Comparison of Theorists There are many psychologists that can be mentioned though many were known to follow many of Sigmund Freud’s psychological theories. Among them are Jung, Alder, Horney, and Erikson. Freud was seen as the father of psychology who developed the concept of psychoanalysis. Starting from the subconscious mind to the effects of the human behavior as part of some of the theories focused on as part of personality development that occurred within the child years of an individual’s life.

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Many concepts from Freud were seen as an outside stimulus. For example, Carl Jung eemed to focus on the personality and its behavior along with the importance of early childhood. He was a Swiss psychiatrist. Jung is considered a modern psychologist to believe that human psyche Is “by nature religious. ” With Jung’s development of Introverted and extroverted personality type concepts, he ended up with the conclusion on how each one interacted around them. However, many others disagreed or directly rejected his thoughts.

Jung was more analytical as to Freud’s theories that were grounded in materialism. Jung strongly believed that many relied on science and logic in order to understand the concepts of psychology. Alfred Alder, an Austrian medical doctor and psychologist. He is also the founder of the Individual Psychology. Adler, who worked directly with Freud during his schooling, however, they did not agree on how they viewed child development. According to Alder’s theory, each is born with a sense of inferiority, beginning as a weak and helpless child when trying to overcome.

Alder agreed with Freud’s theories relating to the long term effects of improper or inefficient parenting of children. Such as overprotecting a child to giving them too much attention or sheltering from the negative realities of life will row older and will be equipped to deal with these realities. These children grow up to fear the world, have a strong sense of mistrust for others and may have a difficult time forming Intimate relationships. Adler believed that motivation was a major part in a child’s development, more so when wanting to surpass inferiority anddevelop being self-worthy.

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Jungs beliefs were contradicting as to Freud’s theory because he believed that it was due to parental relationships and subconscious drives that the inherently affect your personality. His beliefs of the birth order begin with the first orn children. Jung thought that they would have it theworst because they are given excessive attention and pampering by their parents until the next sibling arrives. With that, they would longer be the center of attention and wonder why everything changed. According to Adler, they feel inferior and desperately try to get the lost attention they suddenly lost.

Then you have the Middle children, Alder was a Middle child. These children are not pampered as their older sibling was, but are still afforded the attention. As a middle child, they try to dethrone the oldest child and ecome more superior knowing that they hold this same power over their younger siblings. Adler believed that middle children have a high need for superiority and are often go through healthy competition. According to his theory, the youngest children, like the first born, may be exposed to experience personality problems later in life.

Most modern-day theorists have disproved Adler’s ideas about birth order, but the topic itself continues to be researched (Boeree, 2006). Horney, one of the first female psychologists, she researched the theory of neurosis, which became a moderate personality disorder. As to Freud, a neurotic behavior would have been caused by subconscious drives. Horney had a rough childhood due to her authoritarian father. Against her parents’ will she made it passed medical school. There she theorized about neurosis and personality. Eventually, she became a dean, a teacher and wrote books.

Horney’s theory of neurosis she compiled a detailed theory of neurosis with the data from her patients. She always believed that her theory was a continuous process. She compiled a list often patterns of neurotic needs. Neurotic people, in an attempt to reduce basic anxiety, will either: 1) move toward others (by being overly ompliant, they believe they will not be hurt), 2) move against others (by being hostile or controlling, they believe they can stop others from hurting them), or 3) move away from others (by isolating themselves, they believe they will not be hurt) (Schultz, 1976).

Horney also criticized Freud’s concept of penis enw (that women are Jealous of men) by declaring that men suffer from womb enw (the desire to relax in a warm, quiet place) (Boeree, 2006; Burger, 2008). Then we have Erik Erickson who developed a theory that focused almost entirely on external forces within the environment aving an effect on child and personality development. Erickson developed the theory of psychosocial development.

Where Freud believed a personality was developed only in childhood Erickson believed that humans developed across their lifespan. Erikson’s theory is different to Feud’s in three ways. While Erikson believed that development was important throughout life, Freud believed that it would stop at adolescence. Then we have Freud’s approach as to social influences called psychosocial theory while Erickson de-emphasized sexuality and he believed each stage was important. Whereas Freud failed to validate the importance of his fourth stage, Latency.

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