Cloning Essay Research Paper Should Humans Be
Cloning Essay, Research Paper
Should Humans Be Cloned? Human embryo cloning should non be done because of the spiritual, moral, ethical, and societal concerns that it places upon the human race. Although there may besome positive affects to cloning worlds, there are far excessively many opposing factors in thissituation. Many spiritual leaders of expressed their concern and disapprobation of humancloning. The moral and ethical facets outweigh any scientific grounds, and the socialconcerns are scaring. The most of import inquiry that needs to be asked, is whetherthe additions out weigh the losingss & # 8211 ; the additions being scientific research and the losingss being thereligious, moral, ethical, and societal concerns that it poses on today s society. A ringer, as defined in The Human Genome Project, is ; 1. a population ofgenetically indistinguishable unicellular beings or viruses originating from consecutive replicationsof a individual hereditary unicellular being or virus. 2. a recombinant ringer.
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3. thefragment of foreign DNA contained in each member of a recombinant ringer. 4. apopulation of indistinguishable cells originating from the civilization of a individual cell of a certain type, such as a human fibroblast or a rodent-human loanblend cell incorporating a full set of rodentchromosomes and a individual human chromosome. Human embryo cloning starts with astandard in vitro fertilisation process. Sperm and an egg cell are assorted together on aglass dish. After construct, the fertilized ovum ( fertilized egg ) is allowed to develop into ablastula ( a hollow mass of cells ) . The fertilized ovum divides foremost into two cells, so four, theneight & # 8230 ; A chemical is added to the dish to take the zone pellucida covering ; thismaterial provides foods to the cells to advance cell division. With the coveringremoved, the blastosphere is divided into single cells which are deposited on individualdishes. They are so coated with an unreal zone pellucida and allowed to split anddevelop. That is how a human embryo ringer is made utilizing the twinning method. Some scientists believe that human embryo cloning and related research can havesome positive consequences, nevertheless, many spiritual leaders feel that cloning and relatedresearch should non be permitted. Religion and scientific discipline have been involved in an ongoingbattle over many topics in the past, but human embryo cloning has caused the biggestdebate therefore far. Many spiritual doctrines teach that human life is alone and specialand should be created, determined and controlled merely by their divinities. Many religionsbelieve in the being of, and in the individualism of, a human psyche. Some people, peculiarly Evangelical Christians and Roman Catholics believe that a psyche enters thebody at the blink of an eye of construct, and the fertilized egg cell is in fact a human being. Dividing that babe in half would interfere with God s purpose. And the many clonedzygotes that died after a few cell divisions would be lost human existences ; their loss isconsidered every bit serious as the decease of a new born babe. These same conservativeChristians would besides be distressed at the usage of cloning to weed out genetically defectivefertilized egg cells. The process would ensue in the violent death of one of the ringers duringthe familial testing. Since they regard all of the ringers as separate human existences, thiswould be slaying. The Church of Scotland has extensively studied facets of cloning. The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland has passed a gesture to reaffirm theirbelief in the basic self-respect and singularity of each human being under God. They expressthe strongest possible resistance to the cloning of human existences and impulse to press for acomprehensive international pact to censor it worldwide. Jeremy Rifkin, president of theFoundation on Economic Trends in Washington DC, leads a alliance of 300 religiousand moralss organisations from around the universe. He proposes a world-wide prohibition oncloning, stating it should transport a punishment on a par with colza, kid maltreatment, and slaying. Aside from the spiritual facet, human cloning has brought up many moral andethical inquiries. The National Institute of Health set up a medical panel to organize apreliminary set of guidelines to assist bridge the spread between scientists and society. Theyrecommend that research be permitted on preexisting embryos. The embryos would beallowed to develop up to and including the 14th twenty-four hours. The panel suggested that the
research be permitted after the fourt
eenth day of development depending on thecircumstances, but definitely not after the eighteenth day , when the neural tube closurebegins. The neural tube is the beginning of the nervous system, including the brain inadult humans. The experiments that the panel recommended to be banned includeimpregnating human embryos in other animal species, impregnating cloned embryos intohumans, the use of embryos for sex selection, or the transfer of one nucleus from oneembryo to another. Some individuals have expressed social concerns about cloning. We live in asociety where people are willing to do all kinds of things for money. A type of blackmarket for embryos could easily develop. Parents already spend a great deal of money onin vitro fertilization, who knows how much they would be willing to pay for cloning theirchildren? Shannon Brownlee of US News & World Report claims, A bizarrepossibility to consider is that a woman conceived from a split embryo could give birth toher own twin. This possibility only begins the crazy affects that cloning can have onsociety. What would one think if they were walking down the street and they saw amother and her children walking side by side and they were identical looking just ofdifferent ages. Just think, how would you explain the concept of cloning to yourchildren? What if a country were to finance a program similar to that of Nazi Germanywhereby humans were bed to maximize certain traits. Once the perfect human wasdeveloped, embryo cloning could be used to replicate that individual and conceivablyproduce unlimited numbers of clones. The same approach could be used to create agenetic underclass for exploitation: e.g. individuals with sub-normal intelligence andabove normal strength. Richard Seed, a physicist from Illinois, is attempting to establisha human cloning clinic. He claimed on January 7, 1998 that he was 90% complete inhiring a team of experts to attempt the cloning of a human being, following theexperiments of Dolly. If successful, the resultant child would have identical DNA toone of its parents. Louise Brown, a fertility expert who helped produce the first test-tubebaby in 1978 said, My first reaction is that here is somebody trying to make a quickbuck off of self-advertising, because of course there is no way you could make a clone ahuman being safely at this point. I think the man is clearly unhinged and I don t think heis to be taken seriously. Marion Bamewood, a member of the board of the AmericanSociety for Reproductive Medicine said, I have very serious reservations about cloninghuman beings. The society has declared a 5 year voluntary ban on cloning humans. Mr.Seed responded, I can t really answer the critics who think it s a bad idea. They ll neverbe persuaded. As far a I m concerned, they have rather small minds and a rather smallview of the world and a rather small view of God. In a 1997 CNN poll conducted among 1005 American adults has a margin oferror of 3%. They found: 89% felt that cloning humans was morally unacceptable 66% felt that cloning animals was morally unacceptable 69% is scared of the possibility of cloning humans 74% believe that human cloning is against God s will, 19% say that it is not. Not all of the effects of human cloning are negative. For instance, cloning couldproduce a reservoir of spare parts . Fertilized ovum s could be cloned into multiplezygotes; one could be implanted in the woman and allowed to develop into a normalbaby; the other zygotes could be frozen for future use. The question is, is the second twinobligated to give up a part of his body for his earlier twin? And what if the secondtwin has the same missing spare part ? In the event that the child require a bonemarrow transplant, one of the zygotes could be taken out of storage, implanted, allowedto mature to a baby and then contribute some of its spare bone marrow to its (earlier)identical twin. The question here is, What if the second twin also has defective bonemarrow, are both the twins to die? Also, cloning using the DNA from the cell of an adultwith the desired traits or talents might produce an infant with similar potential. Althoughthere are some positive effects of human cloning, the religious, moral, ethical, and socialconcerns far outweigh those of scientific evidence. We live in a highly intelligent andvery sensitive society. The possible harm that cloning could cause must never beoverlooked.