DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF ELEARNING Design and Application of E-learning to Enhance Quality and Accessibility to Education Dr. Munta]eeb All Baig. IGNOU, PGDEL. Introduction: Advent of Internet made modern world Ilke a global village, and It has reduced the distances between the learner and teacher. A learner can use e-learning to take education not only for a limited period of time but for the whole life thus e-learning facilitate continuing and life long education.

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E-Learning also supports the concept of classrooms without walls where learner and facilitator have the flexlblllty to make ontact with each other, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week; this develops social Networking, Collaboration and Self learning among learner, which helps In effective learning. Definition of e-learning: E-learnlng Is a broader concept; It Is defined In terms of technologies used for the purpose of teaching and learning. The word E-Learnlng consists of two words “e” and “learning”, where “e”, stands for the word “electronic” i. e. , electronic devices and “learning”, means acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes.

Thus E-learning means acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitude through the use of technology, Ilke Internet, mobiles, PDA’s and Computers. Carllner defines online learning as “educational material that is presented on a computВ«. In chapter “Designing online learning”, Sharma, S (2009), defines online learning as an “Internet or Intranet-based teaching learning system designed for web based delivery, without face to face contact between teacher and learner”; In this type of teaching learning system knowledge is imparted through synchronous and asynchronous modes through Internet or intranet.

According to Badrul L Khan “E-learning represent open, flexible and distributed learning”. Scope: E-learnlng, though In Its nascent stage, has a very high scope, because of rich and interactive content. In developing countries like India there is a huge disparity in education of rural and urban areas, this disparity can be removed by online education, which will reduce cost and gives learner an opportunity to get higher education. Advantages: E•Learnlng Is beneficial to the learner and facilitator because It Is cost effective, saves time, available 24 hoursa day and 7 days in a week.

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Following are some of the advantages of E-learning: 1) E-learning has the advantage of conducting classes nytime and anywhere thus it reduces the constraint of Space and Time. In synchronous online learning Interaction between learner and facilitator Is in real time,where as in asynchronous online learning interaction between learner and facilitator is not in real time. 2) E-learning provides rich and interactive resources sucn as text, pictures, grapnlcs, anlmatlon, games, oataoase, au010, v10eos ana simulations to learner. ) In traditional teaching money is spent in travelling, but e- learning provides education to learners from any geographic location, hence it saves money on travelling and it is cost effective. ) E-learning caters to the needs of gifted learners, average learners and slow learners by making them to learn according to their own pace and capacity. 5) E-learning provides opportunities to learners to learn by designing course according to their needs, ability and learning styles. ) Collaborative learning and cooperative learning increases motivation, persistence and develops interpersonal and communications skill among learner (Fisher Phelps & Ellis, 2000; Gokhale, 1995). 7) Help learners to access learning resources such as a database or course content online via an Internet or the intranet, according to their wn abilities and interest. Limitations: According to Swamy, K. (2010), the technology enables learner to have all kinds of interactions virtually but there is an emotional disconnect which is the essence of human relationship.

Following are the limitations in e-learning; 1) Learners should have knowledge and skills in using computers and accessing Internet, other wise learning environment will become threatening. 2) Low bandwidth imposes restrictions in accessing web 2. 0 technologies, and also courses with HD videos and animations require high bandwidth, this may frustrate learners and they may give up course. ) Frequent load shedding may interfere with accessing course. 4) There is an emotional disconnection between learner and facilitator in online learning. ) Costly hardwares’ and softwares’ are required in designing and delivering online courses. Issues related to e-learning: Design: Mr P. Kabilan (2010) rightly quoted about instructional designing, “Software and hardware are only vehicles in the creation of an environment that is conducive to learning”. Similar quotation is given by Kozma; he claims that it is not the computer per se that makes students learn, but the design of the real-life models and imulations, and the students’ interaction with those models and simulations. The design of online learning materials should be based on the eclectic theory i. . , it can include laws and principles from theories of behaviourism, cognitivism, constructivism and connectivism. According to Ertmer and Newby, “the three schools of thought can, in fact, be used as taxonomy for learning”. Following are some of the issues related with designing e-learning; 1) E-learning requires compatible and updated hardwares’ like, computer, scanner, printer, web-cam, mic & modem, and Softwares’ such as Web Browser, Plugin, Flash player, ActiveX, Javascript & VB Script. Incompatible hardware and software may interfere in accessing e-learning. ) Non availability of expertise in IT is also an issue in e-learning. For designing, developing and delivering online programme expertise in web designing, programming, animation, Content Management System (CMS) and Learning Management System (LMS) are required. 3) Synchronous learning requires a high bandwidth, for example a video conferencing requires minimum, 125-250 kilo bits per second (kbps), and an audio conferencing requires 64-125 kbps, therefore while designing e-learning ourse availability of bandwidth should be considered. ) Designer should provide successful learning experiences through interaction methods like, one-alone, one-to- one, one-to-many ana many-to-many. Quall According to a survey, carried out by European Training Village, 61% of training professionals rated the overall quality of E-learning as poor, the problems according to training professionals are related with, technical and pedagogical design. these problems can be solved through assessment and monitoring by government agencies.

The quality of online learning can be assessed, externally as well as internally. External assessment can be made by agencies such as National Accreditation and Assessment Council (NAAC), All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE); and International Organization for Standardization (ISO), similarly internal assessment can be made through factors like, quality educational resources, quality lectures, quality of learning experiences, readiness of learner, motivation of learner and quality of feedback and support.

Training: A facilitator should develop expertise in using online tools and also familiarise with the skills and resources needed to be successful online facilitator. A facilitator may oin some online courses, so that he may get first hand experiences in CMS and LMS, he may also get experiences related with problems faced by students in accessing, storing and retrieving information. Many business organisations prefer blended method of training, because it solves problems faced by face to face method of learning and virtual training.

Access: Online learning offers courses, at any time, anywhere, on any topic hence it requires, availability and high bandwidth of Internet to access courses. Low bandwidth is the main constraint in accessing online courses in rural areas, beside low bandwidth, here are other issues, like authoring tools, browsers, content, disability, age, culture, and traditions, which put some constraint in accessing an Internet. Problems in poor accessibility in rural areas can be solved by providing connections of broadband with low rates and subsidies.

http://www.aupress.ca/books/120146/ebook/99Z_Anderson_2008-Theory_and_Practice_of_Online_Learning.pdf

http://www.123helpme.com/design-and-application-of-e-learning-to-enhance-quality-and-accessibility-to-education–preview.asp?id=196082

http://www.bloomu.edu/gradschool/instructional-technology

http://cemca.org.in/ckfinder/userfiles/files/e-learning_guidebook.pdf

http://www.academia.edu/1569903/Design_and_Application_of_E-learning_to_Enhance_Quality_and_Accessibility_to_Education

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