Depression Is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that may be a normal reaction to life events or circumstances, a symptom of some medical conditions, a side effect of some drugs or medical treatments, or a symptom of certain psychiatric syndromes such as the mood disorders major depressive disorder and dysphasia.
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Depression In childhood and adolescence may be similar to adult major depressive disorder, although young sufferers may exhibit increased irritability or aggressive and self-destructive behaviors, rather than the all-encompassing sadness associated tit adult forms of depression Children who are under stress, who experience loss, or who have attention, learning, behavioral, or anxiety disorders are at a higher risk for depression. Childhood depression Is often co-morbid with mental disorders outside of the mood disorders; most commonly anxiety disorder and conduct disorder.
Depression also tends to run In families. Psychologists have developed deferent treatments to assist children and adolescents suffering from depression, though the legitimacy of the diagnosis of childhood depression as a psychiatric crosier, as well as the efficacy of various methods of assessment and treatment, remains controversial. Base Rates and Prevalence About 8% of children and adolescents suffer from depression. Research suggests that the prevalence of young depression sufferers In Western cultures ranges from 1. 9% to 3. 4% among primary school children and 3. % to 8. 9% among adolescents. Studies have also found that among children diagnosed with a depressive episode, there is a 70% rate of recurrence within five years. While there is no gender difference in depression rates up until age fifteen, after that age the rate among males doubles compared to males. However, In terms of recurrence rates and symptom severity, there is no gender difference. In an attempt to explain these findings, one theory asserts that preadolescence females, on average, have more risk factors for depression than males.
These risk factors then combine with the typical stresses and challenges of adolescent development to trigger the onset of depression. Suicidal Intent Like their adult counterparts, children and adolescent depression sufferers are at an increased risk of attempting or committing suicide.Adolescent males may be at an even higher risk of suicidal behavior If they also present with a conduct disorder. In the sass, the National Institute of Medical Health found that up to 7% of adolescents who develop major depressive disorder may commit suicide as young adults.
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Such statistics demonstratethe importance of interventions by family and friends, as well as the importance of early diagnosis and treatment by medical staff, to prevent suicide among depressed or at-risk youth. Risk Factor In childhood, males and females appear to be at equal risk for depressive disorders; ring adolescence, however, females are twice as likely as boys to develop depression. Children who develop major depression are more likely to have a family history of the disorder, than patients with adolescent- or adult-onset depression.
Adolescents with depression are also likely to have a family history of depression, though the correlation Is not as high as It Is for children. Co-morbidly children with dysphasia There is also a substantial co-morbidity rate with depression in children and anxiety disorders, conduct disorder, and impaired social functioning. Conduct disorders also have a significant co-morbidity with depression in children and adolescents, with a rate of 23% in one longitudinal study.
Beyond other clinical disorders, there is also an association between depression in childhood and poor psychosocial and academic outcomes, as well as a higher risk for substance abuse and suicide. Correlation between Child Depression and Adolescent Cardiac Risks According to a research done by ARM Carney et al. , any history of child depression influences the occurrence of adolescent cardiac risk factors, even if individuals no anger suffer from depression. They are much more likely to develop heart disease as adults.
Distinction from Major Depressive Disorder in Adults While there are many similarities to adult depression, especially in expression of symptoms, there are many differences that create a distinction between the two diagnoses. Research has shown that when a child’s age is younger at diagnosis, typically there will be a more noticeable difference in expression of symptoms from the classic signs in adult depression. One major difference between the symptoms exhibited in adults and in children is that children have higher rates of initialization; therefore, symptoms of child depression are more difficult to recognize.
One major cause for this difference is that many of the neurological effects within the brain that have been shown in adults with depression are not fully developed until adulthood. Therefore, in a neurological sense, children and adolescents express depression differently. History Child abuse first began to come into the awareness of professionals in the early sass, so it is possible that some of the young people identified with depressive corridors may have had a history of sexual abuse which was not disclosed.
This raises the question of what the outcome would have been in those young people who had been sexually abused if they had disclosed the abuse and received appropriate therapeutic interventions. It is well known that childhood sexual abuse is a significant factor in the histories of some adults presenting with depressive syndromes. In the past, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder was not recognized, and hyperkinetic disorder was only rarely diagnosed. Some young people, especially those with morbid conduct disorder and major depressive disorder, may have had undiagnosed and untreated ADD.
Before the use of psychotherapists, some young people may have been more vulnerable to development of depressive syndromes because of untreated attention and other behavioral problems negatively impacting their self-esteem. Although antidepressants were used by child and adolescent psychiatrists to treat major depressive disorder, they may not always have been used in young people with a combine conduct disorder because of the risks of overdose in such a population. Tricycle antidepressants were the predominant antidepressants used at that time in this population.
With the advent of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, child and adolescent psychiatrists probably began prescribing more anti-depressants in the combine conduct disorder/major depressive group because of the lower risk of serious harm in overdose. This raises the possibility that more effective treatment of these young people might also have There are multiple treatments that can be effective in treating children diagnosed with depression. Psychotherapy and medications are commonly used treatment options. In some research, adolescents showed a preference for psychotherapy rather than antidepressant medication for treatment.
For adolescents, cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy have been empirically supported as effective treatment options. Pediatric massage therapy may have an immediate impact on a child’s emotional state at the time of the massage, but sustained effects on depression have not been identified. Treatment programs have been developed that help reduce the symptoms of depression. These treatments focus on immediate symptom reduction by concentrating on teaching children skills pertaining to primary and secondary control.
While much research is still needed to confirm this treatment program’s efficacy, one study showed it to be effective in children with mild or moderate depressive symptoms. Talk Therapy There are 3 common types of talk therapy. These can assist people to live more fully and have a better life. Cognitive therapy Cognitive therapy aims to change harmful ways of thinking and airframe negative thoughts in a more positive way. Behavioral therapy Behavioral therapy helps aims to change harmful ways of acting and gain control over behavior which is causing problems.
Interpersonal therapy Interpersonal therapy helps one to learn to relate better with others, express feelings and develop better social skills. Family Therapy The principles of group dynamics are relevant to family therapists who must not only work with individuals, but with entire family systems Two key concepts that influence family therapy are the distinction between the process and content of group discussions, and role theory. Therapists strive to understand not Just what the group embers say, but how these ideas are communicated .
Therapists can help families improve the way they relate and thus enhance their own capacity to deal with the content of their problems by focusing on the process of their discussions. Virginia Astir expanded on the concept of how individuals behave and communicate in groups by describing several family roles that can serve to stabilize expected characteristic behavior patterns in a family. For instance, if one child is considered as a “rebel child,” a sibling may take on the role of the “good child” to alleviate some of he stress in the family.
This concept of role reciprocity is helpful to understanding family dynamics because of the complementary nature of roles makes behaviors more resistant to change. Controversies Throughout the development and research of this disorder, controversies have emerged over the legitimacy of depression in childhood and adolescence as a diagnosis, the proper measurement and validity of scales to diagnose, and the safety of particular treatments. Legitimacy as a Diagnosis In early research of depression in children, there was argument as to whether or not hillier could clinically fit the criteria for Major Depressive Disorder.
However, since the sass, it has been accepted among the psychological community that depression in children can be clinically significant Questions have also surfaced about the safety and effectiveness of antidepressant medications. Measurement Reliability Despite the fact that literature has documented strong psychometric properties, other studies have shown a poor specificity at the top end of scales, resulting in most children with high scores not meeting the diagnostic criteria for depression. A large once in the use of self-report scales is the accuracy of the information collected.
The main controversy is caused by uncertainty about how the data from these multiple informants can or should be combined to determine whether a child can be diagnosed with depression. It is currently recommended that, because of the variability of these studies, if antidepressants are chosen as a method of treatment for children or adolescents, that the clinician monitor closely for adverse symptoms, since there is still no definitive answer on the safety and overall efficacy References Bibliography: Wisped @beggary’sSee More on Suicide