Competency Framework for Teachers

7 July 2016

Introduction The Department of Education and Training of Western Australia is committed to strengthening professional excellence in government schools. Research confirms teacher quality as one of the most important school factors influencing student achievement. This Competency Framework for Teachers forms a major part of the Department’s continuing promotion of quality teaching, contributing to the improvement of outcomes for students. The Department recognises that teachers are highly dedicated and strive to improve outcomes for their students.

Professional learning is seen as a key means of ensuring that teachers have the skills, knowledge and understandings necessary to provide students with high quality education. The Framework has been developed through analysis of national and international teacher competencies and consultation with members of the teaching profession. Competency frameworks describe professional standards for teaching and make the knowledge and capabilities of teachers explicit for those within and outside the profession. They provide the means by which good teaching can be identified, rewarded and celebrated.

Competency Framework for Teachers Essay Example

This Framework articulates competency standards for teachers working within Western Australian government schools. Competency standards outline the varying degrees of effectiveness teachers demonstrate when applying their professional knowledge, skills and attributes to their specific teaching context. By providing explicit standards that guide teachers in their work to improve students’ levels of educational achievement, the Framework is a valuable tool for increasing public confidence in the school education system.

It emphasises that the teaching profession requires teachers to be life-long learners who engage in ongoing professional learning during the course of their careers. The Department’s development of this Framework provides teachers, teacher educators, teacher organisations and professional associations with a description that establishes agreed dimensions of effective teaching and offers a common reference point for professional reflection, discussion and action. Professional reflection is central to improving teacher standards and supporting the development of career pathways.

The Framework is a tool for classroom teachers to: • reflect on their professional effectiveness • determine and prioritise areas for professional growth • identify professional learning opportunities • assist their personal and career development planning. Competency Framework for Teachers iii iv Competency Framework for Teachers Contents Background …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2 Key principles ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

3 Understanding the structure ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5 Professional attributes ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6 Professional knowledge ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7 Professional practice ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

8 Five dimensions…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9 Phase 1 Teacher Competency Standards for Phase 1 ……………………………………………………………………… 14 Overview of Teacher Competency Standards for Phase 1 …………………………………………………….. 15 • Dimension 1 – Engage students in purposeful and appropriate learning experiences …………… 16 • Dimension 2 – Monitor, assess, record and report student learning outcomes …………………….

18 • Dimension 3 – Reflect critically upon professional experiences in order to enhance professional effectiveness …………………………………………………………………………………………… 19 • Dimension 4 – Participate in curriculum policy and program teamwork ……………………………… 20 • Dimension 5 – Establish partnerships with students, colleagues, parents, and other caregivers and agencies ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 21 Phase 2

Teacher Competency Standards for Phase 2 ……………………………………………………………………… 24 Overview of Teacher Competency Standards for Phase 2 …………………………………………………….. 25 • Dimension 1 – Cater for diverse student learning styles and needs through consistent application of a wide range of teaching strategies …………………………………………… 26 • Dimension 2 – Apply comprehensive systems of assessment and reporting in relation to student attainment of learning outcomes………………………………………………………….

27 • Dimension 3 – Contribute to the development of a learning community …………………………….. 28 • Dimension 4 – Provide support for curriculum policy or program teams …………………………….. 29 • Dimension 5 – Support student learning through partnerships and teamwork with members of the school community ……………………………………………………………………….. 30 Phase 3 Teacher Competency Standards for Phase 3 ……………………………………………………………………….

32 Overview of Teacher Competency Standards for Phase 3……………………………………………………… 33 • Dimension 1 – Use exemplary teaching strategies and techniques that meet the needs of individual students, groups and/or classes of students in a highly responsive and inclusive manner ………………………………………………………………………… 34 • Dimension 2 – Consistently use exemplary assessment and reporting strategies that are highly responsive and inclusive ……………………………………………………………………………….

36 • Dimension 3 – Engage in a variety of professional learning activities that promote the development of a learning community …………………………………………………………………….. 38 • Dimension 4 – Provide leadership in the school by assuming a key role in school development processes including curriculum planning and policy formulation …………………….. 39 • Dimension 5 – Facilitate teamwork within the school community ……………………………………….. 40 Competency Framework for Teachers 1 Background RATIONALE The Framework was developed to:

• provide a structure and language within which statements of professional standards are defined. By setting out essential elements of effective teaching it acts as a common reference point for dialogue between members of the profession and the community • promote and support quality teaching by making explicit knowledge, skills and attributes that characterise good teaching practice. Understanding what teachers know, do and value is an important step in enhancing the profile and standing of the profession • give teachers a tool that outlines a continuum of abilities and responsibilities central to professional excellence.

This enables teachers to make informed decisions about the direction of their professional learning as they aspire to a higher level of performance • identify knowledge, skills and behaviours needed to assist practising teachers move along their chosen career path • raise the quality of education in Western Australian schools by providing teachers with a document that supports their efforts to improve their professional practice thereby enhancing student outcomes • provide direction for tertiary institutions and professional development providers as they

continue to develop programs that ensure the development of quality teaching. THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS The development of professional standards for teachers has grown in importance in the field of education in Australia and overseas. At the national level, development of the National Framework for Professional Standards for Teaching is a key initiative. The National Framework facilitates national agreement on and consistency around what constitutes quality teaching and national collaboration in supporting quality teaching. The Department has made extensive use of the National Framework in developing this Framework.

Additionally, standards developed by national teaching associations for English, Mathematics and Science have been drawn upon during the development process. This Framework is the product of a comprehensive consultation process involving teachers, professional associations, tertiary institutions, the Australian Education Union and other key stakeholders. From the outset, the Department acknowledged that in order for the Framework to be a credible and valuable tool teachers needed to have a significant role in the development process.

It has been developed on the understanding that any consideration of what constitutes quality teaching needs to take into account the diversity of contexts and conditions in which teachers work. All efforts will continue to be made to ensure involvement of teachers with a range of teaching situations and experiences. 2 Competency Framework for Teachers Key Principles Principle 1 The Framework articulates professional knowledge, skills, and attributes essential for all classroom teachers, operating across three broad phases of competency.

The competencies are generic and may be applied to specific teaching and learning contexts as defined by students, phases of schooling and learning areas. Principle 2 The competency standards are represented through five discrete generic dimensions of teachers’ work. Effective teaching requires successful integration of these dimensions. Principle 3 Classroom teachers assume roles beyond the classroom in endeavouring to maximise their students’ learning. These roles include working collaboratively with colleagues and other members of the school community, and communicating with parents and other caregivers. Principle 4

The phases do not signify levels of experience; rather they frame general and recognisable aspects of professional capacity and achievement. Principle 5 Teachers develop their knowledge, skills and practices throughout their professional lives. This development is not linear. Teachers enter the profession with varying levels of prior learning, work experience and professional preparation, working in a range of different contexts that combine to shape their professional profile. Principle 6 There are essential attributes that people wishing to enter the teaching profession should have if they are to be effective teachers.

Principle 7 The Curriculum Framework guides teachers as they develop and implement their teaching and learning programs. Principle 8 The actions of effective teachers are guided by the Department’s values. These values are: • learning, where a positive approach to learning is taken for ourselves and others • excellence, reflecting high expectations for students and ourselves • equity, where the different circumstances and needs of others are recognised • care, fostering a relationship based on trust, mutual respect and acceptance of responsibility.

The Department also promotes through its Staff Conduct policy ethical practice and appropriate standards of conduct and behaviour. Competency Framework for Teachers 3 R PR AC TI C PR PRO FE Fa PH cil D it a A PH S t AS E PHA E SE 2 1 • A hip ers n art gP in A m PR E T F C Fo r E ulum Policy n Curric comes-foc and Other Pr ing i used E ut nv ipat in an O iron ogram rtic ves me Pa Initiati nt DIMENSION 4 P R O 4 IC S sw DIMEN SIO Engaging in N Profe ssio 3 nal Le arn ing S es D m tco N T TEACHER COMPETENCY STANDARDS SS IONA OFE L PR Ou A S E G TES BU NSIO ME ithin the School Community DI N g nin DS ar R DS Le A AR DS D AR ND Assessin

E D g an d R IME N 1 rning epo N IO Lea rtin SI OMPET gS O ER C N S d en t EN E u CH tud N CY en 2 IM g St EA R COMPETE T S t in HE NC T • A AC COMPET Y E 3 ER EN S T CH C T A • Y E NAL KNOW T IO SS LE FE D O NAL ATT RI SIO S P PRACTI AL CE ON I N5 O AL SION S FE Competency Framework for Teachers Understanding the structure The Competency Framework for Teachers articulates the complex nature of teaching by describing three professional elements of teachers’ work: attributes, practice and knowledge. These elements work in an interrelated way as they are put into practice in classrooms. The Framework consists of several components.

Three Phases The Framework outlines competency standards for effective teaching across three broad phases of teachers’ work, describing teachers’ work along a continuum of practice. The phases are dynamic and not related to length of service. A teacher may operate at any phase at any stage of their teaching career. For example, teachers with limited classroom experience may demonstrate some of the competencies in all of the phases. As teachers become familiar with the competencies of each phase they will be able to determine the types of professional learning activities that best address their individual needs.

Dimensions of Teachers’ Work The Framework is based on a construct of five dimensions of teaching. Each dimension describes the generic characteristics of teachers’ work that are central to the attainment of professional effectiveness. Competency Standards The term competency standard refers to “a combination of attributes underlying some aspect of successful professional performance” (Gonczi et al. , 1990, p. 9). Competency standards are concerned with application of professional knowledge and skills within the workplace and are underpinned by teachers’ professional values.

Each competency standard is a statement of the level of competency a teacher exhibits for that dimension. Critical Elements of Competency Critical elements of competency are the basic building blocks of each competency standard. They map a range of professional actions teachers engage in as they apply their professional knowledge, skills and attributes to their teaching context. They are identifiable characteristics that contribute to the achievement of the overall competency standard. Indicators of Effective Practice

Indicators of effective practice are competency-related professional actions that provide examples of the professional behaviours likely to be demonstrated by teachers who have attained a particular competency standard. The indicators listed are examples only. Competency Framework for Teachers 5 Professional attributes Professional attributes outline the characteristics that are readily identifiable as essential to effective teaching. These attributes ensure teachers are prepared for the challenges, demands and obligations of teaching. The Framework describes the way teachers work with students, parents/caregivers, colleagues and others.

Professional attributes provide the underpinning values, beliefs and skills for the decisions and actions teachers make in their day-to-day work. They describe the attitudes and behaviours through which teachers demonstrate their ability to facilitate student learning. Attribute Descriptors Effective teachers throughout all phases of their teaching career demonstrate the following professional attributes. PHASE 1 PHASE 2 PHASE 3 COLLABORATIVE Teachers demonstrate good interpersonal skills by creating opportunities to communicate and share knowledge, ideas and experience with others.

They seek assistance from colleagues and are keen to consider and act upon advice offered. Teachers acknowledge and encourage students, parents and caregivers as partners in learning. COMMITTED Teachers are dedicated to educating young people and act in the best interests of students. They enjoy meeting the challenges encountered in educating others and are inspired to make a difference. Teachers are devoted to the educational, personal, social, moral and cultural development of their students and aim to teach them how to be life-long learners and active members of society. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATOR

Teachers have a presence that creates a positive influence on students’ behaviour. They can articulate their thoughts and ideas whilst modifying their language according to the context and audience. ETHICAL Teachers respect the rights of others by acting with consistency and impartiality. They have an understanding of the principles of social justice and demonstrate this by making just and fair decisions. INNOVATIVE Teachers are creative problem solvers who are willing to take risks in order to find new and enterprising solutions to educational issues and are inventive when developing educational programs.

They provide learning experiences that engage student interest and enhance student learning. INCLUSIVE Teachers treat students with care and sensitivity by identifying and addressing their educational, physical, emotional, social and cultural needs. They are astute in recognising and responding to barriers that inhibit student outcomes. POSITIVE Teachers are supportive and constructive in their interaction with others. They show flexibility in an ever-changing work environment and are willing to consider critically and implement change.

Teachers are advocates of their profession. REFLECTIVE Teachers are insightful in analysing their professional practice and can demonstrate evidence-based decision-making. Teachers draw upon their professional knowledge to plan a course of action and determine goals that improve their practice and student learning. They are informed professionals who avail themselves of professional learning opportunities in order to examine critically new and emerging educational trends. 6 Competency Framework for Teachers Professional knowledge

The Framework is based on the premise that effective teachers draw on a body of professional knowledge in order to maximise their ability to improve student educational outcomes. Knowledge of students, curriculum, subject matter, pedagogy, education-related legislation and the specific teaching context is the foundation of effective teaching and enables teachers to be responsive to the changing needs of students. This Framework supports teachers as they continue to build upon their professional knowledge. It promotes ongoing professional learning and incorporates contemporary teaching theory. Underpinning Professional Knowledge

Competency standards within the Framework are underpinned by the following core professional knowledge. It requires teachers to: • understand the structure and function of the Western Australian Curriculum Framework and its implication for school-based curriculum development, teaching and learning • comprehend the purpose, nature and use of a variety of assessment strategies and understand how information acquired through assessment processes can be used to reflect upon and modify teaching • understand that students’ learning is influenced by their development, experiences, abilities, interests, language, family, culture and community

• know the key concepts, content and processes of inquiry that are central to relevant learning areas • be familiar with the framework of law and regulation affecting the school system and teachers’ work • be aware of government, systemic, district and school policies that underpin educational programs and services. Competency Framework for Teachers 7 Professional practice PHASE 1 Facilitating Student Learning DIMENSION 2 Assessing and Reporting Student Learning Outcomes DIMENSION 3 Engaging in Professional Learning DIMENSION 4 Participating in Curriculum Policy and Other Program Initiatives in an

Outcomes-focused Environment DIMENSION 5 Forming Partnerships within the School Community 8 PHASE 3 Teachers operating within the first phase should: DIMENSION 1 PHASE 2 Teachers operating within the second phase should: Teachers operating within the third phase should: Engage students in purposeful and appropriate learning experiences Cater for diverse student learning styles and needs through consistent application of a wide range of teaching strategies Use exemplary teaching strategies and techniques that meet the needs of individual students, groups and/or classes of students in a highly responsive

and inclusive manner Monitor, assess, record and report student learning outcomes Apply comprehensive systems of assessment and reporting in relation to student attainment of learning outcomes Consistently use exemplary assessment and reporting strategies that are highly responsive and inclusive Reflect critically on professional experiences in order to enhance professional effectiveness Contribute to the development of a learning community Engage in a variety of learning activities that promote critical self reflection and the development of a learning community Participate in curriculum policy and

program teamwork Provide support for curriculum policy or other program teams Provide leadership in the school by assuming a key role in school development processes including curriculum planning and policy formulation Establish partnerships with students, colleagues, parents and other caregivers Support student learning through partnerships and teamwork with members of the school community Facilitate teamwork within the school community Competency Framework for Teachers Five dimensions The five dimensions describe the major professional responsibilities and actions teachers carry out in their professional lives.

These dimensions interconnect with each other and collectively contribute to teachers’ effectiveness. They are an arbitrary arrangement of teaching behaviours that relate to a specific activity rather than representing an ordered sequence of events. Professional excellence involves teachers engaging in all five dimensions. Dimensions 1 and 2 are critical in the practice of teaching and articulate effective interaction between teacher and student. Dimensions 3, 4 and 5 describe the working environment that supports effective teaching. UNDERSTANDING THE FIVE DIMENSIONS OF TEACHERS’ WORK DIMENSION 1

Facilitating Student Learning Dimension 1 describes the complex task of teaching and learning. It outlines how teachers plan, develop, manage and apply a variety of teaching strategies to support quality student learning. PHASE 1 Phase 1 teachers facilitate student learning by planning lessons that engage students and provide a purpose for learning. They experiment with different approaches to teaching, addressing the needs of students and priorities of the school. In this phase, learning is often teacher directed with the teacher taking responsibility for determining what students will learn, to what degree and how.

PHASE 2 Phase 2 teachers develop a personal philosophy of teaching and learning based on extensive trialling of different teaching approaches. They are confident of their methods, providing more individualised education programs for students. Students are given greater opportunity to determine what and how they learn, what level of achievement they aim for and how they will demonstrate their level of understanding. In this phase, student-centred learning is a focus and teachers recognise their role includes acting as a facilitator and guide to learning. PHASE 3

Phase 3 teachers focus on student-centred learning and have an extensive repertoire of teaching strategies. They negotiate learning outcomes with students to support students in becoming autonomous learners. These teachers have a more global approach and recognise that student learning is best supported not only by the teacher but also by the wider community. They make themselves open to new and developing trends in education, acknowledging that teachers, colleagues, specialists and parents/caregivers must all work as a team in order to provide the best education for students.

Competency Framework for Teachers 9 DIMENSION 2 Assessing and Reporting Student Learning Outcomes Dimension 2 describes how teachers monitor, assess, record and report student learning. PHASE 1 Phase 1 teachers assess learning experiences using a variety of assessment strategies that allow all students to demonstrate their understanding of different outcomes. Phase 1 teachers record the information gathered through assessment with accuracy and consistency. They use this information to report to parents and caregivers on student outcomes. PHASE 2

Phase 2 teachers have a more extensive range of methods for assessing and recording student outcomes. They make evidence-based judgements about student outcomes and plan for further learning. When reporting, these teachers provide feedback to a wider audience and actively participate in whole-school monitoring, recording and reporting activities. They also ensure the validity of their assessment by verifying their interpretations with colleagues. PHASE 3 Phase 3 teachers recognise that assessment must be an ongoing process that provides information about student achievement as a result of learning experiences.

They develop exemplary assessment strategies inclusive of students’ individual needs. When reporting they offer valuable insights into students’ beginning level of understanding, progress after completing programs of work and suggestions for future focus. Phase 3 teachers take an active role in the development and application of whole-school monitoring, recording and reporting activities. They share their knowledge and experience of using innovative assessment to assist colleagues. They also review the effectiveness of assessment strategies and make recommendations for improvement.

DIMENSION 3 Engaging in Professional Learning Dimension 3 describes how teachers manage their own professional learning and contribute to the professional learning of their colleagues. PHASE 1 Phase 1 teachers are involved in identifying their own professional learning needs. They seek feedback and direction from a variety of sources to plan for and participate in professional learning. These teachers establish individual approaches to teaching and learning and undertake formal and informal professional learning to support and extend their teaching. PHASE 2

Phase 2 teachers continue to plan and participate in personal professional learning, moving their focus to developing a learning community. They support other teachers who are new to the school or to teaching by familiarising them with the school environment. They identify their strengths in regard to professional knowledge, understanding and skills and share this expertise in order to support the professional learning of colleagues. PHASE 3 Phase 3 teachers participate in professional learning as well as supporting the professional learning of colleagues.

They engage in ongoing critical reflection to generate and apply new ideas that contribute to the improvement of teaching and leadership practice. They mentor and help establish school-based teaching and learning research projects to enhance all teachers’ learning. 10 Competency Framework for Teachers DIMENSION 4 Participating in Curriculum Policy and Other Program Initiatives in an Outcomes-focused Environment Dimension 4 describes how teachers participate in the development and management of curriculum policy in their particular school environment. PHASE 1 Phase 1 teachers participate in teams related to curriculum policy.

With guidance from curriculum leaders they are able to carry out tasks that support team decision-making. PHASE 2 Phase 2 teachers help determine issues to be addressed at curriculum policy meetings and are able to collect, analyse and present information related to these issues. They support the implementation of curriculum policy and provide guidance to colleagues where needed. PHASE 3 Phase 3 teachers are curriculum leaders. These teachers promote changes that improve student learning and support the implementation of system initiatives. They collaborate with colleagues to develop, manage and evaluate curriculum and program initiatives.

They apply knowledge gained through extensive professional learning to the tasks of analysing the school’s operating environment and developing curriculum policy that responds to the specific needs of the school. DIMENSION 5 Forming Partnerships within the School Community Dimension 5 describes how teachers build, facilitate and maintain working relationships with students, colleagues, parents and other caregivers to enhance student learning. PHASE 1 Phase 1 teachers establish positive partnerships with students, colleagues, parents and caregivers.

They respect students as individuals and respond to students’ needs appropriately and sensitively. Teachers operating in this phase work cooperatively with colleagues, acknowledging and valuing different perspectives. Phase 1 teachers initiate contact with parents and caregivers, providing ongoing information about students and school issues. PHASE 2 Phase 2 teachers form positive partnerships with members of the wider school community. They see themselves as team members who take an active role in supporting other team members, providing constructive feedback and addressing the issues and concerns of others.

These teachers also support the work of the team by attending to associated organisational tasks. PHASE 3 Phase 3 teachers facilitate and motivate when working with team members. They articulate and share knowledge gained through ongoing and comprehensive professional learning in regard to school development, curriculum and policy processes. They provide the direction for other team members and create mechanisms for ensuring the decision-making process allows for consensus, accountability, responsibility and equal opportunity. Competency Framework for Teachers 11 12 Competency Framework for Teachers

1 phase 1 phase Teacher competency standard for phase 1 R O IONAL SS FE PR AC TI C P ar T IC E DIMENSION 4 m PRO FE PR Eng ag es app tu rop ria te Fa cil D it a t E S PH A sw h students, p s w it rs h i ne ther caregivers a rt and o hp is ents l par ab s, st ue g ea ulum Policy n Curric comes-foc and Other P ing i used E ut nvi ro ipat in an O ronm gram rtic ves ent Pa Initiati ip rsh ne art gP in te in curriculum polic y an ticipa d m teamwork p ro g r a E Fo r E A C F co ll NSIO ME ithin the School Community DI er ord s es P S PR S DIMEN S ION Engaging in Profe ssio 3 nal Le arn ing

Reflect critically on professio nal e xpe to enhance professio rie nce nal eff si ec n tiv en TEACHER COMPETENCY STANDARDS go u SS IONA OFE L PR IONAL KNOW SS LE E D OF NAL ATT RI SIO S E G PRACTI CE AL N IO N5 i rn d lea TES BU R O 14 d es om utc gO DS nin ar R Le A o rt D ep N dr an s me tco Assessin E D g an 1 ng d R IME epo N ON rni OMPET rtin SI S I n t L ea ER C EN gS O H CY EN tude t ud N AC Moni en 2 IM g S tor, T E o s e fu l a n d S t ass in T p • ess A stude pu r en ces , re nt l n e ri 1 ear si e xp nt nin cor g e n P Competency Framework for Teachers Overview of teacher competency standard fo

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