Cuba Essay Research Paper
Cuba Essay, Research Paper
& # 8220 ; Kennedy & # 8217 ; s Fixation with Cuba & # 8221 ;
Thomas G. Paterson
Thomas G. Paterson & # 8217 ; s try, & # 8220 ; Kennedy & # 8217 ; s Fixation with Cuba, & # 8221 ; is an essay chiefly based on the contention and times of President Kennedy & # 8217 ; s foreign dealingss with Cuba. Throughout President Kennedy & # 8217 ; s short term, he devoted the bulk of his clip to the foreign dealingss between Cuba and the Soviet Union. After the battle of WW II, John F. Kennedy tried to maintain a tight strong clasp over Cuba as to non allow Cuba turn to the Communist Soviet Union. Kennedy seen Cuba and the Soviet Union as a major menace to the United States. As Castro fell farther and farther into the Communist party, he inched his manner closer and closer to going a close ally with the Soviet & # 8217 ; s, As Kennedy seen this happen before his eyes, he was astonished. Kennedy, a freshly formed president, did non desire to look like the sort to merely sit back and axial rotation with the clouts, he wanted immediate action taken for these steps. & # 8220 ; As person said, Cuba was one of the four-letter words of the 1960s & # 8221 ; ( 268 ) . Cuba was non viewed as a really possible power before Fidel Castro took office. It was viewed more as a impersonal state that we sent aide and military supplies to in exchange for sugar and other merchandises. When Castro took office, things drastically changed. He started taking back land that we had set aside for military bases, he wanted the American forces no more than what they had in Washington, and he openly defied orders from America. Unknown to Kennedy Khrushchev, leader of the Soviet Union, was besides watching everything that played out between Cuba and the United States. President Kennedy, subsequently recognizing, would do a few determinations for the worst. These determinations would stalk him for the remainder of his short lived term.
Throughout the class of President Kennedy & # 8217 ; s term the few bad errors that he made would come back to stalk him. One such even that put a black grade on Kennedy & # 8217 ; s record was the whole Cuba rebellion. At one point and clip, as Kennedy was a senator, supported the Cuban rebellion along with many other American & # 8217 ; s. They thought the rebellion was a solid betterment over the oppressive regulation of Batista. No where in this line of sight did anybody see the new authorities going Communist. As Castro took over Cuba, he became progressively extremist in his positions and actions. When these actions came approximately, cipher of all time suspected that the U.S. might be the 1s that forced or led Castro to go the extremist leader.
The President rejected the thought that intense United States ill will to the Cuban Revolution may hold contributed to Castro & # 8217 ; s fastening political clasp and flirting with the Soviet Union. Nor did Kennedy and other American & # 8217 ; s with to admit the mensurable benefits of the revolution? betterments in instruction, medical, attention, and lodging and the riddance of the island & # 8217 ; s ill-famed corruptness that one time had been the American mafia & # 8217 ; s domain. Alternatively, Kennedy functionaries concluded that Cuba & # 8217 ; s was a? betrayed revolution & # 8217 ; ( Paterson 269 ) .
As the revolution unfolded twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours, it seemed as if we were non so much worried about Cuba itself, but the fact that everything has a tie in with the Cold War. The Soviets were seeking to spread out their skylines across the Earth and Cuba was another chance for the Soviet & # 8217 ; s to step in and offer adjutant, military, and support in return for Cuba & # 8217 ; s Communism. & # 8220 ; Cuba came to stand for the Cold War in the united States & # 8217 ; backyard & # 8221 ; ( Paterson 270 ) . Some people felt that Kennedy was non all responsible for the problem with Cuba. A batch of people believed that the bulk of the job from Cuba started with President Eisenhower.
Kennedy & # 8217 ; s foreign policy problems have sometimes been explained as heritages from Eisenhower that shackled the new president with jobs non of his ain devising. To be certain, Kennedy inherited the Cuban job from Eisenhower ( Paterson 272 ) .
Another event that was a enormous recoil for the Kennedy disposal was the Bay of Pigs. The Bay of Pigs was a covert operation that was organized by the CIA to subvert Castro. From the really beginning, the Bay of Pigs was taking to be a catastrophe. The U.S. even tried to lie to the populace to maintain the consciousness of the U.S. bombardment of Cuba down. The U.S. staged a pilot to wing a B-26 into Miami to state that he had escaped Cuba and bombed the landing fields, in which we did ourselves. We organized this & # 8220 ; cover-up & # 8221 ; so that it did non look as if America was tampering. The first existent onslaught from the Bay of Pigs came on April 17, 1961. Kennedy sent in a group of Cuban refugees that had been forte trained to contend. Thesiss refugees were sent back to Cuba to hopefully stir an tumult in the other belowground refugees that were still in Cuba. As they neared the beaches of Bahia de Cochinos, the Cuban reserves was really present. Some of the rangers ne’er even made it to the beach because of the coral that was in the H2O. The coral shredded legion boats before they could even acquire to the shore line. The little ground forces non merely hit down planes but they besides sank ships critical to the patterned advance of the invasion. These ships carried communicating equipment, ammo, and supplies for the military personnels. After this incident was said and done Castro boasted that he was winning and the American & # 8217 ; s did non look so good. & # 8220 ; With Castro & # 8217 ; s touting the mercenarios had been foiled, the concluding toll was inexorable: 114 of the expatriate brig
ade dead and 1,189 captured. A chill settled over the White House” ( Paterson 272 ) .
It was really difficult for the incrimination to be put on one individual for the Bay of Pigs Failure. The incrimination was shifted from individual to individual and so eventually came to rest on the CIA when they took full duty for it. & # 8220 ; Failures in intelligence, operations, decision-making, and opinion doomed the Bay of Pigs set abouting & # 8221 ; ( Paterson 274 ) .
After the Bay of Pigs passing, other covert operations were put into consequence. Such operations included blackwash efforts on Castro by the CIA. & # 8220 ; The CIA devised new secret plans to kill Castro. Poisonous cigars, pills, and acerate leafs were directed Castro & # 8217 ; s manner, but to no help & # 8221 ; ( Paterson 276 ) . Kennedy had made an premise that there could be no covering with Castro. He believed that there was no room for Cuba to be a neighbour, or at least when ruled by Castro, to the United States. Other such secret plans against Cuba included corrupting other states to undermine the goods that were be manufactured for Cuba. Through this whole clip, the U.S. did non recognize the extent that they were doing Cuba to make. By undermining the goods and corrupting other states, there was still one state still on their side, the Soviet Union. Cuba retaliated by trusting more to a great extent on the Soviet & # 8217 ; s to provide them with their indispensable demands.
Another such crisis that erupted with great fright was the Missile Crisis. The Cuban Missile Crisis was the most feared menace that had happened against the U.S. under Kennedy. The missile crisis began on October 14, 1961 when a U-2 undercover agent plane took undercover agent exposure over Cuba and noticed the building of missile silos. Now this grounds was the first & # 8220 ; difficult & # 8221 ; proof that they had. There had been rumours of the missile sites being constructed but no grounds to back up the theory. The whole beginning of the crisis can be based back on the tenseness between the Soviet & # 8217 ; s, America, and Cuba. The Soviet & # 8217 ; s gave the Cuban & # 8217 ; s missile to endorse them incase that we did occupy Cuba. & # 8220 ; The beginnings of the missile crisis, in other words, derived mostly from United States? Cuban tensions & # 8221 ; ( Paterson 278 ) . In a manner the whole ordeal was a dual criterion. We had merely turned over control of the Jupiter Missiles to Turkey that twelvemonth. The Soviet & # 8217 ; s besides felt threatened by the missiles being in Turkey, but we would non digest any missile near us what so of all time.
Then the joging treatment turned to Khrushchev & # 8217 ; s motive. The Russian leader had been cautious on Berlin, Kennedy said. ? It & # 8217 ; s merely as if we all of a sudden began to set a major figure or MRBMs in Turkey, & # 8217 ; the President went on. ? Now that & # 8217 ; d be goddamn dangerous. & # 8221 ; Bundy jumped in: ? Well, we did, Mr. President. & # 8217 ; Not wishing the sound of a dual criterion, Kennedy lamely answered, ? Yeah, but that was five old ages ago. & # 8217 ; Actually the American Jupiter missiles in Turkey, under a 1959 understanding with Ankara, were put into launch place in mid-1961? during the Kennedy Administration? and non turned over to the Turkish forces until October 22, 1962, the really twenty-four hours Kennedy informed Moscow that it must retreat its SS-4 or medium-range missiles from Cuba. ( Paterson 279 ) .
The Cuban Missile Crisis struck fright into the bosom of many U.S. functionaries. The President came up with an thought to halt the farther building of the missiles. He decided to implement a naval encirclement. The naval encirclement stopped all ships coming into Cuba for review of the necessary stuffs required to complete the missile sights. The U.S. had anticipated a possible revenge of the ships, but to our surprise, the ships merely turned about and headed back to the Soviet Union. Later, the Soviet & # 8217 ; s sent a Soviet embassy officer to the U.S. to discourse dialogues of the remotion of the missile silos. The basic construction for remotion of the missile included that they would take all missiles, if and merely if, we promised non to occupy Cuba. & # 8220 ; & # 8230 ; the Soviet Union would retreat the missile if the United States would assure non to occupy Cuba & # 8221 ; ( Paterson 281 ) . Subsequently even still, Khrushchev sent a 2nd notice that stated that he would merchandise the missiles in Cuba for the 1s in Turkey. In other words, if we disposed of the 1s in Turkey so he would take the 1s in Cuba. Ultimately we did take to accept these guidelines, and all missiles were removed.
Throughout the class of the Kennedy Administration, there were enormous convulsion that rocked the whole foundation of the presidential term. The Bay of Pigs was a catastrophe before it was even off the land. The CIA did non be after out the invasion plenty to win in a successful triumph. The bulk of the incrimination went onto Kennedy & # 8217 ; s record as non being the 1 that had planned it out and non giving the spell in front for the 2nd air foray. It was subsequently proven that no affair what the result of the 2nd air foray would hold been, it would non hold mattered. The CIA besides released a papers taking the full duty and incrimination for the incident at the Bay of Pigs. The Cuban Missile Crisis non merely worried the U.S. but besides worried the remainder of the universe as to how it would turn out. The Soviet & # 8217 ; s backed Cuba as an ally and fed them missiles and the supplies to construct the missile silos in Cuba. The Soviet & # 8217 ; s said they did this as a counter step incase we did in fact invade Cuba. Between these two major struggles of the clip, it can be said that the two states were non combating over Cuba in itself, but more or less combating over the belief of Communism.