Concept Paper

10 October 2016

They said make or do something that interests you. Well there are so many things that interest me and I don’t know what to choose among them. Luckily one of my friend said to me this topic is good and if you like it go for it. Then I find it interesting so I go for it. This research will surely help you understand the world of genetics. Technology is very helpful especially to people because it was created to make our life much easier and for us to be able to solve some of the problems in the world like in foods and diseases.

I, the researcher, hope that you will learn something from my paper. I. Background of the study In our world today almost all the things that we’re using is part of technology that came up because of science. According to Oxford English Dictionary (Eleventh Edition), science is the intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment.

Well because of that two, Science and Technology, almost all the things in this world made possible like curing diseases, making a product in a minute time by the use of machines and so many more, without this things maybe our life will be much difficult. One of these things is Genetic Engineering. Based from the Oxford English Dictionary (Eleventh Edition) Genetic Engineering or genetic modification is the deliberate modification of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material.

In this study you will know what is really true behind genetic engineering. What are the things that involved when you say these words? What are the benefits/ effects of this study of genes? And the big question, Can it alter the future generation? II. Review of Related Literature A. Genetics The word genetics came from the Greek word genetikos which means genitive and genesis which means origin (Lidell, et al. , 2011). It is the science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms (Griffiths, et al. 2000). According to Griffiths, et al. (2000), genetics deals with the molecular structure and function of genes, gene behavior in context of a cell or organism(e. g. dominance and epigenetics), patterns of inheritance from parent to offspring, and gene distribution, variation and change in populations. Given that genes are universal to living organisms, genetics can be applied to the study of all living systems, from viruses and bacteria, through plants and domestic animals, to humans (as in medical genetics).

Bowler (1989) said that the modern science of genetics, which seeks to understand the process of inheritance, only began with the work of Gregor Mendel in the mid-19th century. Although he did not know the physical basis for heredity, Mendel observed that organisms inherit traits via discrete units of inheritance, which are now called genes. According to Lemaux (2006), genes correspond to regions within DNA, a molecule composed of a chain of four different types of nucleotides—the sequence of these nucleotides is the genetic information organisms inherit.

DNA naturally occurs in a double stranded form, with nucleotides on each strand complementary to each other. Each strand can act as a template for creating a new partner strand. This is the physical method for making copies of genes that can be inherited. The sequence of nucleotides in a gene is translated by cells to produce a chain of amino acids, creating proteins—the order of amino acids in a protein corresponds to the order of nucleotides in the gene. This relationship between nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence is known as the genetic code.

The amino acids in a protein determine how it folds into a three-dimensional shape; this structure is, in turn, responsible for the protein’s function. Proteins carry out almost all the functions needed for cells to live. A change to the DNA in a gene can change a protein’s amino acids, changing its shape and function: this can have a dramatic effect in the cell and on the organism as a whole (Lemaux 2006). Although genetics plays a large role in the appearance and behavior of organisms, it is the combination of genetics with what an organism experiences that determines the ultimate outcome.

For example, while genes play a role in determining an organism’s size, the nutrition and health it experiences after inception also have a large effect. B. Genetic Modification Said by Clive (2007), genetic modification is the deliberate modification of one organism in order to make a desired characteristic. It is possible in all living thing in the world. For centuries farmers have used selective breeding to improve both crops and stock by breeding from the plants or animals that had the qualities they wanted to bring out and strengthen.

This was the only way they had to develop animals and crops that were more productive and resistant to disease, and could cope better with extremes of climate. Today, scientists can find individual genes that control particular characteristics, separate them out, change them, and transfer them directly into the cells of an animal, plant, bacterium or virus. Because the DNA code is known and is common to all life, it is also possible to produce synthetic genes. This technology is called genetic modification or genetic engineering (Clive 2007).

According to Clive (2007) there are three major differences between selective breeding and genetic modification: * In genetic modification, scientists take individual genes from one plant or animal and put them into the DNA of the cells of another. They may also make changes to (modify) an existing gene. * Genetic modification provides a way of giving a plant or animal new, inheritable qualities that is much faster than traditional breeding methods; these qualities may themselves be entirely new. Genes can be transferred in ways that are not found in nature, between different species and even between animals and plants. C. Genetic Modification Process Griffiths (2000) said cells that contain a gene to be isolated are broken open and the strands of DNA are extracted. Then proteins called restriction enzymes are added to break the DNA at particular points, until the short lengths that are individual genes are obtained. The wanted gene is added to plasmids, small molecules in bacterial cells that contain DNA that is not part of the chromosomes of the cell.

It is the discovery that plasmids can move between cells, taking their DNA with them, which has made this technology possible. The plasmids to which the wanted gene has been added are put in with the cells (usually bacteria) where the wanted gene is to go. The plasmids get inside the bacteria and add their genes to the genes of the bacteria. This means the bacteria now have the wanted gene as well as their own. These bacteria are then used to transfer the new genes into plant or animal cells.

This process of gene splicing creates recombinant DNA (Griffiths 2000). The ability to separate out single genes and study them is a vital part of biological and medical research. Another way to create genetically modified products is to use the bacteria themselves as factories for the introduced genes, producing such things as enzymes used in food production (eg, chymosin for cheese making) and vitamins for use in making processed foods, or hormones for use in medicine and animal husbandry (Clive 2007). D. Genetically Modified Organism

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