilding system; after all, they needed fishing boats, and the regional economy quickly became dependent upon the sort of trade that only ships could produce at the time Money in the mid-Atlantic colonies came from fishing, lumbering, shipbuilding, and farming. The mid-Atlantic’s vast wealth of natural resources allowed the region to be very economically successful in many industries. Surplus crops and other colonial goods were exported by merchants to Britain and the West Indies.
Manufacturing was another main part of the economy. Lumber mills were opened and many people exported cut logs. Many grist mills, places where people could pay to have their grains ground in to powder, were opened as well. People also began to run companies that made bricks. Women also began to take a role in the economy. Women would often do piece meal work. This was done after hours in the home and usually included spinning, laundering, or making butter. Some women also ran farms and businesses including clothing and grocery stores, bakeries, and drug stores.
They began to practice medicine and work as nurses, doctors, or midwives. However, women often could not work outside the household without their husband’s permission. The Southern colonial region’s economy was mainly agrarian or agricultural. Western lands had small farms that were mostly family owned. These farms grew fruits, vegetables, corn, and grain and could grow enough crops to trade. Eastern lands had large plantations. These farms grew cash crops, which usually included indigo, rice, and tobacco.
Plantations were usually self-supportive and isolated from others. Many had doctors, blacksmiths, and many slaves. Slaves were brought over on ships and sold as property. They were forced to do all the plantation work including working on the farm, repairing equipment, cooking, and being a maid or nanny. Many colonies had slave codes, laws about slavery, which helped to control slaves. There was very little manufacturing, but the extensive river system allowed for an abundance of trade.
Merchants exported materials for shipbuilding (wood, tar, pitch, and turpentine), crops, and deerskins to overseas markets and northern colonies. Colonization was simply an extension of the trading ties that existed for over 400 years between Africa and Europe. Peasant agriculture characterized most parts of the region and there was no money economy. Production patterns were conditioned by land availability. Trade involved slaves, gold, ivory, salt, and other commodities. Trade in slaves is argued to have deprived the region of enormous human capital.
The trade in different items continued until the middle of the 19th century, when European governments decided to take administrative control of the regions they traded with the decision to colonize large parts of Africa was driven by a need to support the industrial revolution with undisrupted flows of raw materials in large quantities, cheap labor, and the need for new markets for industrial goods strategic competition among European powers, both politically and militarily, and individual hot heads (adventurers) that sought to achieve fame.
Political Structure These societies continued to exist in bands or small groups of extended families. Only occasionally during the winter or for the purpose of gathering a specific food did several families come together to form a temporary village. Most of the time, though, these small groups pursued their own patterns of movement. This seasonal roaming had the effect of limiting the development of settled societies in large numbers and kept social organization centered around the kinship group. There were no hierarchies of leadership.
Instead the family and social pressure provided order within these small communities. Government continued to be egalitarian and decentralized. An older and experienced man likely directed the activities of the band and organized hunting expeditions, planned migratory movements, and mediated disputes between individuals. The men who became leaders in these societies were probably industrious, generous, eloquent, and skilled in hunting and acquiring food. Most bands also recognized a priest, or shaman, who served as a conduit between the community and the spirit world.
Politics in the colonies were as varied as their religious preferences. “Seventeenth-century New England was governed by Puritans for Puritanism”. The Massachusetts Bay Company stockholders, known as freemen, were empowered by charter to meet as a body called the General Court. The General Court made laws and governed the company. The colonists of New England took the General Court concept and used it to govern their colonies. The General Court ruled that freemen could only be male church members to make sure only godly men could decide government issues.
The number of freemen eventually grew too large so they agreed to send two deputies from each colony to the General Court to act as representatives for the colony The middle colonies were ruled largely by the British monarchy until William Penn was granted land by the throne and formed Pennsylvania. Voters had to be Christian, as well as anyone wishing to hold office, but the local government did not force settlers to attend church or to pay taxes to support the church, as in other colonies. Penn was free to rule his colony as he saw fit, and was answerable to only the king of England.
Penn developed a colonial council made up of tax-paying landowners that had the power to develop laws and administrate the government. He also appointed a governor who had the power to veto any laws passed by the council. A popularly elected assembly served as a check on the council; its members had the authority to reject or approve laws framed by the council. The southern colonies, like Virginia, were ruled by the oldest legislative body in America, called the House of Burgesses. The king of England appointed a royal governor, who in turn selected his council. This body was the upper house.
Representatives from each region in the colony were selected by their inhabitants to form the lower house; the House of Burgesses. Counties were established to provide government on the local level and were administered individually by a board of commissioners known as the county court. These men were responsible for judicial and administrative matters in their area. A large majority of the southern colonies followed the Virginia model of government. Long before any European power came to Africa, there were states and societies with complex political systems and methods for administration.
The powerful ones usually gained wealth at first by monopolizing trade routes passing through their territory. These states had sophisticated structures for administering their local territory. In many cases there was a king or sultan, who often had a highly elevated status, which could be seen by his garb and adornments. Sometimes he was considered divine. He was surrounded, guided, and restrained by lower chiefs and ministers. Yet somehow, when Europeans started conquering the states as colonies, they came to the conclusion that Africans were primitive and unsophisticated, and needed help.
The Europeans then made use of existing (African) political structures, which proved themselves not primitive at all, to run the colonies. Mostly the colonizers centralized power in the hands of the chiefs of the native administration so that these chiefs could better accomplish the tasks given them, like the collection of taxes. Social System The notion of social structure as relationships between different entities or groups or as enduring and relatively stable patterns of relationship emphasises the idea that society is grouped into structurally related groups or sets of roles, with different functions, meanings or purposes.
One example of social structure is the idea of “social stratification”, which refers to the idea that society is separated into different strata, according to social distinctions such as a race, class, disability and gender. Social treatment of persons within various social structures can be understood In New England, high-level politicians gave out plots of land to male settlers, or proprietors, who then divided the land among themselves. Large portions were usually given to men of higher social standing, but every white man—who wasn’t indentured or criminally bonded—had enough land to support a family.
Many New Englanders took part in a sophisticated system of trade in which they exported products to the West Indies where they were traded for molasses, sugar, gold coins, and bills of exchange (credit slips). They carried the West Indian products to New England factories where the raw sugar was turned into granulated sugar and the molasses distilled into rum. The gold and credit slips were sent to England where they were exchanged for manufactures, which were shipped back to the colonies and sold along with the sugar and rum to farmers.
People of the middle colonies were generally grouped into three social classes: the gentry, the rich people and best educated; the middle class, basically farmers and small merchants; and the lower class, sailors and apprentices. The people in the middle colonies lived in houses that were used for everything like work, play and visiting places. Families usually contained at least seven children, aunts, uncles, and grandparents. Slaves rarely live with the families. The father was the head of the household and the mother was considered to be his helper. The houses that they lived in were made mainly out of wood and mud.
These houses usually didn’t have any windows and if they did they were considerably small. The colonists wore clothes that also showed there status in the colony. Most people wore clothes of cotton or linen. The people that were considered to be in the in the gentry class could afford imported materials for better clothes. The other clothes were made by the woman of the household. The clothes were dyed with different kinds of things such as roots, berries, and so on. The key to wealth and power in the Southern Colonies was land ownership. The wealthiest class was the plantation owners.
There were not many major cities in the South, so many of the powerful and wealthy merchants from up North retired to the South and bought plantations. The lowest social class was the slaves. Slaves had no rights and were considered property, not people. Nevertheless, the old social structure was breaking up in the African village. It was a slow and very painful process in conditions of the colonial regime. Forced labour, low prices of agricultural raw materials and burdensome taxes hampered social development and steered it onto a road most arduous for the Africans.
Colonial oppression artificially created an agrarian surplus population, forced the peasant to abandon his farm and go in search of a job to the town, where unemployment was rising. Cultural Values For Native Americans, the self is seen as an integral part of the universe and total workings of the world. Valued attributes of self include bravery, endurance of pain and suffering with patience and silence, controlled emotions, honesty and strength, self-respect and self-worth, respect for others, and individual freedom — meaning to do what one wants as long as it is in harmony with nature.
Relationships are also a key part of Native American life, particularly regarding the family. Group sharing of knowledge and responsibilities is integral to the Native American lifestyle. Generosity is valued, especially in helping others who are less fortunate. According to Native American tradition, equality of position, title, or material possessions. Native Americans are also taught not to interfere with others; direct eye contact, particularly with an elder, is traditionally considered a sign of disrespect. Concerning the aging process, elders are respected for their knowledge and experience.
In fact, in traditional families, it becomes their responsibility to pass down their wisdom and learning to the young. All members of a tribe care for the elderly. Death is an accepted fact of natural life, not to be approached with fear. The soul is believed to be immortal, in the sense of experiencing a “changing of worlds” The New England region was an area of mostly homogeneous culture. The English settled in large groups. The settlers in the New England colonies settled in towns, typically surrounded by 40 square miles of land that was farmed by the individuals who lived in the towns.
Major Occupations in New England While not fertile, towns were surrounded by farms owned by the workers. They had a high degree of mechanical ingenuity and self-sufficiency. In 1633, Boston first exported fish. In 1639, Massachusetts was exempted from paying taxes on fishing boats. The fishing industry was huge by 1700. Over and above normal fishing, whaling was also a major occupation of the region. Individuals from the New England area were heavily involved in commerce. The trade with England allowed ship holders to flourish. Further, they traded with the West Indies and the French colonies to the north.
The culture for the middle colonies include liesure time for activities, religion, and education. The kids in the Middle Colonies would play games. They would stoolball which os like criket. They would play with dolls, marbles, and tops. They would also play blindmans bluff, tag. Religion was important. They would have Sunday survice and gatherings. They had all different religions. Like, Dutch reformed, Angelican, Prespyterian, Cutheran, French, and Huguenots, Congregational, Methodist, Bupist, Quaker, Muravian, and Jewish religions. Education was important. If the kids couldn’t go to school then there parents will teach them.
Usually older kids went to school younger kids would stay back. Girls would learn household and social skills. Boys would learn how to trade and other skills. Most of the people there took up farming because of the fertile plains, which were perfect for growing cash crops. The religion of the colonist was Catholic and Protestant. Maryland was colonized for English Christians so they had religious freedom, but eventually people of other religions settled there. For education, children were home schooled until they were teenagers. They were then shipped off to Europe or college, depending on their profession.
Relationship between individuals recognizes their worth as human beings and not only what they possess or what they can do for each other. However, these can come as secondary considerations, in terms of reciprocity and in terms of inter-personal relationship. People help one another without demanding immediate or an exact equivalent remuneration. Everyone is mindful that each person has something to contribute to his welfare, some time and some how. Religion Traditional practices of some tribes include the use of sacred herbs such as tobacco, sweetgrass or sage.
Many Plains tribes have sweatlodge ceremonies, though the specifics of the ceremony vary among tribes. Fasting, singing and prayer in the ancient languages of their people, and sometimes drumming are also common During the 17th century, New England became a religious refuge for Protestant followers of John Calvin, whose beliefs differed from those of the Church of England. One such group, the Pilgrims, established the Plymouth Colony in 1620 to escape persecution in England. The Puritans, another Calvinist sect, arrived nine years later in Massachusetts. The
Puritans eventually absorbed the Pilgrims. The religious freedom these pioneers sought for themselves, however, was not extended to others. They allowed only Puritan churches and only church members had political rights. Advocates of other beliefs were punished, sometimes harshly. The settlers of mid-Atlantic colonies were from various religious backgrounds; there were Quakers, Lutherans, Congregationalists, Anglicans, Catholics, and Jews. Southern Colonies claimed to have religious freedom but that tended to be a superficial idea. In these colonies Anglican faith was the most predominate.
Anglican included Presbyterian and Baptist. While Protestants were somewhat tolerated most were Anglican. They didn’t really consider Native Americans and slaves religion to be an actual religion. Several people tried to convert slaves and Native Americans to their religion. When slaves began to give in they became predominately Baptist. Islam and Christianity Often the distinction is made in Africa between Islam, Christianity, and “indigenous religions. ” These categories can be problematic as they oversimplify the situation and tend to misrepresent what “indigenous religions” are.
In many ways it does not make much sense to group every religious tradition that seems to have its roots in Africa into a single category called “indigenous” as these traditions are extremely diverse. What’s more, some of the earliest Muslims and Christians were also Africans, leaving a long and rich history of these religious traditions deeply ingrained in certain regions of Africa. The Pequot War started May 1, 1637. Before the war Pequot territory was very small. 250 square miles. The population was very slim also. The main cause of the Pequot War was struggle for control. The English tried to break the trade Pequot had.
Pequot wanted to maintain dominance of the region. Their dominance in the region was political and economic. Even though the War was between the Pequot and the English Puritans, they were not the only ones involved. Many Indian Tribes were involved and the Indians stood behind the English Puritans. It is estimated the English Puritans, along with the Indians kills between 400-700 Pequots. Many Pequots in villages tried to hide in other tribes. Most were caught and killed or given as slaves to tribes that the English got along with. The war went on capturing and killing or enslaving survivors.
After the war, colonists enslaved any survivors and they also outlawed any use or recognition of the name “Pequot”. The war was ended September 21, 1638. Only 200 Pequot children, women and old men survived the War. Without being able to fend for themselves in their existing tribes because of lack of people. The survivors surrendered and gave themselves up as slaves. With the rest of the Pequot people giving themselves up for a life of slavery there was no more Pequot people and no more Pequot Tribe. So the English Puritans had won their victory and gained slaves and a friendship with the Indians.