Cleopatra Vii Ptolemaic Dynasty Essay Research
Cleopatra Vii Ptolemaic Dynasty Essay, Research Paper
In the springtime of 51 BC, Ptolemy Auletes died and left his land in his will to his 18 twelvemonth old girl, Cleopatra, and her younger brother Ptolemy XIII who was twelve at the clip. Cleopatra was born in 69 BC in Alexandria, Egypt. She had two older sisters, Cleopatra VI and Berenice IV every bit good as a younger sister, Arsinoe IV. There were two younger brothers as good, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV. It is thought that Cleopatra VI may hold died as a kid and Auletes had Berenice beheaded. At Ptolemy Auletes & # 8217 ; decease, Pompey, a Roman leader, was left in charge of the kids. During the two centuries that preceded Ptolemy Auletes decease, the Ptolemies were allied with the Romans. The Ptolemies & # 8217 ; strength was neglecting and the Roman Empire was lifting. City after metropolis was falling to the Roman power and the Ptolemies could make nil but make a treaty with them.
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During the ulterior regulation of the Ptolemies, the Romans gained more and more control over Egypt. Tributes had to be paid to the Romans to maintain them off from Egypt. When Ptolemy Auletes died, the autumn of the Dynasty appeared to be even closer.
Harmonizing to Egyptian jurisprudence, Cleopatra was forced to hold a consort, who was either a brother or a boy, no affair what age, throughout her reign. She was married to her younger brother Ptolemy XIII when he was 12, nevertheless she shortly dropped his name from any official paperss irrespective of the Ptolemaic insisting that the male presence be first among co-rulers. She besides had her ain portrayal and name on coins of that clip, disregarding her brother & # 8217 ; s. When Cleopatra became co-regent, her universe was crumpling down around her. Cyprus, Coele-Syria and Cyrenaica were gone. There was anarchy abroad and famine at place. Cleopatra was a strong-minded Macedonian queen who was superb and dreamed of a greater universe imperium. She about achieved it. Whether her manner of acquiring it done was for her ain desires or for the chase of power will ne’er be known for certain. However, like many Hellenistic Queenss, she was passionate but non promiscuous. Equally far as we know, she had no other lovers other than Caesar and Antony. Many believe that she did what she felt was necessary to seek to salvage Alexandria, whatever the monetary value.
By 48 BC, Cleopatra had alarmed the more powerful tribunal functionaries of Alexandria by some of her actions. For case, her soldier of fortunes killed the Roman governor of Syria & # 8217 ; s boies when they came to inquire for her aid for their male parent against the Parthians. A group of work forces led by Theodotus, the eunuch Pothinus and a half-Greek general, Achillas, overthrew her in favour of her younger brother. They believed him to be much easier to act upon and they became his council of regency. Cleopatra is thought to hold fled to Thebaid. Between 51 and 49 BC, Egypt was enduring from bad crops and dearth because of a drouth which stopped the much needed Nile deluging. Ptolemy XIII signed a edict on October 27, 50 BC which banned any cargos of grain to anywhere but Alexandria. It is thought that this was to deprive Cleopatra and her protagonists who were non in Alexandria. Regardless, she started an ground forces from the Arab folk, which were Es of Pelusium. During this clip, she and her sister Arsinoe moved to Syria. They returned by manner of Ascalon, which may hold been Cleopatra & # 8217 ; s impermanent base.
In the interim, Pompey had been defeated at Pharsalus in August of 48 BC. He headed for Alexandria trusting to happen safety with Ptolemy XIII, of whom Pompey was a senate-appointed defender. Pompey did non recognize how much his repute had been destroyed by Pharsalus until it was excessively late. He was murdered as he stepped ashore on September 28, 48 BC. The immature Ptolemy XIII stood on the dock and watched the whole scene. Four yearss subsequently, Caesar arrived in Alexandria. He brought with him 32 100 legionnaires and 800 horse. He besides brought twelve other soldiers who bore the insignia of the Roman authorities who carried a package of rods with an ax with a blade that projected out. This was considered a badge of authorization that gave a clear intimation of his purposes. There were public violences that followed in Alexandria. Ptolemy XIII was gone to Pelusium and Caesar placed himself in the royal castle and started giving out orders. The eunuch, Pothinus, brought Ptolemy back to Alexandria. Cleopatra had no purposes of being left out of any trades that were traveling to be made. She had herself smuggled in through enemy lines rolled in a rug. She was delivered to Caesar. Both Cleopatra and Ptolemy were invited to look before Caesar the following forenoon. By this clip, she and Caesar were already lovers and Ptolemy realized this right off. He stormed out shouting that he had been betrayed, seeking to elicit the Alexandrian rabble. He was shortly captured by Caesar & # 8217 ; s guards and brought back to the castle. It is thought that Caesar had planned to do Cleopatra the exclusive swayer of Alexandria. He thought she would be a marionette for Rome.
The Alexandrian War was started when Pothinus called for Ptolemy XIII & # 8217 ; s soldiers in
November and surrounded Caesar in Alexandria with 20 thousand work forces. During the war, parts of the Alexandrian Library and some of the warehouses were burned. However, Caesar did pull off to capture the Pharos beacon, which kept his control of the seaport. Cleopatra & # 8217 ; s sister, Arsinoe, escaped from the castle and ran to Achillas. She was proclaimed the queen by the Macedonian rabble and the ground forces. Cleopatra ne’er forgave her sister for this. During the combat, Caesar executed Pothinus and Ganymede murdered Achillas. Ptolemy XIII drowned in the Nile while he was seeking to fly.
Because of his decease, Cleopatra was now the exclusive swayer of Egypt. Caesar had restored her place, but she now had to get married her younger brother Ptolemy XIV, who was eleven old ages old. This was to delight the Alexandrians and the Egyptian priests. Surely Caesar went through all of this problem for more than his infatuation with the queen of Egypt. It must hold been out of haughtiness and his desire to acquire his custodies on Egypt & # 8217 ; s huge resources. However, Cleopatra & # 8217 ; s intelligence and heritage did hold some influence every bit good. In what must hold been really calculated on his portion, she became pregnant instead rapidly. For him to hold a boy to transport the throne was really appealing to him. Caesar and Cleopatra took an drawn-out trip up the Nile for approximately two months. They stopped in Dendara where Cleopatra was worshipped as a Pharaoh. Caesar would ne’er hold this award. Caesar merely left the boat to go to of import concern in Syria merely a few hebdomads before the birth of their boy, Caesarion ( Ptolemy Caesar ) who was born on June 23, 47 BC.
During July of the twelvemonth 46 BC, Caesar returned to Rome. He was given many awards and a ten-year absolutism. These jubilations lasted from September to October and he brought Cleopatra over, along with her cortege. The conservative Republicans were really pained when he established Cleopatra in his place. Her societal manners did non do the state of affairs any better. She upset many. Cleopatra had started naming herself the New Isis and was the topic of much chitchat. She lived in luxury and had a statue made of gold placed by Caesar, in the temple of Venus Genetrix. Caesar besides openly claimed Caesarion as his boy. Many were disquieted that he was be aftering to get married Cleopatra regardless of the Torahs against bigamy and matrimonies to aliens.
However, on the Ides of March of 44 BC, all of that came to an terminal. Caesar was assassinated outside the Senate Building in Rome. His Senators killed him in a confederacy. Many of the Senators thought he was a menace to the democracy & # 8217 ; s good being. It was thought that Caesar was doing programs to hold himself declared male monarch. After Caesar & # 8217 ; s slaying, Cleopatra fled Rome and returned place to Alexandria. Caesar had non mentioned Cleopatra or Caesarion in his will. She felt her life, every bit good as that of her kid, was in great danger. Upon returning to Alexandria, she had her consort Ptolemy XIV, assassinated and established Caesarion as her co-regent at the age of four. She found Egypt enduring from pestilences and dearth. The Nile canals had been neglected during her absence, which caused the crops to be bad, and the flood & # 8217 ; s low. The bad crops continued from 43 until 41 BC. Trying to assist procure acknowledgment for Caesarion with Caesar & # 8217 ; s former lieutenant Dolabella, Cleopatra sent Dolabella the four hosts that Caesar had left in Egypt. Cassius captured the hosts which caused Dolabella to perpetrate self-destruction at Laodicea during the summer of 43 BC. She was be aftering to fall in Mark Antony
and Octavian ( who became Augustus ) with a big fleet of ships after Dolabella’s decease, but was stopped by a violent storm.
Cleopatra watched in the clip that followed, who would be the following power in Rome. After Brutus and Cassius had been killed and Antony, Octavian and Lepidus were exultant, Cleopatra knew which one she would hold to cover with. Octavian went back to Italy really badly, so Antony was the one to watch. Her boy gained his right to go male monarch when Caesar was officially divinized in Rome on January 1, 42 BC. The chief object was the publicity of Octavian, but the triumvirs knew of Cleopatra & # 8217 ; s assistance to Dolabella.
Cleopatra was invited by Mark Antony to Tarsus in 41 BC. She already knew adequate about him to cognize how to acquire to him. She knew about his limited strategic and tactical abilities, his bluish blood, the imbibing, his womanizing, his coarseness and his aspiration. Even though Egypt was on the brink of economic prostration, Cleopatra put on a show for Mark Antony that even Ptolemy Philadelphos couldn & # 8217 ; Ts have done better. She sailed with Ag oars, purple canvass with her Erotes fanning her and the Nereid servants maneuvering and she was dressed as Aphrodite, the goddess of love. This was a really deliberate entryway ; considered vulgar by many. It was a vulgar show to pull the attending of a vulgar adult male. Mark Antony loved the thought of holding a aristocratic Ptolemy adult female. His former kept woman every bit good as his current married woman, Fulvia, was simply in-between category.
Cleopatra and Antony spent the winter of 41 to 40 in Alexandria. Harmonizing to some beginnings, Cleopatra could acquire out of him whatever she wanted, including the blackwash of her sister, Arsinoe. Cleopatra may non hold had so much influence over him subsequently on. He took control of Cyprus from her. Actually it may hold been Cleopatra who was the exploited 1. Antony needed money and Cleopatra could be generous when it benefited her every bit good.
In the spring of 40 BC, Mark Antony left Cleopatra and returned place. He did non see her for four old ages. Antony & # 8217 ; s married woman, Fulvia had gotten into a serious motion against Octavian over veterans & # 8217 ; allocations of land. She fled to Greece and had a acrimonious confrontation with Antony. She became sick and died at that place. Antony patched things up with Octavian that same fall by get marrieding Octavian & # 8217 ; s sister, Octavia. She was a beautiful and intelligent adult female who had been late widowed. She had three kids from her first matrimony. In the interim, Cleopatra had given birth to twins, one male child and one miss, in Alexandria. Antony & # 8217 ; s first kid by Octavia was a miss. Had Octavia given him a boy, things might hold turned out different. Antony kept the thought of the hoarded wealths of the Ptolemies and how much he wanted it. When he eventually did acquire the hoarded wealths, the standard involvement rate in Rome fell from 12 per centum to 4.
Mark Antony left Italy and went to cover with the Parthians. Octavia had merely had another girl and went with him merely every bit far as Corcyra. He gave her the alibi that he did non desire to expose her to the dangers of the conflicts and sent her place. He told her that she would be more usage to him at place in Rome maintaining peace with her brother, Octavian. However, the first thing that he did when he reached Antioch, was to direct for Cleopatra. Their duplicate kids were officially recognized by Antony and were given the names of Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene. Mark Antony gave her much land, which was really indispensable to Egypt. He gave her Cyprus, the Cilician seashore, Phoenicia, Coele-Syria, Judea and Arabia. This allowed Egypt to be able to construct ships from the timber from Cilician seashore. Egypt so built a big fleet. Antony had planned a run against the Parthians. He evidently needed Cleopatra & # 8217 ; s support for this and in 36 BC, he was defeated. He became more indebted to her than of all time. They had merely had a 3rd kid.
On their return to Syria, she met him and what was left of his ground forces, with nutrient, vesture and money. Early on in 35 BC, he returned to Egypt with her. Antony & # 8217 ; s married woman, Octavia was in Athens with supplies and supports waiting for her hubby. He sent her a missive stating her to non come any farther. Her brother, Octavian, tried to arouse Antony into a battle. Octavian would let go of military personnels every bit good as ships to seek to coerce Antony into a war, which, by this clip was about inevitable. Anthony might hold been able to piece things up with Octavia and her brother had he returned to Rome in 35 BC. Cleopatra likely did her best to maintain him in Alexandria. Octavia remained wholly loyal to Antony through all of this.
In 34 BC, Antony had a run into Armenia, which was successful and financially honoring. He celebrated his victory with a parade through Alexandria with Cleopatra presiding over as the New Isis. Antony presented himself as the New Dionysus as portion of his dream of the Graeco-Roman regulation. Within a few yearss, a more political ceremonial took topographic point in which the kids were given their royal rubrics with Antony sitting on the throne every bit good. Ptolemy XV ( Caesarion ) was made the co-ruler with his female parent and was called the King of Kings. Cleopatra was called the Queen of Kings, which was a higher place than that of Caesarion & # 8217 ; s. Alexander Helios, which meant the Sun, was named Great King of the Seleucid imperium when it was at its highest. Cleopatra Selene, which meant the Moon, was called Queen of Cyrenaica and Crete. Cleopatra and Antony & # 8217 ; s boy, Ptolemy Philadelphos was named King of Syria and Asia Minor at the age of two. Cleopatra had dreams of going the Empress of the universe. She was really near to accomplishing these dreams and her favourite curse was, & # 8220 ; As certainly as I shall yet distribute justness on the Roman Capital. & # 8221 ;
In 32 to 31 BC, Antony eventually divorced Octavia. This forced the Western portion of the universe to acknowledge his relationship with Cleopatra. He had already put her name and face on a Roman coin, the Ag denarii. The denarii were widely circulated throughout the Mediterranean. By making this, Antony & # 8217 ; s relationship with the Roman commitment was ended and Octavian decided to print Antony & # 8217 ; s will. Octavian so officially declared war against Cleopatra. Antony & # 8217 ; s name was nowhere mentioned in the official declaration. Many false accusals were made against Cleopatra stating that she was a prostitute and a bibulous Oriental. These accusals were most likely made out of fright of Cleopatra and Antony. Many likely thought that the New Isis would predominate and that Antony would get down up a new moving ridge of universe conquering and regulation in a co-partnership from Alexandria. However, Octavian & # 8217 ; s navy badly defeated Antony in Actium, which is in Greece, on September 2, 31 BC. Octavian & # 8217 ; s admiral, Agrippa, planned and carried out the licking. In less than a twelvemonth, Antony half-heartedly defended Alexandria against the progressing ground forces of Octavian. After the licking, Antony committed self-destruction by falling on his ain blade in 30 BC.
After Antony & # 8217 ; s decease, Cleopatra was taken to Octavian where her function in Octavian & # 8217 ; s victory was carefully explained to her. He had no involvement in any relationship, dialogue or rapprochement with the Queen of Egypt. She would be displayed as a slave in the metropoliss she had ruled over. She must hold had memories of her sister, Arsinoe, being humiliated in this manner. She would non populate this manner, so she had an asp, which was an Egyptian cobra, brought to her hidden in a basket of figs. She died on August 12, 30 BC at the age of 39. The Egyptian faith declared that decease by snakebite would procure immortality. With this, she achieved her deceasing wish, to non be forgotten. The lone other swayer to project a shadow on the captivation with Cleopatra was Alexander who was another Macedonian. After Cleopatra & # 8217 ; s decease, Caesarion was strangled and Antony & # 8217 ; s married woman, Octavia, raised the other kids of Cleopatra.
Her decease was the grade of the terminal of the Egyptian Monarchs. The Roman Emperors came into to govern in Egypt. The Ptolemies were Macedonian in nice, but ruled as Egyptians, as Pharaohs. Cleopatra was the last Pharaoh of Egypt.
What are frequently non associated with Cleopatra were her glare and her devotedness to her state. She was a quick-witted adult female who was fluent in nine linguistic communications ; nevertheless, Latin was non one of them. She was a mathematician and a really good businesswoman. She had a echt regard for Caesar, whose intelligence and humor matched her ain. Antony on the other manus about drove her insane with his deficiency of intelligence and his surpluss. She dealt with him and made the most of what she had to make. She fought for her state. She had a magnetic personality, was a born leader and an ambitious sovereign who deserved better than self-destruction.