Different Types of Management Styles
Law enforcement management is a process of deciding goals and objectives, adopting a work plan to accomplish them, obtaining and wisely using resources and making decisions that result in a high level of performance and productivity. Difference in Authority, Responsibility, and Delegation: Authority, law, and delegation are key factors in any organization. Authority is the power to enforce laws, exact obedience, and command.
It is the legal right to get things done through others by influencing behavior. Responsibility means being answerable, liable, or accountable. Thus managers have the authority to give commands, and subordinates have the responsibility of carrying out commands. This authority-responsibility structure is in keeping with the paramilitary organization that traditional police management is modeled after. Delegation, or transferring authority, is a necessary and often difficult aspect of management because it requires placing trust in others to do the job as well as, or better than, the manager would do it.
Seagull Management: manager hears something’s wrong, flies in, makes a lot of noise, craps on everybody and flies away. Characteristics of Effective Managers: Successful managers have: clear goals, a commitment to excellence, feedback, and support. In addition to these basic skills and tools, effective managers usually possess characteristics that help them succeed. Management Style Theories: “Theory X/Theory Y” – Douglas McGregor: Mangers act toward subordinates in relation to the views they have of them. Theory X views employees as lazy and motivated by pay.
Theory Y views employees as committed and motivated by growth and development. The humanistic approach reflected in Theory Y is more effective in today’s work world. “Four System Approach” – Rensis Likert: System 1) is the traditional, dictatorial approach to managing people. This system generally exploits employees, and uses coercion and a few economic rewards. Communication flows downward from the top, and this is little to no feedback. System 2) is similar to system 1, except that economic rewards replace coercion. Some information on organizational development is permitted but not in opposition to management’s control.
System 3) is more liberal, uses employee initiative and gives employees more responsibility. System 4) is participative management (the opposite of system 1). Final decisions are made by management but only after employees have added their input. Communication flows through the organization, and there is much feedback. Also includes team management, which is widely used today. “Mature Employee Theory” – Chris Argyris: Organizations and individuals exist for a purpose. Both are interdependent: organization provides jobs, and people perform them. Managerial/Leaderships Grid Theory” – Mouton and Blake: 1) Authority Compliance Management Style – the early autocratic authoritarian approach. Concern is for manager authority, status, and operation of the organization. 2)
Country Club Management- managers are overly concerned with keeping employees happy at the expense of reasonable productivity. Concern for employees is utmost; concern for productivity is limited. 3) Impoverished Management – permits workers to do just enough to get by. Little real concern exists for employees or management. Little is expected and little is given.
The prevailing attitude: ignore problems and they will go away. 4) Middle of the Road Management – the manager shows some concern for both employees and management but in a low key manner that is not productive. The manager is a fence straddler. 5) Team Management – The manager works with employees as a team, providing information, caring about their feelings and concern, assisting, advising, and coaching. Employees are committed to their jobs and organization through a mutual relationship of trust and respect. Goals are achieved as a team. The ideal approach.
Difference between Initiating Structure and Consideration Structure: initiating structure looks at how leaders assign tasks. Consideration Structure looks at establishing the relationship between the group and the leader. Leadership Styles: Autocratic Leadership – managers make decisions without participant input; completely authoritative, showing little or no concern for subordinates. Mechanistic Model – divides tasks into highly specialized jobs where job holders become experts in their fields, demonstrating the “one best way” to perform their cog in the wheel; the opposite of the organic model.
Organic Model – a flexible, participatory, science based structure that will accommodate change; designed for effectiveness in serving the needs of citizens rather than the autocratic rationality of operation; the opposite of the mechanistic model. Chapter 2 The Hierarchy of Authority: the structure of most police departments has traditionally been a semi military, pyramid shaped hierarchy with the authority flowing from the narrow apex down to the broad base. This formal organization is generally supported in writing by rules and regulations, department operational manuals and job description.
Chain of Command: the order of authority; begins at the top of the pyramid and slows down to the base. Community Policing: decentralized model of policing in which individual officers exercise their own initiatives and citizens become actively involved in making their neighborhoods safer; this proactive approach usually includes increased emphasis on foot patrol. Problem Solving Policing: management ascertains what problems exist and tries to solve them, redefining the role of law enforcement from incident driven and reactive to problem oriented and proactive. Chapter 3
Stakeholders: those affected by an organization and those in a position to affect it. Goals: broad, general, desired outcomes; visionary, projected achievements; what business calls key result areas. Objectives: specific, measurable ways to accomplish goals; more specific than goals and usually have a timeline. SMART Goals and Objectives: objectives that are Specific Measurable Attainable Relevant and Trackable Functions of Managers at Various Levels: The first line level (sergeants, first line supervisors), the middle level (captains, lieutenants), the top level (chief, sheriff).
At each level of management, responsibilities include planning, organizing, controlling and leading. Although the same activities are performed at each management level, the activities flow downward with each management level interacting with its subordinates. Tactical Planning: short term planning; this year’s work plans. Strategic Planning: long term planning; futuristic planning Chapter 4 Communication Process: the complex process through which information and understanding are transferred from one person to another. This process may involve written or spoken words or sings and gestures.
Successful communication occurs when the receiver’s understanding of the message is the same as the sender’s intent. Jargon: nonsense or meaningless language Nonverbal Communication: messages conveyed by body language as well as tone of voice Body Language: messages conveyed by gestures, facial expressions, stance and physical appearance. Listening: the weakest link in the communication process Active Listening: includes concentration, full attention and thought Feedback: the process by which the sender knows whether the receiver has understood the message. Most feedback is direct and oral.
Barriers to Communication: noise, time, volume of information, saying what others want to hear, certainty, bad word selection, prejudices, strained sender-receiver relationships Communication Enhancers: send clear messages; say what you mean and mean what you say. Select the best communication channel; focus on one-on-one, face-to-face communication, the most powerful channel available. Be open; investigate options rather than steadfastly clinging to the solution. Lines of Communication (Internal Communication): similar to channels of communication; may be downward (vertical) or lateral (horizontal) and internal or external.
Downward communication includes directives from managers and supervisors, either written or spoken. Lateral communication includes communication among mangers on the same level and among subordinates on the same level. Grapevine: informal channel of communication within the agency or department; also called the rumor mill. Agenda: a plan, usually referring to a meeting outline or program; a list of things to be accomplished. Ways Police Communicate with the Community: annual reports, the internet.