Cover letter

12 December 2017

It Is presumed that the first musical Instrument was the human voice Itself, which can produce a vast array of sounds, from yawning and coughing and whistling through to clicking, humming and singing. In 2008 archaeologists unearthed a bone flute in the Hole Feels cave in close proximity of Elm, Germany.

The five-holed flute has a V-shaped mouthpiece and is made from a vulture wing bone. Nicholas J. Canard of the University of Tubing, In Germany, showed a thin bird- bone flute carved some 35,000 years ago.Ancient Music The prehistoric is believed to have concluded with the development of writing, and tit it, by definition, prehistoric music. All other music that followed was given the name “Ancient Music”. The “oldest known song” was written in cuneiform, dating to 4,000 years ago from Grit. It was deciphered by Proof.

Anne Transform Killer (University of Cilia. At Berkeley), and was demonstrated to be composed in harmonies of thirds, Like ancient gamely, and also was written using a Pythagorean tuning of the diatonic scale.The Cellos epitaph is the oldest extant example of a complete musical composition, including musical notation, from anywhere in the world. A review of ancient drawings on vases and walls, etc. And ancient writings (such as in Aristotle, Problems, Book XIX. 12) which described musical techniques of the time, as well as Double pipes, such as those used by the ancient Greeks, and ancient bagpipes stands as evidence of musical accordance. Indian classical music (Marge) can be found from the scriptures of the Hindu tradition, the Veda.

Sambaed, one of the four Veda, describes music at length. Early Music Music during this lengthy time was varying , encompassing multiple cultural traditions within a wide geographic area; many of the cultural groups out of which divided Europe developed already had musical traditions, about which little is known. What unified these cultures in the Middle Ages was the Roman Catholic Church, and Its music served as the focal point for musical development for the first thousand years of this period.Medieval Music While musical life was without doubt affluent in the early Medieval era, as proven by artistic portrayals of instruments, writings about music, and other records, the only evidence of music which has survived till this day is the plainsong liturgical music of the Roman Catholic Church, the largest part of which is called Gregorian chant. This chant has been preserved from before 800 to the present day. During the 9th century many significant developments happened. First, there was a major effort by the Gregorian liturgy.

Second, the earliest polyphonic music was sung, a form of parallel singing known as organ. Third, and of greatest significance for music history, notation was reinvented after a lapse of about five hundred years, though it would be several more centuries before a system of pitch and rhythm notation evolved having the precision and flexibility that modern musicians take for granted. All early music an be divided into two general categories: sacred and secular. Christianity was a dominant part of medieval culture, so an entire musical style developed Just to support it.Sacred music was therefore set to the text of the Bible or at least inspired by it. The goals of sacred and secular early medieval composers were originally different. The sacred composers sought to set the Bible to music and to bring a more ‘heavenly” aspect to church than could be obtained by simply reading the Bible.

Sacred music was originally composed to pay homage to God. Secular music, on the there hand, was composed solely for its entertainment value, whether for dance or to express love.The difference is that today the division between the trained and untrained is not delineated by religion, but usually by access to a university or other formal musical education program. The Gregorian Chant arouse Music arouse Music is a style of European Classical Music between 1600 to 1750. The baroque era followed the Renaissance period (approve. 1400- 1600) and preceded the Classical era (1750 – 1820). The baroque period is notable for the development of counterpoint, a period in which harmonic complexity grew alongside emphasis on entrants.

In opera, interest was transferred from recitative to aria, and in church music the contrasts of solo voices, chorus, and orchestra were developed to a high degree. There are several well-known composers of baroque music, such as Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frederic Handel, Antonio Vivaldi, and many more. What is counterpoint? Counterpoint describes two or more independent lines of music played simultaneously, in other words “note against note” (Latin punctures contra punctuate). Counterpoint reached a high level of development in the baroque era, especially the music of J.S. Bach. What instruments were used in Baroque Music? String instruments such as the lute, violin, viola, cello and double bass.

Brass Instruments like the trumpet, horn and sackbut were used. Popular wind instruments included the recorder, flute, oboe and bassoon. Baroque keyboard music was often composed for the organ or harpsichord. Occasionally, baroque composers utilized other unique and lesser-known instruments which have since become obscure. Ere music of the Classical period is characterized by homophobic texture, or an obvious melody with accompaniment.Composers could then actually replace singers s the focus of the music because the new melodies seemed to be almost voice like and sinkable. Instrumental music therefore quickly replaced opera and other sung forms (such as oratorio) as the favorite of the musical audience and the epitome of great composition.

20th-Century Music As the radio became more popular and new media and technologies were developed to record, capture, reproduce and distribute music, the 20th Century saw a revolution n music listening. The broadcast and recording of music videos and concert made musical performances more visual.Music of all kinds also became compact, eightieth and easy to carry. People sitting next to each other were able to listen to entirely different performances or share the same performance due to the invention of the headphones. 20th Century music brought a new freedom and wide experimentation with new musical styles and forms that challenged the accepted rules of music of earlier periods. The invention of musical amplification and electronic instruments, especially the synthesizer, in the mid-20th century revolutionized popular music and accelerated the development of new forms of music.Acoustical recording Acoustical recording” was an entirely mechanical process of recording which involved the live performance being directly recorded to the recording medium.

A diaphragm would be located at the apex of a cone and the performers would crowd around the other end. The sound of performers would be captured by that diaphragm because a needle would cutting into it making a groove in the recording album. Pantograph French Scientist Leon Scott De Martingale is credited with being the first to prove that sound could be recorded. His Pantograph traced the wave form of sounds spokenInto a small horn on a rotating cylinder covered with soot-coated paper. The resulting pattern was, in essence, the first sound recording. But the two-dimensional ‘recording” could not be played back. Likewise, the prescience of Charles Cross, who n 1877 suggested a novel method by which sound waves could be captured and then reproduced, was impressive, but his invention remained only a theoretical ideal.

Thomas Edison was able to capitalize on these ideas and design a standard machine for recording and playing back the human voice, one that would ultimately prove commercially successful as well.Phonograph/Gramophone Edition’s first phonograph used tin-covered cylinders to record vibrations of sound that were focused by a horn-like device onto a diaphragm; the diaphragm vibrated and transmitted the vibrations to a stylus (needle), which etched a helical groove onto rotating cylinder covered with tin foil. The sound could then be played back from making the diaphragm vibrate, recreating the original sound. Edition’s first recording Nas of him saying, “Mary had a little lamb. ” The recording cylinders were improved by Charles Sumner Tainted , who made them out of wax. The first flat, circular recordNas invented by Mile Berliner (1851-1929), a German-born American inventor, in 1887 (he also invented the gramophone, the machine that played his flat records). Airliner’s records were originally made of glass, then zinc, and later, hard rubber.

Airliner founded Deutsche Gramophone and Britain’s Gramophone Co. , Ltd. By 191 5, records rotated at a standard 78-RPM (rotations per minute) and were made of shellac (which is very fragile); they were 10 inches in diameter and recorded 4 minutes of sound. The material was eventually change to vinyl. Antique Gramophone Phonograph Electrical Recording

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