Cuba Crimes Against Human Rights Essay Research

9 September 2017

Cuba: Crimes Against Human Rights Essay, Research Paper

Part ONE

Cuba: A Media Profile

Media is the used around the universe for the cardinal intent of directing and having information. To analyze the media in a state such as Cuba, you must see the political, societal and the cultural political orientations of the state. While most of the universe is free fluxing with information utilizing mediums such as wireless, telecasting, the imperativeness and the Internet, Cuban people are exempted. The content within these mediums, reflect the political orientations of the Cuban authorities and besides maintain a sense of patriotism. Information that reflects different political orientations of the Cuban authorities are non permitted on the island and are considered illegal. It is unsafe for a society such as Cuba to quash the basic Torahs of human rights and relieve its people from the freedoms that we Americans take for granted such as ; freedom of look, imperativeness, association and assembly.

This papers is divided into two parts. Part one, Cuba: Media Profile, which will research the media and its map in Cuba. Part two is titled Media Under a Communist Regime. This portion will exhibit the Torahs refering to media in Cuba, and the offenses and penalties of independent journalist seeking to last in Cuba.

During the early 1960s, a category battle was waged within media mercantile establishments all over Cuba. This battle reflected the major alterations taking topographic point all over Cuban society. The Revolution & # 8217 ; s wake resulted in the nationalisation of Cuban media. Mass media information was no longer capable to private corporations but became a public plus. The Cuban Institute of Radio and Television ( IRCT ) , was created to oversee and pull off wireless and telecasting station island-wide.

In Cuba today there are 62 wireless Stationss across the island, staffed by 911 journalists. ( Salwen 84 ) Cuba operates one international short moving ridge wireless station, Radio Havana which broadcast in nine linguistic communications. ( 84 ) Radio Rebelde, Radio Progreso, Radio Reloj, Radio Musical National and Radio Enciclopledia are the national station heard throughout the state. There are 38 provincial and municipal Stationss and 92 community wireless station that focus on local issues and have more limited air. ( 84 )

Radio broadcasts plays an of import function in Cuba. With the autumn of the Soviet Union, Cuba has found itself in an of the economic crisis. With this crisis came drastic cuts in newspaper and magazine information, and a decrease in telecasting broadcast clip. ( 88 ) This meant that much of what was covered by these media became the duty of the wireless.

Television broadcast medium in Cuba began in the late fortiess. During this clip Cuba was used by concerns as evidences for new engineerings, doing Cuba a universe innovator in telecasting. ( 104 ) In Cuba today there are two national telecasting channels, one international channel, and eight regional channels. ( 104 )

There are many families in Cuba with a telecasting sets, but they are old and outdated. The terminal to merchandise with Eastern Europe has led to deficits of parts and telecasting sets. Cuba is no longer the breakage land for new engineerings. The economic encirclement has badly impacted media production in Cuba. This can be seen in the usage of elderly senders, and about the disused parallel engineerings that have non yet been replaced. There is besides a great concern for the hereafter of wireless and telecasting image and sound archives. Irreparable losingss are happening due to the deficiency of air-conditioning and rise in humidness. Due to miss of sound and videocassettes, manufacturers have been re-recording over tapes that have already been used.

Of all the media, the print media was hit the hardest by the economic crisis. ( 39 ) Because the printing of periodicals depended wholly on the import of newspaper and other supplies from the former Soviet Union, day-to-day publications of magazines and other periodicals was badly cut. ( 39 ) By 1994, the figure of day-to-day newspaper that has been published hebdomadally in the state was lass than half of what it had been in 1989. ( 39 ) As a consequence of the crisis some 300 print media journalists, that is 10 % of the entire island, found themselves idle. ( 39 )

In Cuba today there are three national newspapers in circulation, Granma, Trabajadores and Juventud Rebelde. Granma is the voice of the Central Committee of the Cuban Communist Party and the state & # 8217 ; s newspaper of record ; Trabajadores is he newspaper of the National Workers Confederation ; and Juventud Rebelde is the paper of the Youth Organization. ( Cubanet ) Cuba besides has two intelligence bureaus. El Agencia de Informacion National ( AIN ; National News Agency ) , has intelligence desks in about every state in Cuba and a wireless service that is widely used by provincial and municipal wireless Stationss. ( Cubanet ) The other, Presna Latina, has letter writers in assorted parts of the universe.

Despite serious economic restrictions and deficiency of hardware, Cuban media has been able to entree the cyberspace. But acquiring to the cyberspace is non easy. Since the majority of the state & # 8217 ; s substructure, including the telecommunications is antiquated. ( Christian Science Monitor, Boston ) The lone cyberspace service supplier, CENAI allows entree merely to those cleared by the authorities, most incoming information is to a great extent censored by the authorities. . Economicss have restricted widespread entree to the Web. An mean Cuban makes about 110 pesos per month, approximately $ 5.00. ( US Department of State, Washington ) An internet connexion with the universe Wide Web entree costs about $ 260.00 a month. E-mail histories cost $ 67.00 per month. ( Christian Science Monitor, Boston )

Presently the day-to-day edition of Granma, Trabajadores and Juventud Rebelde have electronic editions. ( Christian Science Monitor, Boston ) Radio Stationss are besides get downing to do their Internet Debuts. Radio Havana Cuba ( www.radiohc.org ) station day-to-day transcripts of its Cuba related narratives in four linguistic communications ( Spanish, English, French and Portuguese ) and Radio Reloj ( www.cubaweb.cu ) posts intelligence narratives every bit good as specials on civilization and athleticss. Radio Rebelde besides has a web site accessible through www.ceniai.cu.

It is impossible to talk about media in Cuba, without adverting the little media warfare between the US and Cuba. On May 19 1984, under the Reagan disposal Radio Marti was launched, a full fledged 24 hr, uncensored intelligence about Cuba and US dealingss. Through 3 frequences, seven wireless Stationss, Radio Marti broadcasts over 1500 hours of wireless of anti-Castro propaganda is straight beamed into the island through short-wave wireless signals. As a consequence of Radio Marti, Television Marti was created.

Television Marti is the lone telecasting service in the universe whose mark audience has ne’er seen it. Except for top functionaries with orbiters and some bootleg videotapes of Television Marti, it is difficult to obtain make to the successful jamming of Television signal by the Cuban authorities. Television Marti was created under the Bush disposal, with a 9.6 million dollar budget. It was named for Cuban-independence was nationalist, Jose Marti, and was supposed to be better than Radio Marti. But from the start it faced technological jobs. For one Television Marti operates from a drifting sender, which proved easier to throng than short-wave wireless.

Cuban functionaries jammed the Television Mart? signal by conveying Cuban plans on the same channel. Thronging American wireless and telecasting signals has, to day of the month, been the most politically and economically-effective tactic employed by the Castor government. ( Bayer 541 ) Possibly Castor is really much aware that American wireless Stationss are merely every bit successful as the figure of hearers they attract. By cut downing the figure of possible wireless hearers through jamming of US Stationss, Castor may be wounding the American wireless broadcast industry where it hurts most, financially. Although both Radio Mart? and Television Mart? have become lasting fixtures of Cuban life, frequent intervention by Cuba has besides become a concern of legion wireless Stationss throughout the United States.

The United States refused to take military action against Cuba for thronging its ignals. Alternatively, President Clinton & # 8217 ; s disposal compiled a six-tiered program of political and economic countenances against the Island. ( Bayer 541 ) Among these countenances, Clinton ordered increased support for Radio Mart? to get the better of jamming by the Cuban authorities. ( Bayer 541 ) The disposal authorized an extra two million dollars in support to increase response of US authorities broadcasts in Cuba. ( Bayer 541 ) The US besides sought international disapprobation of Cuba & # 8217 ; s actions through the United Nations. ( 541 ) In short, this latest incident, and the actions ensuing at that place from, show two critical factors. ( 541 ) First, the United States still views the usage of wireless broadcasts into Cuba as a necessary and effectual arm in its war against communism. ( 541 ) Second, any future dialogue between these two states with regard to international broadcasts, or any other controversial political subject, will necessarily hold to happen under the protections of an international regulative organic structure such as the United Nations. ( 541 )

Whether a solution to the & # 8220 ; radio war & # 8221 ; in the Caribbean exists is questionable. ( 543 ) With the at hand ruin of the Castor government, we may see significant advancement in the manner of free communications between the United States and Cuba. ( 543 ) Soon, nevertheless, the on-going war over the airwaves between these two states serves as a fresh reminder that there is a demand for mutualness in international broadcast medium and international dealingss between Cuba, the United States and the remainder of the universe. ( 543 )

Part Two:

Media Under a Communist Regime

Article 53 of the Cuban Constitution provides:

& # 8220 ; Freedom of address and imperativeness are recognized for citizens consistent with the intents of socialist society. The material conditions for their exercising are present by the fact that the imperativeness, wireless, telecasting, films, and others mass media are state-owned or socially owned, and can in no event be in private owned, which ensures their usage entirely in the service of the working people and in the involvement of society. The jurisprudence regulates the exercising of these freedoms. & # 8221 ; ( Human Rights Watch 29 )

Cuba is a totalitarian province. Since 1959 under the leading of Fidel Castor, Cuba has become the first Communist province in the Western Hemisphere. Before 1959, the people of Cuba, looked favourably upon Castor and the battle against Cuban dictator, Fulgencio Batista. Castor proposed policies for early elections, variegation of the economic system, moderate societal and political reform based on the Cuban Constitution of 1940. ( Thomas 2 ) Since coming to power, it wasn & # 8217 ; t long befor the radical character of Castro & # 8217 ; s to go clear. Alternatively of the promises castro made to the Cuban people, Cuba was radically transformed into a ego styled Marxist- Leninist machinery of repression. Castro & # 8217 ; s precedences remain unchanged: keeping undisputed power, a sense of historical ego, and utmost Cuban patriotism.

When Castor publically declared Cuba a Communist state, democracy was abolished and so was the freedom of look, sentiment, imperativeness, association, and assembly.

In the Cuban media, there & # 8217 ; s merely one acceptable point of position, the government & # 8217 ; s. An official journalist in Cuba can non take which narrative to compose, and can non show their ain sentiment. In Cuba there is no freedom of the imperativeness that would let for different political positions, which are cardinal for a democratic government. To the contrary, wireless, telecasting, and the print media are instruments of ideological infliction that follow the dictates of the group in power and are used to convey the messages from that group to the grass-roots and the intermediate degrees.

The chief newspapers in Cuba reflect merely the point of views of the authorities. Merely to a really limited extent do they describe on the arguments that take topographic point within the high-ranking functionaries of the province. As a consequence, self- unfavorable judgment is besides limited. It is a function the imperativeness plays with a position to conveying the grudges of the grassroots to the top functionaries in power. However, in no manner make these grudges overstep the bounds of ideological conformance. In no manner can they oppose, or go interpreters recommending a extremist alteration in the prevailing government, or that hold high-level authorities functionaries accountable in relation to substantive political issues.

The Castro government maintains a steadfast stance against independent journlism. In June 1998 the authorities labelled Cuba & # 8217 ; s little group of independent newsmans & # 8220 ; self titled independent journalists & # 8217 ; dedicated to slandering our people by agencies of the wireless Stationss that broadcasts from Miami against Cuba. & # 8221 ; ( Human Rights Watch 151 ) In contrast the governmenrt called upon the & # 8220 ; genuinely free & # 8221 ; imperativeness to function the socialist province & # 8220 ; by gaurenteeing the continuity of socialist, loyal, and anti-imperialist thoughts and values, and the revolution itself for future coevalss of Cubans. & # 8221 ; ( Human Rights Watch 151 )

Today in Cuba there does be an independent imperativeness. There are three staying independent intelligence bureaus in Cuba,

Havana Press, Cuba Press and Cuban independent Journalists Bureau. Many of the journalists worked for authorities media until they were fired for “ideological incompatibility” and now are seeking to do a life freelancing for foreign intelligence organisations. ( Conde ) Their purpose is to carve out a support that is independent of collectivist media yet a comfy distance from organized dissenter cabals at place and abroad. ( Conde )

To be an independent journalist in Cuba is illegal, a dissenter. The Cuban authorities non merely uses mass organisations, but besides uses its security and tribunals to endanger, intimidate, detain, and prosecute independent journalists. ( Human Rights Watch, 152 ) The Government topics independent journalists to internal travel prohibitions, arbitrary and periodic ( nightlong or longer ) detainment, torment of friends and relations, ictuss of written manuals and computing machine and office equipment, and repeated menaces of drawn-out imprisonment. ( US State Dept. )

To intensify the jobs of the independent imperativeness, there is the obstruction of merely sitting down to compose. The Communist government controls all that is published, while entree to the Internet is besides purely regulated. Journalists lack computing machines or fax machines and rudimentss such as composing paper, typewriters and thread and even pens and pencils. Typewriters must be registered ; having a facsimile machine or photocopier without mandate is punishable by imprisonment. ( Conde ) Phone calls are monitored and frequently interrupted and lines severed. Articles are normally phoned in ( collect ) to a twosome of European contacts, to Mexico or to Miami bureaus, such as Radio and TV Marti.

The Government does non let unfavorable judgment of the revolution or its leaders. Laws against antigovernment propaganda and abuses against functionaries carry punishments of three months to one twelvemonth in prison, with sentences of up to three old ages if President Castor or members of the National Assembly or Council of State are the object of unfavorable judgment. ( US State Dept )

In December 1997, the National Assembly of Popular Power approved the Law of National Dignity, which establishes that & # 8220 ; The weight of the jurisprudence will fall on anyone who, in a direct or indirect signifier, collaborates with the enemy & # 8217 ; s media & # 8230 ; with gaol sentences of three to ten old ages & # 8221 ; and is aimed straight at the independent bureaus who send their stuff abroad. ( Human Rights Watch 152 )

On April 26, 1996, nine Cuban security members ransacked the offices of the Cuban Independent journalists Bureau ( BPIC ) for four hours. ( Conde ) They seized all of the BPIC & # 8217 ; s equiptment ; two typewriters, a word processor, every bit good as its files. ( Conde ) Joaquin Torres, a journalist with the Havana Press independent intelligence bureau at that place, termed it & # 8220 ; a reminder that they are at that place, and they can hush us whenever they like. & # 8221 ; ( Conde )

N? stor Baguer, President of the Agencia de Prensa Independiente ( APIC: Independent Press Agency ) was earnestly injured by an unknown person who hit him several times ; as a consequence he suffered a broken carpus and several haematoma. ( US State Dept. ) The events occurred in Havana, on March 2, 1995. On July 11, 1995, members of the State Security force searched his place, seized a facsimile machine, and disconnected his phone service. ( US State Dept. ) Days subsequently N? stor Baguer filed a ailment before the Municipal Court of Plaza to procure the return of what had been confiscated. ( US State Dept. ) However, the tribunal clerk refused to acknowledge the papers, saying that it had no legal footing. ( US State Dept. )

Laws against antigovernment propaganda, graffito, that was of disrespect towards any authorities functionary in Castro & # 8217 ; s government, carried punishments of from 1 months to 3 twelvemonth & # 8217 ; s in prison. ( US State Dept. ) Charges of administering enemy propaganda ( which includes simply expressing sentiments at odds with those of the Government ) can convey sentences of up to 14 old ages. ( US State Dept. )

Resident and foreign letter writers have dealt with an addition in governmental force per unit area, including official and informal ailments about articles, endangering phone calls, and deficiency of entree to functionaries. ( US State Dept. ) In the Government & # 8217 ; s position, such stuffs as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, international studies of human rights misdemeanors, and mainstream foreign newspapers and magazines constitute enemy propaganda.

Local metropolis functionaries inhibit freedom of address by monitoring and describing dissent or unfavorable judgment. ( US State Dept. ) Police and province security functionaries on a regular basis harassed, threatened, and otherwise abused human rights advocators in public and private as a agency of bullying. ( US State Dept. ) A tribunal in Holguin sentenced independent journalist Mario Gonzalez Castellanos, Cuba Press letter writer in Holguin, to 2 1/2 old ages in the Holguin prison known as Cuba Si, for demoing discourtesy to Fidel Castor. ( US State Dept. )

The Constitution besides includes & # 8220 ; dangerousness, & # 8221 ; defined as the & # 8220 ; particular propensity of a individual to perpetrate offenses, demonstrated by his behavior in manifest contradiction of socialist norms. & # 8221 ; ( Human Rights Watch 42 ) If the constabulary decide that a individual exhibits marks of dangerousness, they may convey the wrongdoer before a tribunal or capable him to & # 8220 ; therapy & # 8221 ; or & # 8220 ; political reeducation. & # 8221 ; There have been many instances in which functionaries have enforced these Torahs upon there citizens.

In January in 1999, a tribunal in Moron, a Cuban state, sentenced Jesus Joel Diaz Hernandez, Director of the Cooperative of Independent Journalists ( an advocate of human rights ) to 4 old ages & # 8217 ; imprisonment for & # 8220 ; dangerousness. & # 8221 ; ( Human Rights Watch 154 ) Human Rights Watch reported that Diaz was accused of holding met with delinquents and holding disturbed the public order. He was tried the twenty-four hours after his apprehension, doing it impossible for him receive equal defence. ( 154 )

In July of 1997, the governments arrested independent journalist Lorenzo Paez Nunes and later sentenced him to 18 months in prison. ( 156 ) Harmonizing to his household, Hector Peraza was arrested in July and detained for 2 months the twenty-four hours after he received a visit from a & # 8220 ; alien who gave him a computer. & # 8221 ; ( 156 ) State security agents harassed household members when force per unit area on independent journalists was non successful in coercing them to abandon their work or their state. ( 156 )

On July 17 1999, a constabulary officer threatened to collar Merino Cabrera, a member of the Human Rights Workers & # 8217 ; Party, for dangerousness and warned him against go oning his activities. ( 154 ) A few yearss subsequently, on July 27, Cabrera found a composition board casket on his front door with the words: & # 8220 ; Rest in Peace. & # 8221 ; ( 155 )

Cuban governments treat people that participate in non-violent activities such as meeting to discourse the economic system or elections, writtng a missive to the authorities, describing on political- or econmic developements or recommending for political captives, as felons. Cuban tribunals continue to and imprison independent journalist and others for the peaceable look of their positions. The denial of basic and civil homo rights is written into Cuban jurisprudence. And there is hardly a voice hearable to let the universe to cognize and understand the predicament the Cuban people face every twenty-four hours. Independent journalist in Cuba risks their lives to raise the voice that is hardly heard. To the remainder of the universe they are heroes with brave and baronial purposes. To the Cuban authorities, they are the enemy. In decision, a missive was written from a political captive will foster aid understand the demand of freedom.

Letter FROM PRISON: LA CAOBA

To all honest work forces around the universe.

This missive is a call for aid if I can last its wake. If non, it will be my political will and testament. That will non decrease its value to those who, like I, have been enduring prison footings in the extinction cantonments which the dictatorship has created throughout the island, seeking to submerge in silence and inhuman treatment the voices of Cubans naming for autonomy.

I & # 8217 ; m guilty of raising my voice to inquire for autonomy for Cuba, of desiring a civil authorities nominated and elected by the people, amidst an miscellaneous flow of political currents, of wishing private belongings for Cubans, to have and bask what their single attempts can afford them, without denying the corporate enjoyment of what our darling land offers us as its fruits of a authorities free of changeless pretentious to power, because I don & # 8217 ; t want anyone or anything to minimise the right of Cubans to portion with foreign visitants the gifts of our clime, nature, and installings, because it pains me to see my people enduring from the unpredictability and absurd disposal which is submerging us day-to-day into wretchedness, giving off to aliens what belongs to us, without concern over the loss of the fatherland.

For these grounds, and many others, which support the unscrupulous end of the dictatorship to snuff out us, for my resistance to them, I & # 8217 ; m guilty, sanctioned, banished, kept from seeing my loved 1s, of having any sort of assistance, of keeping contact through the mail, of having equal medical aid, they even deny me assistance from God, forbiding me from having the services of the Church. My status as a political captive is non recognized, and they force me to populate with the common captives who are encouraged to assail me. Everything is shaded by maltreatments and humiliations, which I suffer, by word and by workss. I appeal to you and to God.

Lawyer Juan Carlos Castillo Pasto, plantado captive. Serving 8 old ages for enemy propaganda, at La Caoba prison, Santiago de Cuba. Translated for CubaNet by Lourdes Arriete. ( CubaNet )

Bibliography

1. Bayer, Stephen D. , The Legal Aspects of Television Mart? in Relation to the Law of Direct Broadcasting Satellites, EMORY 1992.

2.Conde, Yvonne M. & # 8220 ; Independent Cuban Press Seeks Access to the Outside World. & # 8221 ; The Fourth Estate. V129. P48+ . January 27, 1996. Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //vweb.hwwilsonweb.com/cgi-bin/webspirs.cgi

3. CubaNet beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //ella.netpoint.net/cubanet/CNews/jul96/15e2.html

4. Human Rights Watch. CUBA Inhibitory Machinery: HUMAN RIGHTS 40 Old ages AFTER THE REVOLUTION. Human rights Watch, New York. June 1999

5. Lipsschultz, David. & # 8220 ; The Web Washes over Cuba, but Surfers Still Few Econmic adversity and a authorities wary of information flow hinder Internet & # 8217 ; s growth. & # 8221 ; Christian Science Monitor, Boston, Mass. 9 July, 1997

6. Robbins, Carla Anne. & # 8220 ; Our Jam in Havana: This US Staion Doesn & # 8217 ; t rate in Cuba Castro & # 8217 ; s Interference Keeps TV Mart Off of Screens. & # 8221 ; The WallStreet Journal 25, Nov. 1997

7. Thomas Hugh S. CUBAN REVOLUTION: 30 Old ages Subsequently. Westview Press. London 1984.

8. United States State Department. Human Rights in Cuba beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //state.gov/www/global/human_rights/1997.

1. Bayer, Stephen D. , The Legal Aspects of Television Mart? in Relation to the Law of Direct Broadcasting Satellites, EMORY 1992.

2.Conde, Yvonne M. & # 8220 ; Independent Cuban Press Seeks Access to the Outside World. & # 8221 ; The Fourth Estate. V129. P48+ . January 27, 1996. Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //vweb.hwwilsonweb.com/cgi-bin/webspirs.cgi

3. CubaNet beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //ella.netpoint.net/cubanet/CNews/jul96/15e2.html

4. Human Rights Watch. CUBA Inhibitory Machinery: HUMAN RIGHTS 40 Old ages AFTER THE REVOLUTION. Human rights Watch, New York. June 1999

5. Lipsschultz, David. & # 8220 ; The Web Washes over Cuba, but Surfers Still Few Econmic adversity and a authorities wary of information flow hinder Internet & # 8217 ; s growth. & # 8221 ; Christian Science Monitor, Boston, Mass. 9 July, 1997

6. Robbins, Carla Anne. & # 8220 ; Our Jam in Havana: This US Staion Doesn & # 8217 ; t rate in Cuba Castro & # 8217 ; s Interference Keeps TV Mart Off of Screens. & # 8221 ; The WallStreet Journal 25, Nov. 1997

7. Thomas Hugh S. CUBAN REVOLUTION: 30 Old ages Subsequently. Westview Press. London 1984.

8. United States State Department. Human Rights in Cuba beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //state.gov/www/global/human_rights/1997.

Bibliography

1. Bayer, Stephen D. , The Legal Aspects of Television Mart? in Relation to the Law of Direct Broadcasting Satellites, EMORY 1992.

2.Conde, Yvonne M. & # 8220 ; Independent Cuban Press Seeks Access to the Outside World. & # 8221 ; The Fourth Estate. V129. P48+ . January 27, 1996. Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //vweb.hwwilsonweb.com/cgi-bin/webspirs.cgi

3. CubaNet beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //ella.netpoint.net/cubanet/CNews/jul96/15e2.html

4. Human Rights Watch. CUBA Inhibitory Machinery: HUMAN RIGHTS 40 Old ages AFTER THE REVOLUTION. Human rights Watch, New York. June 1999

5. Lipsschultz, David. & # 8220 ; The Web Washes over Cuba, but Surfers Still Few Econmic adversity and a authorities wary of information flow hinder Internet & # 8217 ; s growth. & # 8221 ; Christian Science Monitor, Boston, Mass. 9 July, 1997

6. Robbins, Carla Anne. & # 8220 ; Our Jam in Havana: This US Staion Doesn & # 8217 ; t rate in Cuba Castro & # 8217 ; s Interference Keeps TV Mart Off of Screens. & # 8221 ; The WallStreet Journal 25, Nov. 1997

7. Thomas Hugh S. CUBAN REVOLUTION: 30 Old ages Subsequently. Westview Press. London 1984.

8. United States State Department. Human Rights in Cuba beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //state.gov/www/global/human_rights/1997.

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