Differences between Ancient Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt It is not possible for civilizations to flow backwards while there is creativity and curiosity in the world. Each civilization learns from the one before it, but sometimes they are created entirely different. The ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt are different. Mesopotamia and Egypt both had a very centralized government, but they both used different methods to see who would become the ruler. Agriculture, Mesopotamia and Egypt both had it, but it was harder for one civilization, to make agriculture work for them.

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Mesopotamian and Egyptian art was unique but both ever represented differently. When it came to science and technology, ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt progressed well in terms of how much had gotten accomplished. Firstly, Mesopotamia and Egypt had a very different way of finding the next ruler. The early Mesopotamian government of various towns and villages were democratic. The early Mesopotamians used a city-state type government; each was controlled by its own political and economical center.(Guisepi) This is significant because it shows that early Mesopotamians believed that democracy was the right and equal type of government to use. This relates to the thesis because it shows how dissimilar ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt were. The development of Egypt’s political structure started with the concept of god-king. Pharaohs were meant to resemble gods on earth. They received their power from the gods, which ensured their considerable stability. To guarantee the purest line of rulers, Pharaohs passed on the throne to the eldest son of the prime queen.

(Newman 59-60) This is important because it shows that Egyptians had a spiritual connection to the gods, which aloud them to have pharaohs, who were represented as gods on earth. Ancient Mesopotamians compared to Ancient Egyptians did not believe in God on Earth, this makes both civilizations uniquely different. Therefore, the two civilizations centralized governments were distinct, early ancient Mesopotamians believed in democracy and ancient Egypt used the theory of god-king. Secondly, agriculture for ancient Mesopotamia was dreadful and Egyptian farming was almost trouble-free.

Mesopotamian land received little rainfall for crops;

Page 2 Differences between Ancient Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt Essay

the soil was parched and it contained no minerals. All year-round life for farmers was challenging and demanding. (Newman 40) (Louis)This is important, because this also shows how hard it was for ancient Mesopotamia to farm under harsh conditions and for them to be able to grow as a civilization, food was needed and if food was not available then it would be hard for the civilization to expand. This relates to the thesis by that ancient Egyptians had various amounts of food to expand their civilization and Mesopotamians did not.

Egyptian agriculture was very simple and easy to take care off. After floods, the land would be fertile, full of rich nutrients and minerals. Farmers would plant many vegetables and fruits and they used irrigation, which helped water dry lands with streams, canals or pies. (Louis) This is significant for the reason that it highlights how Egyptian agriculture was used. Also how much simpler it was for the Egyptians, who had recognized the flood timings of the Nile. Contrasted to the Mesopotamians who did not know the flood timings of the Euphrates and Tigris River.

This shows how hard it was for Mesopotamians to farm under harsh conditions. Even though both civilizations were located near water (the very basis of life), each had a different outcome with agriculture. Thirdly, ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian art was represented in diverse ways. Egyptian art meant to capture eternity for an individual represented. Since Egyptians wanted to live forever, their art it made it possible. The main task of the Egyptian artist was to capture for eternity, the real meaning and character of the deceased.

Egyptian art also focused on gods and human scenes, which were shown in characteristics, stylized in a certain form, such form that it lasted without change for many centuries. (Newman 76) (Guisepi) This is important to remember because it shows that Egyptians wanted to be remembered and idolized forever. This compared to the Mesopotamians shows a very a different opinion on art. Mesopotamian art was small in scale to Egyptian art; it also had two preoccupations-man’s relationship to the gods and conflict on real/ mythological situations.

The first piece of art was the Ziggurats, which shows that Mesopotamians believed in humans serving the gods. For real and mythological situations purposes many Mesopotamians used a cylinder seal as jewellery or as magical amulets, which were connected to cuneiform writing. This is significant, because it demonstrates that mostly Mesopotamia’s art was used for praying to gods and since they did not have much stone this made them different from Egyptians who had much more stone to use for practical purposes. Ancient Mesopotamia and Egyptian art was unique in their own way, they both represented different ideas and concepts.

Finally, Ancient Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt excelled differently in science and technology. Many simple and daily objects were created by Mesopotamians. Mesopotamians created the first known wheeled vehicle, seeder-plows, pickaxes, cuneiform writing, the 360° circle and the Ziggurats. This is important because it shows that Mesopotamians realized that that they could invent things that could make their lives easier. This relates back to the thesis that since Mesopotamians created the most basic things needed, this makes them different from the Egyptians.

The Egyptians mostly focused on hieroglyphics and medicine. Egyptians abandoned the Mesopotamian cuneiform writing and created the hieroglyphics, which were used until 394 CE. Hieroglyphics went from temples and tombs to impractical everyday use. Medicine was practiced and used. Medicine was practiced and used; it contained observations mixed with magic and religion. With this, a certain disease could have been associated with a god- if he or she was unhappy with you- would explain why the person had the disease.

(Newman 81-82) This is significant, for the reason that it shows how Egyptians wanted to be separated and how they became independent. This also shows that Egyptians created only what was necessary. While Mesopotamians created all the basic technology and Egyptians only created the necessary tools to live comfortably. To conclude, the first two ancient civilizations, Mesopotamia and Egypt are not alike in character or quality. Ancient Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt had centralized governments, but the way each civilization was ruled was very unlike.

Agriculture was a great influence on ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt; both civilizations had a different ways of dealing with the outcomes. Ancient Egyptian art was mostly based around pharaoh and documenting life, while ancient Mesopotamian art was based mostly gods relationship to humans and conflict real or mythological events that took place. Ancient Mesopotamia created the basic technology that was useful to everyone and ancient Egyptians were more involved in medical science and hieroglyphics. Therefore, the first two civilizations are only one of its kind and not alike with each other in any way or form.

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