Debate on Human Rights As much as “human right” is important, there are several different debates going on about it. This part of the essay would introduce three major issues of debate which are the East-West conflict, North-South conflict, and universalism versus cultural relativism. The notion of East-West conflict is the clash of ideas between the Western parts of the world versus the East. More specifically, this conflict occurred when the West side of the world, with United States on the lead, emphasized civil and political rights over social and economic rights.

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They used the concept of civil and political sights to criticize the Soviet Union and to Justify themselves for the Cold War policies. On the other side, the Soviet Union criticized United States back for racial discrimination and opposed them by emphasizing social and economic rights. A simplified definition of the North-South conflict is conflict between the wealthy and the poor. In this case, the wealthy would generally be the northern part of the world and the poor would be the southern.

These two groups of countries in the international community started to collide when the developing nations in the south wanted to actuality cultural and collective rights. Yet, the developed countries started to ignore the basic needs of the people in the developing countries and denied the existence of any “right to development”. The universalism and cultural relativism conflict involves two layers of debate – applicability and differences among cultures. Cultural relativists have a say in both layers.

They argue that inherent biases are involved. They claim that conceptualization of human right by the United Nations fail to acknowledge the different characteristics of the non-western countries, being Resurrection. Under this stance cultural relativist are against the West o impose their values on the rest of the world. Dealing With Violations of Human Rights Despite the different perspectives and ideas about the concept of human rights, there are some actions that are executed towards violations against human rights.

The following part of the paper will introduce two major issues – (1) What are some activities done to promote

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protection of human rights, and (2) Are these actions effective? International Communities’ Reactions(Non-governmental level) Regarding the activities done in international community, two levels of approaches are done. First let’s take a look into actions don in non-governmental level. In the contemporary society, Nags power has increased compared to the last decades.

Specifically regarding human rights, Nags have an important role in protecting human rights as well as investigating violations. They investigate abuses of human rights and give representation to prisoners of conscience. Nags make effort to get more people to be involved in the implementation of human rights and they consult with UN human right agencies. In cases of violations of human rights, there are two approaches that Nags use. The first is the ‘quiet diplomacy approach’ where the countries are quietly pressured to protect human rights.

An example of this can be seen in Asia. An organization called Wrights Osaka has created opportunities for government in a entertaining environment. L As much as this quiet democracy tactic sounds positive, since is promotes non-violent solution, quiet diplomacy can only succeed when it is away from the spotlights of media. This is because when such contacts are exposed the risk isolation and loss of influence increases. On the other hand, as long as the media doesn’t cover such initiatives, hard-liners can argue that such thing doesn’t exist in the first place.

Another technique that Nags use is called the name and shame approach. In this case publicity is used and domestic as well as international political pressure is given to the country to remind the country of their international obligations. They expose the country of their violations to prevent it from happening again. North Korea and its human right abuses can be a good example of this. Numerous Nags over the world criticize North Korean government. These Nags release reports about the human right problems and tries to make the North Korea an issue in international community.

International Communities’ Reactions(Governmental level) Despite the efforts of Nags and other agencies to prevent violations and protect unman rights, it still occurs on a large scale. Therefore, an extreme case of dealing with violations was practiced and this is known as humanitarian intervention. Humanitarian interventions usually involve military forces that are used to end human rights violation in a states. An example of humanitarian intervention is the recent military intervention in Libya.

The US, the I-J, and France have formed a De facto tripartite military coalition to intervene in the ongoing Libyan civil war. The reason this military coalition present is the human right problem going on within Libya. Such action can be seen as a humanitarian intervention. Are these reactions effective? When we engage into news about actions done to promote human rights, one might think that such actions are effective. As a matter of fact, it is true that it does have some effects in dealing with human right issue.

However, the degree of the effects and fairness is questionable. It seems that many of these humanitarian actions are done from the western countries to the others. At least we can arguably say that many of these actions are done by the developed and powerful countries such as United States. This fact itself is not a problematic issue. The real problem is that it is only done from powerful neutron to the other. Why is this problem? The answer can be analyzed into two parts. Firstly, the intention of the actors who execute human right intervention is often questioned.

Most common example would be the United States intervention into numerous nations. Many argue that whenever there is a humanitarian intervention by United States, it always results in the benefit of United States. This is seen as a problem because the idea of humanitarian intervention can simply be a meaner of specific countries achieving their benefit. Even if the intention is actually in the interest of people who suffer from Unitarian violation, we can’t necessarily conclude that the reactions done by powerful countries are effective.

This is mainly because the human right problems in these strong countries are not answered to. For instance, United States themselves are committing numerous activities against human right. The issue of Accountant than United States are also a controversial in regards to human right, but they are hardly even criticized. Universal Human Rights The idea of Universal Human Rights should be discussed in a different level. Before discussing the effectiveness of Universal Human Right, we must first take a kook into the existence of Universal Human Right.

Thus this would be the order of contents for the following part of this writing. What is Universal Human Right? An extremely simple definition of Universal Human right would be following. Something all countries over the world would agree that certain action harms the value of human right. However, as simple and natural as this might seem, there are many reasons why it is extremely hard to achieve. Among numerous agreement are made between nations regarding human rights, the most famous example would The Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948.

As the name of this agreement implies, it aimed for a universal agreement among nations over the world. However, despite its grand name, the Declaration of Universal Human Right could not fully serve its role. From the formation and agreement of this declaration, not all countries agreed on this idea. Even some nations within the United Nations such as South Africa, the USSR and several Eastern Bloc states decided to abstain from voting. 3 What could have been the reasons for some nations to disagree on the universal human right? This is probably due to the vagueness in the term itself.

As there are no clear standard for abusing human right, this can lead to not only disagreement but further conflicts between diverse entities. Specifically, different cultural and religious values make it impossible to come to agreement. There are some clear actions such as mass killing, but many more are left controversial. For these reasons and characteristics above, it is reasonable to conclude that Universal Human cannot be very effective nor achieved. Due to the vagueness of the idea and different interest of actors over the world, universal agreement on human right seems an ideological dream.

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