Diabetes

7 July 2016

Assessment 1. 1 Understand the function of glucose in the blood 1) 1. 1 Explain what ‘blood glucose’ is: Blood glucose is glucose in the blood stream. Glucose comes from eating and digesting carbohydrates. 2) 1. 2 Describe the difference between simple and complex carbohydrates: Carbohydrates that break down rapidly during digestion are known as simple carbohydrates because they rapidly release glucose into the blood stream. Carbohydrates that break down slowly are known as complex carbohydrates because they slowly release glucose into the blood stream.

3) 1. 3 Define the term ‘glycaemia’: Glycaemia is the presence of glucose (sugar) in the blood 4) 1. 4 Define the term ‘hypoglycaemia’: Hypoglycaemia is a condition that arises when a person has a low level of blood glucose (less than 3. 5mnol/L 5) 1. 3 Define the term ‘hyperglycaemia’: Hyperglycaemia is a condition that arises when a person has an abnormally high level of blood glucose. 6) 1. 4 Describe what ‘pre-diabetes’ is: Pre-diabetes is a precursor to type 2 diabetes. There are no signs and symptoms-an individual simply has elevated glucose levels.

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, but these blood glucose levels are not quite high enough to be considered full diabetes. Pre-diabetes is initially managed with a healthy diet and exercise. 7) 1. 4 What are the two pre-diabetic states: a) Impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) b) Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) Assessment 1. 2 Understand the function of insulin in the blood 1) 2. 1 Which organ in the body produces insulin: The pancreas produces insulin. 2) 2. 1 Describe how insulin is produced: Insulin is produced by the pancreas. The pancreas secretes pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes.

These enzymes help to break down carbohydrates, protein and fat in the small intestine. The pancreas produces several hormones-including glucose and insulin. 3) 2. 2 Explain how insulin affects blood glucose levels: When you eat, insulin is realised into the bloodstream where it helps to move glucose from the food you have eaten into cells to be used as energy. People who have diabetes produce little or no insulin therefore they need to replace or increase insulin levels artificially, in order to and glucose regulation in the blood. 4) 2. 3 Describe what ‘insulin resistance’ means:

Insulin resistance is the inability of the body to recognise and use insulin adequately. If a person develops “insulin resistance” they lose the ability to control blood glucose effectively and therefore have abnormal levels of blood glucose and insulin. Insulin resistance is a key indicator of type 2 diabetes. Assessment 1. 3 Understand the different forms of diabetes 1) 3. 1 Describe what is meant by the term ‘diabetes’: Diabetes occurs when a person has too much glucose in their blood . Insulin, produced by the pancreas, regulates blood glucose.

Diabetes occurs when to little or no insulin is produced or when the body is unable to use the insulin correctly. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1: The pancreas has stopped producing insulin. Type 2: Because of insulin resistance, or reduced insulin. 2) 3. 2 Outline the key features of type 1 diabetes: Type 1 diabetes can develop at anytime, it usually develops in people under 30. It is unknown how the condition happens, but it is thought to occur when the body’s immune system fails and produces an autoimmune response.

In type 1 diabetes insulin production has stopped, therefore injections of insulin are needed. 3) 3. 3 Outline the key features of type 2 diabetes: Type 2 diabetes usually develops in people over the age of 40. However nowadays due to childhood obesity it can occur in younger adults and children. In type 2 diabetes insulin production is reduced or there is a resistance to it. Diet and exercise, medication (oral or injections) and injections of insulin are all key factors for this type. 4) 3. 4 Explain what causes type 1 diabetes: Type 1 diabetes has no known cause.

At present there is no known cure or prevention, but it can be managed. 5) 3. 4 Explain what causes type 2 diabetes: Type 2 diabetes occurs when the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin to meet the body’s requirements for energy, or when the insulin produced is not metabolised effectively by the cells. Diet and exercise are important. Type 2 diabetes is characterised by insulin deficiency, insulin resistance and hypoglycaemia- to much glucose in the blood. 6) 3. 5 Explain how gestational diabetes occurs: Gestational diabetes occurs in pregnant woman.

During pregnancy the placenta produces hormones that sustain and aid the development of the foetus. More of these hormones are produced during the second and third trimester. However, this increase causes the cells to become more resistant to insulin. Gestational diabetes occurs when the pancreas is unable to cope with the increase demand for insulin and as a result causes higher blood glucose levels. 7) 3. 6 Using approved websites, such as diabetes. org. uk, nhs. uk and netdoctor. co. uk investigate the most recent figures for diabetes cases in the UK and list them below.

In the UK: Approximately how many people have diabetes today? 2. 6 Million How many are expected to develop diabetes by 2025? 4 Million Using the internet and approved websites chose a period of time in the past (e. g. 5 or 10 years ago). Indentify how many people in the UK had diabetes at that time. How have the figures changed since then? Since 1996 the number of people diagnosed with diabetes has increased from 1. 4 million to 2. 6. This figure has almost doubled. One reason for this may be due to the rising number of overweight and obese people and because our aging population.

Assessment 1. 4 Know the risk factors of developing type 2 diabetes 1) 4. 1 Identify ANY FIVE risk factors associated with the development of type 2 diabetes: a) Smoking. b) Being obese (BMI of 30 and over). c) Drinking too much alcohol. d) High blood pressure and high cholesterol. e) Family history/genetic predisposition. 2) 4. 2 describe ANY FIVE ways that an individual can reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes: a) Exercise daily (30 minutes or more) b) Stop smoking. c) Reduce your alcohol intake. d) Consider your food intake and portion sizes.

e) Consult a dietician/nutritionist. Assessment 1. 5 Understand how diabetes is confirmed 1) 5. 1 Describe ANY FOUR likely signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes: a) Excessive thirst- high blood glucose levels cause water to move out of the cells into the bloodstream to try to dilute the blood. b) Blurred vision- this is due to high glucose levels in the aqueous of the eyes. c) Unintentional weight loss- without fluids and glucose muscles and fat stores shrink. d) Increased fatigue and irritability- as a result of cells losing water and being unable to absorb glucose from the blood.

2) 5. 1 Describe ANY FOUR likely signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes: a) Extreme hunger- insulin resistance or reduced insulin production affects glucose movement into the cells. b) Slow healing of wounds- high blood sugar levels inhibit white blood cells from working properly. Wounds take longer to heal as the white blood cells are unable to function correctly. c) Frequent infections-these occur because of a suppressed immune system. d) Excessive thirst- high blood glucose levels cause water to move out of the cells into the bloodstream to try to dilute the blood. 3) 5.

2 Identify methods of assessing individuals at risk of developing type 2 diabetes (e. g. the methods used to identify the risk factors of developing type2 diabetes) : A diagnosis of diabetes is made by a GP using a blood test. Tell your GP if a family member has or develops a new medical condition. Some regular tests (annually) could include: blood cholesterol test, BMI, blood pressure, eye examination, testing for protein in the urine and testing for glucose in the urine. 4 5. 3 Outline the process of screening for diabetes: Diabetes is diagnosed by a healthcare professional, using the results from a

blood test. If the results indicates a blood glucose concentration of 6. 1 mmol/L or more an oral glucose tolerance test will usually be carried out by a pathology service. An individual would need to fast overnight for a minimum of 8 hours. Bloods are taken and then a glucose solution is given to drink. Blood is then taken 1 and 2 hours after the drink and the blood glucose levels are measured. A value of 7. 8mmol/L to 11. 0mmol/L indicates pre-diabetes, therefore the body has an impaired glucose tolerance. A value of 11. 1 mmol/L or more means diabetes is confirmed.

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