Culture And Work Motivation
Intrinsic motives for autonomy, competence, and relatedness are important for well- being across cultures (Ryan & Deci 2000), yet antecedents to such motivation vary cross- culturally. Iyengar & Lepper (1999) found that while personal choice was critical for intrinsic motivation among Anglo Americans, Asian Americans were more intrinsically motivated when trusted authority figures or peers made choices for them. By contrast, exploration, curiosity, and variety seeking are more associated with intrinsic motivation in individualistic cultures than in cultures where conformity is highly valued (Kim & Drolet 2003). Also, the negative effects of extrinsic motivation are weaker in non-Western cultures (Ryan et al.
1999)CULTURE AND WORK ENGAGEMENTA culture that focuses on high performance can attract and engage high-potential talent who bring their strong competencies and are also invigorated by the company’s core values. According to a recent Hewitt study the top engagement driver of high potential talent was found “job fulfilment and challenge.” High performance cultures creates stimulating work environment and processes where top talent are inspired and have the support to provide extra effort. Power distance could push down work engagement, Power distance Index was found to have a significant negative effect on cooperate social and environment performance (Ringov ; Zollo, 2007), meanwhile work engagement is positively related with cooperate social responsibility and learning toward high powder distance appeared to hinder the adoption of teamwork, empowerment, and communication (Hope, 2004).CULTURE AND HAPPINESS AND WELL-BEINGHagerty ; Veenhoven (2003), Stevenson ; Wolfers (2008), and Inglehart, Foa, Peterson, ; Welzel (2008) all claimed that, the evidence suggests that there was increasing subjective well-being in many nations, which was associated with rising incomes. Cultural variables explain differences in mean levels of SWB and appear to be due to objective factors such as wealth, to norms dictating appropriate feelings and how important SWB is considered to be, and to the relative approach versus avoidance tendencies of societies. Culture can also moderate which variables most influence SWB.
Although it is challenging to assess SWB across societies, the measures have some degree of cross-cultural validity. (Diener, Oishi, Lucas 2003). Veenhoven ; Hagerty (2006) suggest that, on average, happiness increases occurred in nations where income rose the most. Stevenson and Wolfers argue that increasing income has led to increases in happiness, but they also point to the substantial statistical uncertainty in a few of their conclusions.CULTURE AND AFFECTIn a research done by James, Maddux and Galinsky (2009) it was found that value expressions, self-construals, and behaviours were less consistent with cultural norms when individuals were experiencing positive rather than negative affect. Positive affect allowed individuals to explore novel thoughts and behaviours that departed from cultural constraints, whereas negative affect bound people to cultural norms. As a result, when Westerners experienced positive rather than negative affect, they valued self-expression less, showed a greater preference for objects that reflected conformity, viewed the self in more interdependent terms, and sat closer to other people.
East Asians showed the reverse pattern for each of these measures, valuing and expressing individuality and independence more when experiencing positive than when experiencing negative affect. The results thus suggest that affect serves an important functional purpose of attuning individuals more or less closely to their cultural heritage.CULTURE AND COMPASSIONAcross different cultures, sympathy and compassion are viewed as emotions that can be differentiated from other emotions via touch, that have similar triggers (e.g., person who is not responsible for his or her suffering), and that are highly valued (Miller ; Bersoff, 1994). Furthermore, cultural similarities have been observed in the links between experiencing sympathy/compassion and helping others e.g., helping someone who has just lost a valued toy or giving money to a needy stranger (Eisenberg, Zhou, ; Koller, 2001; Kitayama ; Markus, 2000; Trommsdorff, Friedlmeier, ; Mayer, 2007).CULTURE AND EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCEStudy done by Gunkel, Schlägel and Engle (2014) found that especially collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, and long-term orientation have a positive influence on the different dimensions of emotional intelligence.