Classifying chemical reaction
1. Which reactants used in this experiment are flammable? Discuss the safety precautions that are necessary when working with flammable materials in the lab? 2. Summarize the following description of a chemical reaction in the form of a balanced chemical equation? 3. Common observations of a chemical reaction are described in the introduction section. For each observation, name a common or everyday occurrence that must involve a chemical reaction? Research question What is the appearance of reactant, Evidence of chemical reaction, and properties of a product?
Background information The experiment is to observe a variety of chemical reactions and to identify patterns in the observation of reactants into products. The properties of the reactions will be analyzed to classify the chemical reactions into different groups. Hypothesis Reaction 1- My hypothesis for reaction 1 is that the magnesium ribbon will crumble. The explanation i have for this is that i when you put a object long enough on a fire it will probably crumble. Reaction 2- My hypothesis for reaction 2 is that the magnesium metal ribbon will make.
The test tube will become hot. When a burning wood split is placed in the mouth of the tube, the flame goes out and the remains go in the tube. Reaction 3- My hypothesis for reaction 3 is that the moistened litmus paper changes color. The odor will be a chemical odor that smells bad. The burning splint will be extinguished. Reaction 4- My hypothesis for reaction 4 is that adding hydrochloric acid to solid calcium carbonate produces bubbles maybe. When burning the splint is placed on the test tube, the flame is extinguished.
Reaction 5- My hypothesis for reaction 5 is that mozzy zinc in the test tube will make smoke come out of the tube Reaction 6 – My hypothesis for reaction 6 is that when you add the 0. 5 M of copper (11) chloride and mix it with the 0. 5 M of sodium phosphate they will change colors. Reaction 7- My hypothesis for reaction 7 is when drop 1M of hydroxide into the pipet then add 1 drop of phenolphthalein the phenolphthalein will neutralize the hydroxide and cause it to remain one color. Reaction 8- My hypothesis for reaction 8 is that when you place the ethyl alcohol under the fire it will cause the alcohol to evaporate.
Procedure: Materials Ammonium carbonate, 0. 5 g Calcium carbonate, 0. 5 g Copper (11) chloride solution, 0,5 M, 4 mL Ethyl alcohol, 1 mL Hydrochloric acid, 1M, 4mL Magnesium ribbon, 2-4 cm strips, 2 Phenolphthalein indicator, 1 drop Sodium hydroxide solution, 1 M, 1mL Sodium phosphate solution, 0. 5 M, 1ml Water, distilled Zinc, mossy, or zinc shot, 1-2 pieces Busen or laboratory burner Butane safety lighter Evaporating dish, porcelain Forceps or crucible tongs Heat- resistant pad Litmus paper Pipets, beral-type,6 Spatula Test tubes, small, 6 Test tube clamp Test tube rack Wash bottle
Wood splints ,3 Chemical inventory: Ethyl alcohol is a flammable solvent and a dangerous fire risk. Copper(11) chloride solution is toxic by ingestion Addition of denaturant makes ethyl alcohol poisonous Hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions are corrosive liquids. Phenolphthalein is an alcohol- based solution and is flammable; it is moderately toxic by ingestion Magnesium metal is flammable solid and zinc metal may contain flammable dust Solvent bottles should be kept capped at all times and must be removed from the work area when using the laboratory burner Safety precautions:
Keep away from flames and other sources of ignition Notify the teacher and clean up all spills immediately Avoid contact of all chemicals with eyes and skins. Wear chemical splash goggles and chemical resistant gloves and apron. Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water before leaving the lab Procedure Reaction 1- 1. Obtained a 3-4 cm strip of magnesium metal ribbon. Held the piece of magnesium with forceps or crucible and then heated the metal in a laboratory burner flame. Caution: Do not look directly at the burning magnesium ultraviolet light that is produced may damage your eyes.
2. When the magnesium ignited, removed it from the flame and held it over an evaporating dish or a pyrex watch glass until the metal had burned completely. Let the product fall into the evaporating dish. 3. Turned off the laboratory burner and observed the properties of the product in the evaporating dish. 4. Recorded observation in the data table Reaction 2 – 1. Used a Beral- type pipet, added about 2mL (40 Drops) of 1M hydrochloric acid solution to a small test tube. 2. Obtained a 2-3 cm strip of magnesium metal ribbon and coiled it loosely into a small ball.
Added the magnesium metal to the acid in the test tube. 3. Carefully felt the sides of the test tube and observed the resulted chemical reaction for about 30 seconds. 4. While the reaction was still occurred, lighted a wood splint and quickly placed the burned splint in the mouth of the test tube. Do not put the burned splint into the acid solution. 5. Recorded observations in the data table. Reaction 3- 1. Obtained a clean and dry test tube and placed a small amount ( about the size of a jelly bean) of ammonium carbonate into the test tube.
2. Used a test tube clamp to held the test tube and gently heated the tube in a laboratory burner flame for about 30 seconds. 3. Removed the test tube from the flame and places a piece of moistened litmus paper in the mouth of the test tube. Identified any odor that is readily apparent by wafted the fumes toward your nose. Caution: Do not sniff the test tube 4. Tested for the formation of a gas: lighted a wooden splint and insert the burning splint halfway down into the test tube. 5. Recorded observations in the data table Reaction 4- 1.
Placed a small amounted (about the size of a jelly bean) of calcium carbonate in a clean and dry test tube 2. Used a Beral- type pipet, added about 1mL (20 drops) of hydrochloric acid to the test tube. Felt the sides of the test tube and observed the reaction for 30 seconds. Reaction 5- Used a Beral-1. type pipet, added about 2 mL(40 drops) of 0. 5 M copper(11) chloride solution into a small test tube. 2. Added 1-2 pieces of mossy zinc or one piece of zinc shot to the test tube and observed the resulted chemical reaction. 3. Recorded observation in the data table
Reaction 6 – 1. Used a Beral-1. type pipet, added about 2 mL(40 drops) of 0. 5 M copper(11) chloride solution into a small test tube. 2. Used a fresh pipet, added about 25 drops of 0. 5 M sodium phosphate solution into a small test tube. 3. Recorded observations in the data table. Reaction 7-1. Used a beral- type pipet, added 20 drops of 1M sodium hydroxide solution into a small test tube. 2. Added one drop of phenolphthalein indicator to the test tube and mix the solution by gently swirled the tube. Hint: Phenolphthalein is called an acid-base indicator. 3.
Used a clean beral type pipet, added 1 M hydrochloric acid solution one drop at a time to the test tube. Counted the number of drops of acid required for a permanent color change to be observed. 4. Recorded observations in the data table. Reaction 8 – 1. Worked in the hood or a designated work area. Added about 1 mL (20 drops) of ethyl alcohol to a clean evaporated dish. Placed the evaporating dish on a heat- resistant pad. 2. Caped the alcohol bottle and removed it from the work area. 3. Filled a test tube about one-third full with cold tap water for use in step 34. 4.
Lighted a butane safety lighter and brought the flame close to the alcohol in the evaporated dish. 5. Turned off the safety lighter as soon as the alcohol ignited. 6. Placed the test tube contained cold water in a test tube clamp and held the test tube above the burned alcohol. Observed the outside of the test tube for evidence of product formation. 7. Allowed the alcohol to burn until it is completely consumed. Caution: Do not touch the hot evaporated dish 8. Recorded observations in the data table. Data: Qualitative data Reaction 1- Magnesium metal ribbon when placed in a flame, it burns slowly with a yellow flame.
It then bursts into a intense, bright white flame. The product of the reaction is a dull, grayish- white powder that crumbles easily. Reaction 2- Rapid bubbling occurs when magnesium is added to the acid solution. Reaction 3- Ammonium carbonate is a white solid with a strong ammonia odor. Heating releases more ammonia. Moistened litmus paper turns blue when exposed to ammonia vapor. When the burning splint is extinguished by invisible gas inside the test tube. A clear liquid condenses at the mouth of the tube Reaction 4- Adding hydrochloric acid to solid calcium carbonate produces bubbling.
Reaction 5- The mozzy zinc is a shiny gray and turns dark when added to copper(11) chloride solution. Reaction 6- The copper (11) chloride solution is blue- green. Adding a colorless solution of sodium phosphate produces a bulky precipitate. The blue color of the solution and the final product consist of a pale blue liquid. Reaction 7- Sodium hydroxide solution is colorless but turns bright pink when phenolphthalein is added. The color changes back to colorless after 21 drops of hydrochloric acid has been added.
Reaction 8- Ethyl alcohol catches fire when exposed to a flame. The burning flame is blue. It takes a couple of seconds for the alcohol to burn completely Quantitative data: Reaction 1- Instruction=3-4 cm strip of magnesium metal ribbon. Conclusion= no quantitative data Reaction 2- Instruction=Using a Beral type pipet, add about 2 mL (40 drops) of 1 M hydrochloric acid solution to a small test tube. Obtain 2-3 cm strip of magnesium metal ribbon. Carefully feel the sides of the test tube and observe the resulting chemical reaction for about 30 seconds.
Conclusion= The test tube feels warm Reaction 3- Instruction= Use a test tube clamp to hold the test tube and gently heat the tube in a laboratory burner flame for about 30 seconds. Conclusion= no quantitative data Reaction 4- Instruction=Using a Beral type pipet, add about 1 mL (20 drops) of 1 M hydrochloric acid to the test tube. Feel the sides of the test tube and observe the reaction for 30 seconds. Reaction 5- Using a Beral-type pipet, add about 2 mL (40 drops) of 0. 5 M copper(11) chloride solution into a small test tube. Add 1-2 pieces of mozzy zinc or one piece of zinc shot to the test tube and observe the resulting chemical reaction.
Reaction 6 – Using a Beral-type pipet, add about 2 mL (40 drops) of 0. 5 M copper(11) chloride solution into a small test tube. Using a fresh pipet, add about 25 drops of 0. 5 M sodium phosphate solution to the test tube. Reaction 7- Introduction=Using a Beral type pipet, add 20 drops of 1 M sodium hydroxide solution into a small test tube. Add one drop of phenolphthalein indicator to the test tube and mix the solution by gently swirling the tube. Using a clean Beral-type pipet, add 1 M hydrochloric acid solution one drop at a time to the test tube.
Count the number of drops of acid required for a permanent color change to be observed Reaction 8- Introduction=add about 1 mL (20 drops) of ethyl alcohol to a clean evaporating dish. Observe the outside of the test tube for evidence of product formation. Analysis: Adequately summarizes the data= The data for each experiment has it own unique different answer to it. For reaction 1, Magnesium metal ribbon when placed in a flame, it burns slowly. It then bursts into an intense, bright white flame. The product of the reaction is a white powder that crumbles easily.
For reaction 2, Rapid bubbling occurs when magnesium is added to acid solution. When a burning wood splint is placed in the mouth of the tube, a noise for a second comes out, then the flame goes out, condensation is seen inside the tube. The final solution is colorless For reaction 3, Ammonium carbonate, heating releases more ammonia. Moistened litmus paper turns blue when exposed to the ammonia vapor. Burning splint is extinguished. A clear liquid condensed at the mouth of the tube For reaction 4, Adding hydrochloric acid to sodium calcium carbonate produces vigorous bubbling.
The reaction ends pretty quick. When a burning wood splint is placed in the test tube, the flame is extingushed. The products is a gas. For reaction 5, The mozzy zinc turns black when added to copper(11) chloride solution. The color of the solution changes to blue and then pale grey. The zinc acquires a dark red coating which builds up quickly and then crumbles. The test tube feels hot. Final solution is pale gray. For reaction 6, Adding a solution of sodium phosphate with copper (11) chloride produces a precipitate. The blue color of the solution fades and the final product is a blue liquid.
For reaction 7, Sodium hydroxide turns bright pink when phenolphthalein is added. The color of the solution changes back to colorless after 20 drops of hydrochloric acid have been added. The test tube feels warm. For reaction 8 , Ethyl alcohol catches on fire when exposed to the flame. The burning alcohol is blue. It takes a short time for the alcohol to burn completely. The trends of the eight experiment was having eight experiments and using acids and fire to create something out of it or affect the physical aspect of what you are using. Post lab questions
I didn’t know if we wrote our own post lab questions or we write the ones already given to us. 1. Write a balanced chemical equation for each reaction number 1-8. Classify each reaction using the information provided in the background section. 2. Classifying chemical reactions helps chemists to predict the possible products that will form when two or more substances are mixed. Complete and balance the following equations by predicting the products of each chemical reactions. Conclusion 1. Was your hypothesis supported by the data? Why or why not? For my educated guess, there were eight experiments I did.
The hypothesis did support my data because my guesses for the reaction Evaluation of the experiment includes: The limitations of these specific experiments are that you can only combine and experiment on the materials given to you. You can’t use other elements and compounds. Another limitation is that you when the experiment is you can’t make your own procedure. making your procedure shows you know the information. 3 improvements to make the data more reliable 1. One improvement that could be made is more Quantitative data ( not enough numerical information ) 2.
Another improvement is you could make is having even more chemical reactions to give you a better understanding of the concept. ( Practice makes perfect) 3. The final improvement that i think there could be is to use to put more information on the data table. (there is never too much information) Further research ideas – different types of chemical reactions – mixing of chemical to create something new – stoichiometry. Thank for reading for Lab Report and i hope you have fun trying all 8 of these experiments. (p. s make sure supervised while attempting these procedures. )