Ch. 10: How much do you think it is possible for an outsider to discern about the underlying cultural values of an organization by analyzing symbols, ceremonies, dress, or other observable aspects of culture, compared to an insider with several years of work experience? Select a percentage (e.g., 10%, 70%) and discuss your reasoning. Outsiders’ being able to discern the underlying cultural values of an organization is about 40% When an outsider looks at a company he or she only see the identity that the organization portrays. Nevertheless, if an outsider has good understanding as well as acute business wisdom, it could comprehend more than someone who did not have knowledge of the organization. Symbols and observing behaviors such as the way people dress and act in the organization. Only an insider can see the reality of the people who work in organization. However, it may take a couple of years to for an insider to understand the in’s and out’s an organization because even an insider may not realize every part of the organization. When someone works for an organization for many years that individual becomes a part of the culture of the organization.

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Ch. 11: A noted organization theorist said, “Pressure for change originates in the environment. Pressure for stability originates within the organization.” Do you agree? Discuss. The statement that pressure for change originates in the environment while pressure for stability originates within the organization is an accurate statement. Living in a world where being competitive can make or break an organization, change is inevitable. The need for frequent changes arises in the business environment because external factors constantly modify the way organizations conduct business. When a new organization enters the market place, it brings something unique into the business segment. This uniqueness forces organization to either alter their business or become an unprofitable company due to lack of being competitive. It is important for an organization to be proactive in seeking out new opportunity in order to thrive and gain a competitive edge. For example, the auto industry is more focused on buildingelectric cars due to the demand for energy efficient automobiles. This would decrease our dependency on oil and in the long run help better the environment.

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Ch. 12: If managers frequently use experience and intuition to make complex, non-programmed decisions, how do they apply evidence-based management, which seems to suggestthat managers should rely on facts and data? Evidence-based management means translating principles based on best evidence into organizational practices. (Rousseau, 2005). Managers develop into experts who make organizational decisions informed by social science and organizational research. By recognizing how they think, and react to situation, managers can be impartial in there thought process and allow evidence to be presented and used to better their organization. The best decision makers recognize on what they do not understand. Managers should always question and encouraging others to question their knowledge and assumptions.

Ch. 13: In a rapidly changing organization, are decisions more likely to be made using the rational or political model of organization?

“Differences are great; organization groups have separate interests, goals, and values. Disagreement and conflict are normal, so power and influence are needed to reach decisions” (Draft, 2010). Organizational politics are activities that allow people in the company to accomplish goals without going through proper channels. In the rational model of organizations, people are assumed to manage logically, based on clear information and well-defined goals. In a rapidly changing organization, a rational model to an organization would be best. The political model of an organization calls for too much management control, producing low levels of employee involvement and commitment. The rational model improved top-down managerial decision making can overcome the problems listed by making choices that maximize benefits.

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