Cuba nation Report Essay Research Paper INTRODUCTION
Cuba ( state Report ) Essay, Research Paper
Cuba, largest island of the West Indies, South of Florida of the United States and E of the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. It forms, with assorted next islands, the democracy of Cuba. Cuba commands the two entrywaies to the Gulf of Mexico & # 8212 ; the Straits of Florida and the Yucatan Channel. On the E, Cuba is separated from the island of Hispaniola by the Windward Passage, a transporting path between the North Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. The United States maintains a naval base at Guantanamo Bay in the sou’-east. Havana is Cuba & # 8217 ; s capital and largest metropolis.
The island extends about 1225 kilometer ( about 760 myocardial infarctions ) from Cabo de San Antonio to Cabo Maisi, the western and eastern appendages, severally. The mean breadth is about 80 kilometers ( about 50 myocardial infarction ) , with extremes runing from 35 to 251 kilometers ( 22 to 160 myocardial infarction ) . The entire country is 114,524 sq kilometer ( 44,218 myocardial infarction ) including the country of the Isla de la Juventud, or Isle of Youth ( once called Isle of Pines ) and of other islands of the democracy.
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Land AND RESOURCES
About one-quarter of the surface of Cuba is cragged or hilly, the balance consisting of level or turn overing terrain. The cragged countries are scattered throughout the island and do non stem from a cardinal mass. The chief scopes are the Sierra de los Organos, in the West ; the Sierra de Trinidad, in the cardinal portion of the island ; and the Sierra Maestra, in the sou’-east. The first two scopes are under 914 m ( 3000 foot ) in tallness ; the Sierra Maestra, which includes the Sierra del Cobre and Macaca scopes, is the greatest in height, mass, and extent, and contains Pico Turquino ( 2000 m/ 6561 foot ) , the highest point in Cuba. Most of the dirt of Cuba is comparatively fertile.
One of the extraordinary natural characteristics of the island is the big figure of subsurface limestone caverns, notably the caves of Cotilla, situated near Havana. Most of the legion rivers of Cuba are short and unnavigable. The main watercourse is the Cauto, located in the sou’-east. The seashore of Cuba is highly irregular and is indented by legion gulfs and bays ; the entire length is about 4025 kilometer ( about 2500 myocardial infarction ) . The island has a big figure of first-class seaports, the bulk of which are about wholly landlocked. Noteworthy seaports are those of Havana, Cardenas, Bahia Honda, Matanzas, and Neuvitas, on the northern seashore, and Guantanamo, Santiago de Cuba, Cienfuegos, and Trinidad, on the southern seashore.
The clime of Cuba is subtropical, the average one-year temperature being 25? C ( 77? F ) . Extremes of heat and comparative humidness, which average 27.2? C ( 81? F ) and 80 per centum, severally, during the summer season, are tempered by the prevailing northeasterly trade air currents. The one-year rainfall norms about 1320 millimeter ( about 52 in ) . More than 60 per centum of the rain falls during the moisture season, which extends from May to October. The island lies in a part on occasion traversed by violent tropical hurricanes during August, September, and October.
The land and clime of Cuba favour agribusiness, and the state besides has important mineral militias. Nickel, chrome, Cu, Fe, and manganese sedimentations are the most of import. Sulfur, Co, pyrites, gypsum, asbestos, crude oil, salt, sand, clay, and limestone militias are besides exploited. All subsurface sedimentations are the belongings of the authorities.
Plants and Animals
Cuba has a broad assortment of tropical flora. Extensive piece of lands in the eastern part of the island are to a great extent forested. The most prevailing species of trees are the thenars, of which Cuba has more than 30 types, including the royal thenars. Other autochthonal vegetations are mahogany, coal black, lignum vitae, cottonwood, logwood, rosewood, cedar pine, mahoe, Passiflora quadrangularis, jaguery, baccy, and citrous fruit trees.
Merely two land mammals, the hutia, or cane rat, and the solenodon, a rare insectivore, are known to be autochthonal. The island has legion chiropterans and about 300 species of birds, including the vulture, wild Meleagris gallopavo, quail, finch, chump, macaw, parrakeet, and hummingbird. Among the few reptilians are tortoises, the caiman, and a species of boa that can achieve a length of 3.7 m ( 12 foot ) . More than 700 species of fish and crustaceans are found in Cuban Waterss. Noteworthy among these are land pediculosis pubiss, sharks, garfish, robalo, ronco, eel, mangua, and tuna. Numerous species of insects exist, the most harmful of which are the chigger, a type of flea, and the Anopheless mosquito, carrier of the malaria parasite.
The Cuban population is made up chiefly of three groups. Approximately 66 per centum of the population is white and chiefly of Spanish descent ; 22 per centum is of assorted racial heritage and 12 per centum is black. Almost all of the people are native-born. More than 75 per centum of the population is classified as urban. The radical authorities, installed in 1959, has by and large destroyed the stiff societal stratification inherited from Spanish colonial regulation.
Population Features, Religion, and Language
The population of Cuba at the 1981 nose count was 9,723,605 ; the estimated population in 1995 is 11,091,000, giving the state a population denseness of about 97 individuals per sq kilometer ( about 251 per sq myocardial infarction ) . Professed Roman Catholics have declined from more than 70 per centum to about 33 per centum of the population since 1957. Among Protestants, approximately 1 per centum of Cubans, Pentecostalism is the prevailing tradition. About 50 per centum of Cubans consider themselves nonreligious. Spanish is the official linguistic communication of Cuba.
Political Divisions and Principal Cities
Cuba consists of 14 states and the particular municipality of Isla de la Juventud ( Isle of Youth ) . The capital, largest metropolis, and main port of Cuba is Havana ( population, 1990 estimation 2,119,059 ) . Marianao ( 1981 greater metropolis population, 127,563 ) is a suburb of Havana and a beach resort. Other of import metropoliss and towns and their populations include Santiago de Cuba ( 418,721 ) , a major haven and industrial centre ; Camaguey ( 286,404 ) , an inland transit junction and commercial centre ; Holguin ( 232,770 ) , located in a rich agricultural part ; Guantanamo ( 203,371 ) , a centre for the processing of agricultural merchandises ; Santa Clara ( 197,189 ) ; Cienfuegos ( 125,000 ) ; and Mantanzas ( 115,466 ) .
School attending is mandatory and free for kids in Cuba between the ages of 6 and 12. During the late sixtiess about 10,000 new schoolrooms were provided in rural countries, going libraries were introduced, and all parochial schools were nationalized. In the early 1990s some 917,889 students attended primary schools, approximately 597,997 pupils were enrolled in secondary schools, and about 314,168 pupils attended proficient schools, instructors colleges, and other schools. The state & # 8217 ; s higher educational establishments enrolled about 242,434 pupils ; the largest university was the University of Havana ( 1728 ) . The state & # 8217 ; s adult literacy rate exceeds 95 per centum.
Cuban civilization is a combination of Spanish and African traditions. The blending of the Spanish guitar and the African membranophone gives Cuban music its most typical signifiers, the rhumba and the boy. Some of its common people music, nevertheless, such as the punto, the zapateo, and the guajira, has been greatly influenced by European music.
Noted Cuban authors include the 19th-century poets Gertrudis Gomez de Avellaneda y Arteaga and Julian del Casal and the modern-day novelists Alejo Carpentier and Jose Lezama Lima.
The National Library in Havana is the largest in Cuba and contains some 2.2 million volumes. Municipal libraries operate in Havana and the provincial capitals. The National Museum in Havana houses aggregations of both classical and modern art and relics of native civilizations. Other of import museums are the Colonial and Anthropological museums in Havana, the Emilio Bacardi Moreau Museum of natural history and art in Santiago, and the Oscar M. de Rojas Museum in Cardenas. All libraries and museums are under the supervising of the national authorities. In add-on, Cuban metropoliss support a assortment of cultural activities, such as theatre and concert dance.
The radical authorities that gained power in 1959 nationalized about 90 per centum of the production industries and some 70 per centum of the farming area of Cuba. Once about 16 per centum of the land was separately owned, while the balance was held in big estates or by big sugar companies.
Creditss and subsidies from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ( USSR ) to Cuba totaled some $ 38 billion between 1961 and 1984 and up to $ 5 billion yearly in the late eightiess. The prostration of the Soviet axis, striping Cuba of its prima assistance givers and trade spouses, dealt a disabling blow to the state & # 8217 ; s economic system as the 1990s began. In 1993 President Fidel Castro signed a edict leting some free endeavor in more than 100 trades and services.
Cuba usually ranks among the universe leaders in sugar production, and sugar cane is its largest harvest by volume and value. In the early 1990s the one-year sugar cane crop was about 58 million metric dozenss, and natural sugar end product was about 8 million metric dozenss. A reemphasis on sugar production in the late sixtiess represented a displacement from an earlier policy of rapid industrialisation designed to diversify the economic system.
A 2nd harvest of commercial importance is baccy, grown particularly in Pinar del Rio Province. Production amounted to about 40,000 metric dozenss yearly in the early 1990s ; a significant part of the harvest is manufactured into Havana cigars, an internationally popular merchandise. Among other of import agricultural merchandises are java, citrous fruit fruit, Ananas comosuss, rice, chocolate tree beans, bananas, maize, plantains, cotton, murphies, tomatoes, and sweet peppers. Cattle, which numbered about 5 million caput in the early 1990s, are valuable farm animal, and pigs, Equus caballuss, domestic fowl, sheep, and caprine animals are besides raised in important Numberss.
Mining and Fabrication
Minerals were among the most valuable exports of Cuba before the revolution of 1959. Mineral production, nevertheless, has since declined slightly. The chief minerals recovered include Nis and Cu ores, Cr, salt, Co, rock, petroleum crude oil, natural gas, and Mns.
In the early 1970s, Cuba undertook a plan of mechanization in its of import sugar industry. The dairy and cattle industries were besides streamlined. Other major industries include cement, steel, refined crude oil, gum elastic and baccy merchandises, processed nutrient, fabrics, vesture, footwear, chemicals, and fertiliser.
Currency and Foreign Trade
The pecuniary unit of Cuba is the peso ( .76 pesos equal U.S. $ 1 ; 1994 ) , issued by the National Bank and composed of 100 centavos. All Cuban Bankss were nationalized in 1960.
Sugar and sugar merchandises make up approximately 75 per centum of one-year Cuban exports. Tobacco, Ni and Cu ores, groceries, and crude oil merchandises are other of import export trade goods. Major imports include groceries, fuel, natural industrial stuffs, motor vehicles, machinery, and consumer goods. Before 1959 most Cuban trade was with the United States. In 1960 the United States declared a complete trade stoppage on trade between the two states. In the early 1990s Cuba & # 8217 ; s main trade spouses were Argentina, Bulgaria, China, and the states of the former USSR. Cuba & # 8217 ; s entire imports each twelvemonth cost about $ 1.7 billion, and its exports earned about $ 1.5 billion. In 1995 Cuba joined in organizing the Association of Caribbean States ( ACS ) , a free-trade organisation. The ACS comprises the members of the Caribbean Community and Common Market ( CARICOM ) every bit good as 12 other Cardinal American, South American, and Caribbean states.
Cuba is governed under a fundamental law adopted in 1976, as later amended. It defines the state as a socialist province in which all power belongs to the working people. The Communist party is Cuba & # 8217 ; s lone legal political party.
The cardinal legislative assembly of Cuba is the National Assembly of People & # 8217 ; s Power, whose 510 members are elected to five-year footings by direct cosmopolitan vote. The National Assembly, which on a regular basis meets twice during the twelvemonth, elects a Council of State of approximately 30 members to transport out its maps when it is non in session. The Council of State includes a president, who is the state & # 8217 ; s caput of province ; a first frailty president ; and five other frailty presidents. The National Assembly besides chooses a Council of Ministers, which is Cuba & # 8217 ; s main administrative organic structure. The council is headed by the president.
Cuba is divided into 16
9 municipalities and 14 states ; the Isla de la Juventud municipality is non portion of any state, and its personal businesss are overseen straight by the cardinal authorities. Each municipality has an assembly composed of delegates elected to footings of two and one-half old ages. The municipal assemblies choose executive commissions, the members of which make up five regional assemblies for each state. These regional organic structures besides have executive commissions, which together form the rank of the provincial assembly ( in bend, headed by an executive commission ) . At each degree the executive commission oversees the daily administrative maps of its assembly.
Judicial power is exercised by the People & # 8217 ; s Supreme Court on the national degree, by tribunals of justness in instances that are provincial or regional in nature, and by the municipal tribunals. Revolutionary courts are convened to cover with offenses against the province.
The Cuban ground forces is made up of about 145,000 soldiers, and has been mostly equipped by the former USSR. The naval forces, which has a rank of about 13,500 crewmans, operates missile boats and assorted smaller trade. The 15,000-member air force is equipped with Soviet-built aircraft, consisting interceptor, ground-attack, and other first-line trade. Cuba besides possesses Soviet-made surface-to-air and antishipping missiles. Cuba maintains an armed civilian reserves that includes some 1.3 million work forces and adult females. Cuban forces served in several African states during the 1970s and 1980s.
Christopher Columbus landed on the island of Cuba on October 28, 1492, during his initial westbound ocean trip. In award of the girl of Ferdinand V and Isabella I of Spain, his helpers, Columbus named it Juana, the first of several names he in turn applied to the island. It finally became known as Cuba, from its Aboriginal name, Cubanascnan.
Colonization by Spain
When Columbus foremost landed on Cuba it was inhabited by the Ciboney, a friendly folk related to the Arawak. Colonization of the island began in 1511, when the Spanish soldier Diego Velazquez established the town of Baracoa. Velazquez later founded several other colonies, including Santiago de Cuba in 1514 and Havana in 1515. The Spanish transformed Cuba into a supply base for their expeditions to Mexico and Florida. As a consequence of barbarian intervention and development, the natives became, by the center of the sixteenth century, about nonextant, coercing the settlers to depend on imported black slaves for the operation of the mines and plantations.
Despite frequent foraies by pirates and naval units of rival and enemy powers, the island prospered throughout the 16th and 17th centuries. Restrictions imposed by the Spanish governments on commercial activities were by and large disregarded by the settlers, who resorted to illicit trade with privateers and neighbouring settlements. Following the decision of the Seven Years & # 8217 ; War in 1763, during which the English captured Havana, the Spanish authorities liberalized its Cuban policy, promoting colonisation, enlargement of commercialism, and development of agribusiness. Between 1774 and 1817 the population increased from about 161,000 to more than 550,000. The staying limitations on trade were officially eliminated in 1818, farther advancing stuff and cultural promotion.
During the 1830s, nevertheless, Spanish regulation became progressively inhibitory, arousing a widespread motion among the settlers for independency. This motion attained peculiar impulse between 1834 and 1838, during the despotic governorship of the captain general Miguel de Tacon. Revolts and confederacies against the Spanish government dominated Cuban political life throughout the balance of the century. In 1844 an rebellion of black slaves was viciously suppressed. A motion during the old ages 1848 to 1851 for appropriation of the island to the United States ended with the gaining control and executing of its leader, the Spanish-American general Narciso Lopez. Offers by the U.S. authorities to buy the island were repeatedly rejected by Spain. In 1868 revolutionists under the leading of Carlos Manuel de Cespedes proclaimed Cuban independency. The resulting Ten Years & # 8217 ; War, a dearly-won battle to both Spain and Cuba, was terminated in 1878 by a armistice allowing many of import grants to the Cubans.
In 1886 bondage was abolished. Importing of inexpensive labour from China was ended by 1871. In 1893 the equal civil position of inkinesss and Whites was proclaimed.
Although certain reforms were inaugurated after the successful rebellion, the Spanish authorities continued to suppress the public. On February 23, 1895, mounting discontent culminated in a recommencement of the Cuban revolution, under the leading of the author and nationalist Jose Marti and General Maximo Gomez y Baez. The U.S. authorities intervened on behalf of the revolutionaries in April 1898, precipitating the Spanish-American War. Intervention was spurred by the sinking of the battlewagon Maine in the seaport of Havana of February 15, 1898, for which Spain was blamed. By the footings of the pact signed December 10, 1898, ending the struggle, Spain relinquished sovereignty over Cuba. An American military authorities ruled the island until May 20, 1902, when the Cuban democracy was officially instituted, under the presidential term of the former postmaster general Tomas Estrada Palma. The Cuban fundamental law, adopted in 1901, incorporated the commissariats of the Platt Amendment, U.S. statute law that established conditions for American intercession in Cuba.
Certain betterments, notably the obliteration of xanthous febrility, had been accomplished in Cuba during the U.S. business. Simultaneously, U.S. corporate involvements invested to a great extent in the Cuban economic system, geting control of many of its resources, particularly the sugar-growing industry. Popular dissatisfaction with this province of personal businesss was aggravated by repeating cases of fraud and corruptness in Cuban political relations. The first of several serious rebellions against conservative control of the democracy occurred in August 1906. In the following month the U.S. authorities dispatched military personnels to the island, which remained under U.S. control until 1909. Another uprising took topographic point in 1912 in Oriente Province, ensuing once more in U.S. intercession. With the election of Mario Garcia Menocal to the presidential term subsequently in the same twelvemonth, the Conservative party returned to power. On April 7, 1917, Cuba entered World War I on the side of the Allies.
The Batista Regime
In March 1952 former president Batista, supported by the ground forces, seized power. Batista suspended the fundamental law, dissolved the Congress, and instituted a probationary authorities, assuring elections the undermentioned twelvemonth. After oppressing an rebellion in Oriente Province led by a immature attorney named Fidel Castro on July 26, 1953, the government seemed secure, and when the political state of affairs had been calmed, the Batista authorities announced that elections would be held in the autumn of 1954. Batista & # 8217 ; s opposition, Grau San Martin, withdrew from the run merely before the election, bear downing that his protagonists had been terrorized. Batista was therefore reelected without resistance, and on his startup February 24, 1955, he restored constitutional regulation and granted amnesty to political captives, including Castro. The latter chose expatriate in the United States and subsequently in Mexico.
In the mid-1950s the Batista authorities instituted an economic development plan that, together with a stabilisation of the universe sugar monetary value, improved the economic and political mentality in Cuba. On December 2, 1956, nevertheless, Castro, with some 80 insurrectionists, invaded. The force was crushed by the ground forces, but Castro escaped into the mountains, where he organized the 26th of July Movement, so called to mark the 1953 rebellion. For the following twelvemonth Castro & # 8217 ; s forces, utilizing guerilla tactics, opposed the Batista authorities and won considerable popular support. On March 17, 1958, Castro called for a general rebellion. His forces made steady additions through the balance of the twelvemonth, and on January 1, 1959, Batista resigned and fled the state. A probationary authorities was established. Castro, although he ab initio renounced office, became prime in mid-February. In the early hebdomads of the government military courts tried many former Batista associates, and some 550 were executed.
Cuba Under Castro
The Castro government shortly exhibited a left-of-center inclination that worried U.S. involvement in the island. The agricultural reform Torahs promulgated in its first old ages chiefly affected U.S. sugar involvements ; the operation of plantations by companies controlled by non-Cuban shareholders was prohibited, and the Castro government ab initio de-emphasized sugar production in favour of nutrient harvests.
When the Castro authorities expropriated an estimated $ 1 billion in U.S.-owned belongingss in 1960, Washington responded by enforcing a trade trade stoppage. A complete interruption in diplomatic dealingss occurred in January 1961, and on April 17 of that twelvemonth U.S.-supported and -trained anti-Castro expatriates landed an invasion force in the Bay of Pigs in southern Cuba. Ninety of the encroachers were killed, and some 1200 were captured ( see Bay of Pigs Invasion ) . The prisoners were ransomed, with the silent assistance of the U.S. authorities, in 1962, at a cost of approximately $ 53 million in nutrient and medical specialties.
American-Cuban dealingss grew still more parlous in the autumn of 1962, when the United States discovered Soviet-supplied missile installings in Cuba. U.S. President John F. Kennedy so announced a naval encirclement of the island to forestall farther Soviet cargos of weaponries from making it. After several yearss of dialogues during which atomic war was feared by many to be a possibility, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev agreed, on October 28, to level and take the arms, and this was later accomplished. For the remainder of the 1960s U.S.-Cuban dealingss remained hostile, although, through the cooperation of the Swiss embassy in Cuba, the U.S. and Cuban authoritiess in 1965 agreed to allow Cuban subjects who desired to go forth the island to emigrate to the United States. More than 260,000 people left before the airlift was officially terminated in April 1973.
Despite several attempts by Cuba in the United Nations to throw out the United States from its naval base at Guantanamo Bay, leased in 1903, the base continues to be garrisoned by U.S. Marines.
In 1980, when Castro temporarily lifted issue limitations, some 125,000 refugees fled to the United States before the escape was once more halted. The U.S. authorities accused Cuba of helping left-of-center Rebels in El Salvador ; another sore point in U.S.-Cuban dealingss was the assistance given by Cuban advisors to the Sandinista authorities in Nicaragua. Several hundred Cuban building workers and military forces were forced to go forth Grenada as a consequence of the U.S.-led invasion of that island in October 1983. Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev visited Havana in April 1989, when the USSR and Cuba signed a 25-year friendly relationship pact, but Castro explicitly rejected the pertinence of Soviet-style political and economic reforms to his state. In July four ground forces officers were executed and 10 others sentenced to prison for smuggling and drug trafficking, in the worst dirt since Castro came to power.
With the prostration of the USSR in the early 1990s, Soviet-blockade and trade subsidies to Cuba were ended, and Soviet military forces were bit by bit withdrawn. After the United States tightened its countenances against trade with Cuba, the UN General Assembly in November 1992 approved a declaration naming for an terminal to the U.S. trade stoppage. By 1993, all of the Soviet troops sent to Cuba during the Cuban missile crisis had been withdrawn. Cuba & # 8217 ; s sugarcane production dropped to a 30-year depression in 1993 and worsened in 1994, precipitating an economic exigency. As the effects of this hapless output filtered down through the population, greater Numberss of Cubans attempted to fly the state for economic grounds. One such group hijacked a ferry and and attempted to get away, merely to be challenged and sunk by the Cuban Coast Guard. The sinking sparked violent anti-government presentations to which Castro responded by taking issue limitations from those who wished to go forth for the United States. Already confronting an inflow of refugees from Haiti, the United States countered by stoping automatic refuge to flying Cubans because the United States considered that they were flying economic instead than political conditions. More than 30,000 people were picked up at sea by the
U.S. Coast Guard and taken to the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base or to refugee cantonments in Panama. The crisis came to an terminal when the United States agreed to publish 20,000 entry visas each twelvemonth to Cubans wishing to come in the state.