Computer Hardware

1 January 2017

As computers have progressed and developed so have the types of operating systems. Below is a basic list of the different types of operating systems and a few examples of Operating Systems that fall into each of the categories. Many computer Operating Systems will fall into more than one of the below categories. GUI – Short for Graphical User Interface, a GUI Operating System contains graphics and icons and is commonly navigated by using a computer mouse. See our GUI dictionary definition for a complete definition. Below are some examples of GUI Operating Systems. System 7. x Windows 98 Windows CE

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Multi-user – A multi-user Operating System allows for multiple users to use the same computer at the same time and/or different times. See our multi-user dictionary definition for a complete definition for a complete definition. Below are some examples of multi-user Operating Systems. Linux UNIX Windows 2000 Multiprocessing – An Operating System capable of supporting and utilizing more than one computer processor. Below are some examples of multiprocessing Operating Systems. Linux UNIX Windows 2000 Multitasking – An Operating system that is capable of allowing multiple software processes to run at the same time.

Below are some examples of multitasking Operating Systems. UNIX Windows 2000 Multithreading – Operating systems that allow different parts of a software program to run concurrently. Operating systems that would fall into this category are: Linux UNIX Windows 2000 Application software is a subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly to a task that the user wishes to perform. This should be contrasted with system software which is involved in integrating a computer’s various capabilities, but does not directly apply them in the performance of tasks that benefit the user.

A simple, if imperfect, analogy in the world of hardware would be the relationship of an electric light – an application – to an electric power generation plant – the system. The power plant merely generates electricity, itself not really of any use until harnessed to an application like the electric light which performs a service that the user desires. Typical examples of software application are word processors, spreadsheets and media players. Multiple applications bundled together as a package are sometimes referred to as an application suite.

Microsoft Office, which bundles together a word processor, a spreadsheet, and several other discrete applications, is a typical example. The separate applications in a suite usually have a user interface that has some commonality making it easier for the user to learn and use each application. And often they may have some capability to interact with each other in ways beneficial to the user. For example a spreadsheet might be able to be embedded in a word processor document even though it had been created in the separate word processor application.

In some types of embedded systems, the application software and the operating system software may be indistinguishable to the user, as in the case of software used to control a VCR, DVD player or Microwave oven. List of software applications Some examples of application software include: accounting packages collaborative software compilers and interpreters computer games cryptography database Educational Software e-mail graphics program spreadsheet text editor web browser web server word processor 6 years agoReport Abuse 0% 0 Votes 1 person rated this as good key operating software is the middle man that acts as an interpreter for application software – it talks to the hardware and controls it on behalf of application software. that’s the best summary i recall that helps relate it to the real world for people that dont get computers 6 years agoReport Abuse 0% 0 Votes freq. e. t… simple, an application runs inside an operating system, normally a computer will have 1 operating system (windows, unix etc) every other thing (notepad, media player, games, email etc) are application software 6 years ago

Personal computer hardware are component devices which are typically installed into or peripheral to a computer caseto create a personal computer upon which system software is installed including a firmware interface such as a BIOS and anoperating system supporting application software that performs the operator’s desired functions. Operating systems usually communicate with devices through hardware buses by using software device drivers. Contents [hide] 1 Motherboard 2 Power supply 3 Removable media devices 4 Secondary storage 5 Sound card 6 Input and output peripherals 6. 1 Input 6. 2 Output 7 Obsolete Devices 8 See also References [edit]Motherboard Main article: Motherboard The motherboard is the main component inside the case. It is a large rectangular board with integrated circuitry that connects the other parts of the computer including the CPU, the RAM, the disk drives (CD, DVD, hard disk, or any others) as well as any peripherals connected via the ports or the expansion slots. Components directly attached to the motherboard include: The CPU (Central Processing Unit) performs most of the calculations which enable a computer to function, and is sometimes referred to as the “brain” of the computer. It is usuallycooled by a heat sink and fan.

Newer CPUs include an on-die Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). The Chipset mediates communication between the CPU and the other components of the system, including main memory. The RAM (Random-access Memory) stores resident part of the current running OS (OS core and so on) and all running processes (application parts, using CPU or input/output (I/O) channels or waiting for CPU or I/O channels). The BIOS (Basic Input Output System) includes boot firmware and power management. The tasks are handled by operating system drivers. Newer motherboards use Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) instead of BIOS.

The ROM (Read-only Memory) stores the initial program that runs when the computer is powered on or otherwise begins execution (Bootstrapping also known as “booting” or “booting up”). Usually stores the BIOS or UEFI. Internal buses connect the CPU to various internal components and to expansion cards for graphics and sound. Current The north bridge memory controller, for RAM and PCI Express PCI Express, for expansion cards such as graphics, lannd and physics processors, and high-end network interfaces PCI, for other expansion cards SATA, for disk drives ATA Obsolete AGP (superseded by PCI Express)

ISA (expansion card slot format obsolete in PCs, but still used in industrial computers) External bus controllers support ports for external peripherals. These ports may be controlled directly by the south bridge I/O controller or based on expansion cards attached to the motherboard through the PCI bus. USB Memory Card FireWire eSATA SCSI [edit]Power supply Main article: Power supply unit (computer) Inside a custom-built computer: the power supply at the bottom has its own cooling fan. A power supply unit (PSU) converts alternating current (AC) electric power to low-voltage DC power for the internal components of the computer.

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