Explain what is meant by the term “dementia” The literal interpretation of the word ‘dementia’ means deprived of mind. Is usually taken to mean mental deterioration or group of conditions/disorders of brain. Specific diseases eg Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, Cerebral Vascular e. g. stroke. Describe the key functions of the brain that are affected by dementia Parietal Lobe – language, special awareness, recognition Frontal Lobe – behaviour, movement, personality
Occipital Lobe – visual, processing Temporal Lobe – memory, speech, hearing Explain why depression, delirium and age related memory impairment maybe mistaken for dementia. They have most common/similarities of signs and symptoms but some differences. Same side effect of medication. Outcome 2 Understand key features of the theoretical models of dementia Outline the medical model of dementia Focus on the disease Focus on diagnosis and treatment of illness Outline the social model of dementia Focus on individual’s skills, capabilities and achievements retained Person centred approach e.
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g. ecognise individuality, enabling choice, looking at the person as a united whole
Explain why dementia should be viewed as disability. Emotional impairment Physical impairment Impact on relationships Impact on tasks of daily living Impact on communication Environmental factors Outcome 3 Know the most common types of dementia and their causes List the most common causes of dementia Korsakoff’s Syndrome Vascular Dementia Aids-related cognitive impairment Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease Dementia with Lewy Bodies Alzheimer’s Disease Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) Fronto-Temporal Dementia Causes: Alcohol/Substance Misuse Stroke Aids
Epileptic Seizures Lewy Bodies Age Describe the likely signs and symptoms of the most common causes of dementia Signs & symptoms: Mood changes Personality changes Hallucinations Confusion Disorientation in time and place Memory loss Communication difficulties Repetitive conversation or questions Difficulties with organising everyday life Difficulties with perception 3. 3 Outline the risk factors for the most common causes of dementia Risk Factors: Lifestyle choices eg diet, smoking, alcohol, lack of exercise Age Medical conditions such as multiple sclerosis, motor neurone disease Parkinson’s disease
Huntingdon’s disease High blood pressure Gender Genetics Identify prevalence rates for different types of dementia Alzheimer’s disease approximately 700,000 people in the UK have dementia. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia. It estimates that 62% of individuals with dementia have alzheimer’s disease. Vascular disease reduces the effectiveness of the blood supply to the whole body. If it affects the supply to the brain, the individual may experience vascular dementia. The alzheimer’s society estimates that vascular dementia affects 17% of individual’s with dementia.
Lewy body disease causes dementia with Lew Bodies dementia (DLB) which the Alzheimer’s Society estimates affects 4% of individual’s with dementia. The Lew Body Society states that, in the UK, there are approximately 100,000 individual’s with DLB. Outcome 4 Understand the factors relating to and individual’s experience of dementia Describe how different individuals may experience living with dementia depending on age, types of dementia, and level of ability and disability. Outline the impact that the attitudes and behaviours of others may have on an individual with dementia.