Race, ethnicity, and Immigration- There is a relationship between race and crime. Ethnically/racially diverse areas probably have higher crime rates compared to ethnically/racially homogeneous areas. Most studies on immigrants have found higher rates of crime. However, this varies greatly depending on the country of origin with immigrants from some regions having lower crime rates than the indigenous population. Early life Pregnancy- Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with later crlmlnallty.

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Low birth weight and perinatal trauma/blrth complications may be more prevalent among riminals. Family- Child maltreatment, low parent-child attachment, marital discord/family discord, alcoholism and drug use in the family, and low parental supervision/monitoring are associated with criminality. Larger family size and later birth order is also associated. Enuresis- Nocturnal enuresis or bed-wetting correlates with criminality. Bullying- Bullying is positively related to criminal behavior. School- School disciplinary problems, truancy, low grade point average, and dropping out of high school are associated with criminality. ЂAdult behavior- Alcohol and Illegal drug use. High alcohol use, alcohol abuse, and alcoholism, as well as high Illegal drug use and dependence are positively related to criminality in general. Sex- Early age of first intercourse and more sexual partners are associated with criminality. Friends- Few friends, criminal friends, and gang membership correlate positively with criminality. Religion- High religious involvement, high Importance of religion in one’s life, membership in an organized religion, and orthodox religious beliefs are believed to be associated with less criminality.

However, studies have shown that more secular nations have ower rates of violent crimes such as murder. Physical health- Criminals probably suffer from illnesses. Epilepsy- Epilepsy appears to have a positive correlation with criminality. Depression and suicide- Minor depression and probably clinical depression Is more likely among offenders. Depression in the family is associated with criminality. Criminals are more likely to be suicidal. Schizophrenia- Schizophrenia and criminality appear to be positively correlated. Intelligence quotient and learning disabilities- There Is also a relationship between lower IQ and crime.

A learning disability Is a substantial discrepancy between IQ and academic Several personality traits are associated with criminality: High impulsivity, high psychoticism, high sensation-seeking, low self control,

Page 2 Crime and poverty Essay

high aggression in childhood, and low empathy and altruism. Other geographic factors- Cities or counties with larger populations have higher crime rates. Poorly maintained neighborhoods correlate with higher crime rates. High residential mobility is associated with a higher crime rate. More taverns and alcohol stores, as well as more gambling and tourist establishments, in an area are positively related to criminality.

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