Clinical Manifestation of HIV Infection

6 June 2016

There are lots of diseases that are transmittable and dangerous to human lives but until today the HIV still leading the most dangerous human life taker. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) destroys the immune system’s helper T cells, the loss of which causes AIDS. The person infected called as HIV positive that shows by test for antibodies to HIV in the bloodstream to be infected with HIV.

But how you will know a person if she/he is infected. What are the manifestations you can observe? How can this be applied scientifically based knowledge to nursing practice? What knowledge do you get in reading all these articles?   In the next paragraph the answers to the question are discuss step-by-step.

Clinical Manifestation of HIV Infection Essay Example

Clinical Manifestation

The incubation period of a few weeks after exposure to HIV, most infected individuals present with an acute flue-like illness. The clinical symptoms of HIV infection were first descried in 1985 as an illness resembling infectious mononucleosis. The most common symptoms are fever, maculopopular rash, oral ulcers, lymphaenopathy, arthralgia, pharyngitis, malaise, weight loss, aseptic meningitis and myalgia.

In one study, fever (80%) and malaise (68%) had the highest sensitivity for clinical diagnosis of HIV infection, whereas loss of weight (86%) and oral ulcers (85%) had the highest specificity. In the study, the symptoms of fever and rash followed by oral ulcers and pharyngitis had the highest positive pr5edictivevalue for diagnosis of HIV infection. In another study, fever, rash myalgia, arthritis and night sweats were the best predictors for HIV infection.  The symptom phase of HIV infection lasts between 7-10 days, and rarely longer than 14 days.

The nonspecific nature of the symptoms posses a great challenge to the clinician and underlines the importance of a detailed history of exposure. (Altfeld & Walker).

Another manifestation is Erythema elevatum diutinum (EED) is a chronic and rare dermatosis that is considered to be a variant of leucotoclastic vaculitis. The clinical manifestations are papules, plaques or nodules, which vary in coloration from reddish to purple, light brown and sometimes yellowish.

The lesion’s are persistent and symmetrically distributed on extensors surfaces, particularly in the joints of the extremities. Such patients may presents arthralgia. The itchiness and pains, with rare systemic involvement were also observed (Medical Journal 2005).

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura may be the sole clinical manifestation of HIV infection. Results of the treatment of 6 patients spontaneous bleeding due to severe thrombocytopenia are presented.  In all patients immune thrombocytopenic purpura was the only clinical manifestation of HIV infection. Four of them were intravenous narcotic addicts, and the other two patients did not belong to high-risk groups (Elizovic, Jevtovic &Rolovic 1989).

Peripheral Facial paralysis as a manifestation of HIV Infection, Two patients had typical Bell’s palsy while one had a facialdiplegia. CD4 cell counts were above 100 cells/mm3 in all cases. A review of literature confirmed that peripheral facial nerve palsy could occur at any stage of HIV infection and in various clinical contexts. It is suggested that adult patients presenting with peripheral facial paralysis should be counseled, and screened for HIV (Annals AF Med: 2002 1(1) 1:28-30).

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