Crime Prevention Concepts and Theory
Due to the diversity it is becoming more difficult for law enforcement to know how to handle or have a conversation with citizens of another culture. When dealing with immigrants law enforcement officers will experience difficulties with communicating with them. Multicultural is related to several cultures in society, and in many cultures in some societies educational theory encourages interest instead of mainstream culture. It is very important that law enforcement understand cultural diversity.
It is questionable if Sir Robert Peel, developer of the nine principles which is said to organize police departments whether or not would work in present day police activities. The culture concerns in society on the criminal justice system would explain in the community policing based on Peel’s concept of prevention. Many law enforcement agencies have embraced the community policing concept across the country. Its goal in preventing crime and promote better partnerships between police and community.
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According to Friedmann (1992), problem analysis and problem solving, facilitation, community organization, communication, mediation, and conflict resolution, resource identification and use, networking and linkages, and crow-cultural competency receives special attention and forces agencies to invest in training. In 1855, Robert Peel introduced a Bill, entitled Bill for Improving the Police in and near the Metropolis, later became law and the basis for modern policing. In the early years, many police archives were destroyed and it is not certain if Peel did compose the nine principles are still in use today.
The nine principles are described for police to exist is its base mission; dependent on public approval for their actions is determined by their ability to perform their duties; to secure and maintain the respect of the public must secure the co-operation of the public in voluntary observance of the law; the necessity of the use of physical force diminishes proportionately based on the degree of co-operation of the public; do not cater to public opinion when seeking and preserving of public favor by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law; secure observance of the law or restore order only use physical force to the extent necessary when the exercise of persuasion, advice and warning is insufficient; reality to the historic tradition of the police are the public and the public are the police a relationship should be maintained; incumbent for every citizen in the interest of community welfare and existence should give it their full attention to duty; never abuse the powers of the judiciary when directing actions towards their functions; the absence of crime and disorder tests police efficiency, no visible evidence of police action in dealing with it. (Larrabee, 2013). The question at hand is would Robert Peel’s famous nine principles to organize a police department work in today’s society. The belief is yes because without having community policing in place citizens in any particular neighborhood would not have trust or respect in the police department. In return not having community policing set in place would end up in more frequent criminal activity along with less crime solving due to the citizens in the community not wanting to help the police.
These types of practices are common in more upscale neighborhoods and where the economics are flowing. The other side of the spectrum where poverty and drugs are relevant these practices are very rarely accomplished. In all societies culture is an ever-present element. Over time this term has evolved and continues to be used to describe various aspects of people such as farming, the arts, high society as well as traditions and ideological beliefs amongst different nationalities and social groups. Whether in courtrooms or the mass media culture is always present. Attributed to some people and not others can be defined in various ways, hidden or highlighted. According to the Webster’s New College Dictionary (2008) culture is defined as 1.) The totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought typical of a population or community at a given time. 2. ) A style of social and artistic expressions peculiar to a class or society. 3. ) The predominating attitudes and behavior that characterize a group or organization. Culture directly affects the justice system and its administration practices because in some areas in the United States for example you might have a large population of Blacks, Whites, Arabs, Latino or Hispanics, in a particular neighborhood and it is common knowledge that people are more comfortable with dealing with people of the same race and ethnicity.
When you have suchlike areas more pressure is on the justice administration to make sure in those areas they are represented by that same race or ethnicity. A police department that is not represented by the majority, it becomes a major problem in that community due to the lack of knowledge the police have about a certain culture or cultures. Every person is raised in social and cultural environments that have a considerable impact on his or her individual identity, beliefs, values, and behavior. Because individuals are entwined in culture during their life, it is important to expand awareness and understanding of how cultural issues impact systems and operations of justice and security.
Police officers and police administration’s lack of cultural competence is an important aspect of conflict between the police and some racial and ethnic groups. The ability to understand and respond appropriately to the multitude of languages, traditions, lifestyles, and patterns of communication of different racial or ethnic groups is called cultural competence. According to the Washington, DC Bureau of the Census (2010), this is a special problem in communities that have experienced significant immigration. Immigration trends are changing the face of the United States. The Asian population has increased by 43 percent between 2000 and 2010, more than any other major race group.
With the second-largest numeric change (4. 4 mil¬lion), growing from 10. 2 million in 2000 to 14. 7 million in 2010. The Asian community gained the most in share of the total popu¬lation, moving up from about 4 percent in 2000 to about 5 percent in 2010. The new variety of languages and cultures in American cities presents new issues for police departments. Demographics involve a variety of characteristics of specific populations. Characteristics without doubt change over time, are intricately linked to culture, and are reflected in predominant cultural beliefs and values. Demographics, as a reality of dealing with specified populations, have a direct link to cultural issues.
Some of the contemporary methods used in societies with mixed cultures by justice administration are training programs on different cultures, views and traditions, hiring of particular race or ethnicity, conducting enhanced methods of community policing to break the communication barriers between citizens and police, enrolled police into language classes, and remind department everyday about how important it is to serve and protect, maintain community trust and respect. America is known as the “land of opportunity” and approximately 40 million immigrants will travel to and live in the United States. Little is known about how police agencies nationwide work with immigrant communities.
In concert with the Department of Justice’s Office of Community Oriented Policing Services and the Vera’s Center on Immigration and Justice identified and disseminated information about law enforcement practices to cultivate trust and collaboration with immigrant societies and merit replication. (Saint-Fort, Shah, & Yasso, 2012). The language barriers presented when the criminal justice system encounters immigrant communities limit the ability to understand, speak, read, or even write in a particular language is a significant issue. Before public safety agencies can partner and work with these communities they must first be able to communicate with them.
Facilitating focus groups and the development of relevant research and publications are projects conducted by the COPS Office. The Police Foundation, Vera Institute of Justice and International Association of Chiefs of Police are nonprofit agencies having resources available. (“Policing New Immigrant Communities”, 2013). These are just some contemporary methods but to ultimately receive the best results, justice administration must be proactive to be able to learn the new trends, ideas, and future threats, and also should have monthly meetings and conferences with community leaders and other police departments to become aware of arising problems due to having these different ethnic groups and societies all living together with each other.
It is believed that community policing will have a police department that will be running smooth and proficient. Although crime will never end and continue to hinder our communities in negative aspects, the behavior conducted by these police departments will in fact help our community become a better place to live. Cultural deviance is crime learned in socially disorganized neighborhoods where criminal norms are transmitted from one generation to the next, so if we study these criminal norms as law enforcement officials and be open to learning different culture trends and views about why the crime is happening we can become better law enforcement officials.