Introduction The primary requirement for making disaster management plan is the reliable and upto date information about topography and socio- economic and climatic conditions of this region. This will help in identifying the areas vulnerable to environmental and manmade hazards. This chapter deals with the information on geographical aspects of Gurgaon district, its area, population distribution, climatic condition, physiographic divisions as well as geology of the district.
History of problem prone activities in Gurgaon has also been mentioned to depict the picture, as to how, the district is prone to different kinds of hazards like earthquakes, flood, serial bomb blasts, industrial disasters, fire etc. Information on Socio-economic programmes e. g. literacy rate, education facility and public welfare schemes of the district are also mentioned here to show the central stage that Gurgaon has already occupied in the state called Haryana one of the most vibrant states of India. 1. 1 The Need for district disaster management plan: Gurgaon is the sixth largest city of Haryana State.
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For the last two decades, it has been on the faster pace of the development. And emerged as the industrial and financial hub of Haryana. Hazard Risk in Gurgaon are further compounded by increasing vulnerabilities related to the high population growth, rapid-urbanization, increasing Industrialization, rapid development within high risk seismic zone (Zone IV), environmental degradation, climate change etc. In the past, efforts had been made to solve these problems, but due to lack of proper emergency management strategy, no tangible results could be achieved.
In the given circumstances, the need to have Gurgaon Disaster Management Plan (GDMP) for district is the utmost need of the hour. 1. 2 Historical background : The district has been in existence since the times of Mahabharata and was named as Guru-gram, which in course of time distorted to Gurgaon. The district is surrounded by Delhi and Rajasthan State. -1Prior to 1803 AD it remained in a turbulent state as most of it came under the British rule through the treaty of Surji Arjungaon with Sindhiya.
Later on in 1861 the district was rearranged into five tehsils Gurgaon, F. P. Jhirka, Nuh, Palwal and Rewari. Since the beginning of the twentieth century various changes have occurred in the territorial composition of the district. In 1911-192, a part of Ballabhgarh tehsil was transferred to Gurgaon district. Under the province and state order 1950, 9 villages of the district including Shahjahanpur were transferred to Rajasthan, where as the district gained with merger of Pataudi State and a transfer of its two villages from Rajasthan and 78 villages from PEPSU.
On 15 August, 1979, Gurgaon district was bifurcated to form a new district Faridabad in which tehsils of Ballabhgarh and Palwal, of Gurgaon District were merged. 1. 3 Location and Boundaries : Gurgaon District falls in the Southern most region of the state of Haryana. Its headquarter is at Gurgaon. To its advantage of being situated in vicinity of Delhi, Gurgaon falls under National Capital Region. It lies in between the 27° 39 and 28° 32 25 latitude, and 76° 39 30 and 77° 20 45 longitude.
Its boundary touches Rajasthan and south Delhi and it makes Gurgaon to be an important strategically located place. On its north, it is bounded by the District of Jhajjar & the union territory of Delhi; Faridabad District lies to its east. On south it shares boundaries with Mewat whereas Rewari lies in its west. 1. 3. 1 Administrative Division For the purpose of general as well as developmental view, the district has been divided into the following district organizational structure: Table: 1 Gurgaon: District Organizational Structure 1. 2. 3.
Sub Divisions Tehsils Blocks 3 5 4 Gurgaon(North), Gurgaon(South) and Farukh Nagar Gurgaon, Sohna, Pataudi, Farukh Nagar, & Manesar Gurgaon(36Villages/34 Panchayats), Sohna(72 Villages/57 Panchayats), Farukh Nagar(48 Villages/48 Panchayats), & Pataudi(72 Villages/71 Panchayats). wards 4. Gurgaon Municipal Corporation 35 -2- 4. Sohana Municipal 15 wards Committee 4. Pataudi Municipal 13 wards Committee 4. Farrukh Nagar Municipal 11 wards Corporation Source: Statistical Abstract,Haryana. Table: 2 Area Covered by Gurgaon Municipal Corporation(ward wise) Ward No Area Covered
New Palam Vihar Phase 1, New Palam Vihar Phase 2, New Palam Vihar Phase 3, Nihal Colony, Pawala Khusrupur, Pawala Khusrupur Village, Rajendra Park, 1 Sarai Alawardi, Sarai Alawardi Village, Sector 100A, Sector 106, Sector 109, Sector 111, Sector 112, Sector 113 Chauma Khera, Chauma Khera Village, Moulahera, Moulahera Village, Palam 2 Vihar, SECTOR 22, SECTOR 23 3 Dundahera, Dundahera Village, SECTOR 21, SECTOR 22 Maruti Udyog, Sarhaul, Sarhaul Village, SECTOR 18, Udyog Vihar Phase 1, 4 Udyog Vihar Phase 2, Udyog Vihar Phase 3, Udyog Vihar Phase 4, Udyog Vihar Phase 5 Ammunition Depot, Ashok Vihar Phase 3, Carterpuri Village, Caterpuri, Palam 5 Vihar Extn, SECTOR 23A, Shitla Colony Apna Enclave, Ashok Vihar, Ashok Vihar Phase 2, Bhimgarh Kheri Phase 1, 6 Bhimgarh Kheri Phase 2, Bhimgarh Kheri Phase 3, Palam Vihar, Palam Vihar, Sarai Alawardi 7 Daultabad, Daultabad Industrial Area, Rajendra Park, Surat Nagar Phase 1 Basai, Basai Enclave 1, Basai Village, Dhanwapur, Dhanwapur Village, Gharoli Kalan, Gharoli Kalan Village, Ram Vihar, SECTOR 100, SECTOR 101, Sector 8 102, Sector 102A, Sector 103, SECTOR 104, SECTOR 37D, SECTOR 9B, Surat Nagar Phase 2, Tek Chand Nagar Ambedkar Nagar, Devilal Colony, Feroz Gandhi Colony Phase 2, Ravi Nagar, 9 SECTOR 9, SECTOR 9A, Surya Vihar 10 Cancon Enclave, Laxman Vihar Phase 1, Laxman Vihar Phase 2, SECTOR 4 Jyoti Park, Krishna Colony, SECTOR 7, SECTOR 7 Extn, SECTOR 7 Housing 11 Board, Shivpuri 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Arjun Nagar, Idgah Colony, Jyoti Park, Madanpuri, Nehru Lane, New Colony, Pratap
Nagar, Rattan Garden, Vijay Park Bhim Nagar, Indra Puri, Jacubpura, Jawahar Nagar, Nai Basti, Prem Nagar 1, Ram Nagar, Subhash Nagar Amanpura, Ashok Puri, Dayanand Colony, Gurgaon, Gurgaon Village, Sector 5 Acharya Puri, Adarsh Nagar, Anamika Enclave, Gopal Nagar, HUDA Market Sector 12A, Lajpat Nagar, Mahavir Pura, Mianwali Colony, Old DLF, Prem Nagar 2, Rajiv Nagar West, Sanjay Colony, SECTOR 12A Rajiv Nagar, Sanjay Gram Airforce Station, Canal Colony, Chander Nagar, Industrial Estate Development Colony, MDI, SECTOR 14, SECTOR 15-2, SECTOR 16, SECTOR 17, Sukhrali, Sukhrali Village Baraf Khana, Civil Lines, Friends Colony, HVPNL Colony, Jacubpura, Kirti -3- 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
Nagar, Patel Nagar, Police Line, Roshanpura, SECTOR 15-1 Heera Nagar, Laxmi Garden, Om Nagar, Shanti Nagar, Shivaji Nagar Anaj Mandi, Hari Nagar, Raj Nagar, Shakti Park, Shivji Park Aath Marla, Amar Colony, Auto Market, Baldev Nagar, Char Marla, Gandhi Nagar, Manohar Nagar, Nai Aabadi, Shakti Nagar, Veer Nagar Basai Enclave 2, Bhawani Enclave, Feroz Gandhi Colony, Kadipur, Kadipur Enclave, Kadipur Industrial Area, Kadipur Village, Krishna Nagar, SECTOR 10, SECTOR 37C, Shiv Nagar, Vikas Nagar, Vishwakarma Colony Khandsa, Khandsa Village, Old Industrial Area Khandsa Road, Pace City 1, Pace City 2, Saraswati Enclave, SECTOR 10A, Udyog Vihar Phase 6 Gharoli Khurd, Gharoli Khurd Village, Harsuru, Harsuru Village, ISBT and MRTS Depot, Kherki Daula, Kherki Daula Village, Mohmmadpur Jharsa, Mohmmadpur Jharsa Village,
Narsinghpur, Narsinghpur Village, SECTOR 36, Sector 37B, Sector 83, Sector 84, Sector 88, SEZ, Sihi, Sihi Village Badshapur, Badshapur Village, Pahari Area, Ramgarh Dhani, Sector 62, Sector 65, Sector 66, Sector 67, Sector 68, Sector 69, Sector 70, Sector 75, Sector 75A, Sector 76 Begampur Khatola, Begampur Khatola Village, Behrampur, Behrampur Village, Fazilpur Jharsa, Fazilpur Jharsa Village, Ghasola, Ghasola Village, Info City 1, Narsinghpur East, Nirvana, Rosewood City, SECTOR 34, SECTOR 35, SECTOR 48, SECTOR 49, SECTOR 50, Sector 71, Sector 72, Sector 72A, Sector 73, SECTOR 74, SECTOR 74A, South City 2, Teekri, Teekri Village, Uppal Southend Hans Enclave, Info City 2, Islampur, Islampur Village, Medi City, Naharpur Rupa, Naharpur Rupa Village, Nitin Vihar, Rajiv Colony, SECTOR 33, SECTOR 38, Shiv Colony, Wireless Station Jharsa, Jharsa Village, Prem Puri, SECTOR 31, SECTOR 32, SECTOR 32A, SECTOR 39 Jalvayu Vihar, Kanhai, Kanhai Village, Mohyal Colony, Moti Vihar, Saini Khera, SECTOR 29, SECTOR 30, SECTOR 40, Sector 40, Greenwood City, Sector 41, SECTOR 44, SECTOR 45, Silokhra, Silokhra Village, South City 1, Vijay Vihar Greenwood City, Jal Vihar Colony, Malibu Town, Mayfield Garden, Samaspur, Samaspur Village, SECTOR 46, SECTOR 47, Sector 47 Distt Centre, SECTOR 51, SECTOR 57, Sector 57, Wazirabad, Sushant Lok Phase 2, Sushant Lok Phase 3, Sushant Lok Phase 3 Extn, Tigra, Tigra Village Ardee City, Indira Colony 1, Indira Colony 2, SECTOR 52, Wazirabad, Wazirabad Village
DLF City Phase 5, Ghata, Ghata Village, Gwal Pahari Village, New Gwal Pahari Village, Pahari Area, Pahari Area, Pahari Area, Pahari Area, Pahari Area Gwal 32 Pahari, SECTOR 42, SECTOR 52A, SECTOR 53, SECTOR 54, SECTOR 55, SECTOR 56, Sector 58, Sector 61, Suncity, Sushant Lok Phase 2 Chakkarpur, Chakkarpur Village, Maruti Vihar, Saraswati Vihar, SECTOR 43, 33 Sector 43, Wazirabad, Sushant Lok Phase 1 DLF City Phase 1, DLF City Phase 2, DLF City Phase 4, DLF Corporate Park, DLF Phase 4, Chakkarpur, Garden Estate, Global Business Park, Mall Road, 34 Pahari Area Sikanderpur Ghosi, SECTOR 27, SECTOR 28, Sikanderpur Ghosi, Sikanderpur Ghosi Village Ambience Island, Dhanchiri Camp, DLF City Phase 3, Nathupur, Nathupur 35 Village, National Media Center, Pahari Area Nathupur Village Source: Municipal Corporation Gurgaon -4- 1. 4 Physiography The district comprises of hills on the one hand and depressions on the other, forming irregular and diverse nature of topography. Two ridges i. e. Firojpur Jhirka-Delhi ridge forms the western boundary and Delhi ridge forms the eastern boundary of the district. These hills are northern continuation of Aravalli hills.
The north-western part of the district is covered with sand dunes lying in the westerly direction due to southwestern winds. The extension of the Aravalli hills and the presence of sand dunes collectively form the diverse physiography of the district. The drainage of the district is typical of arid and semi-arid areas. It comprises of large depressions and seasonal streams. Important depressions of the district are Khalilpur lake, Chandani lake, Sangel-Ujhina lake, Kotla dahar lake and Najafgarh lake. Sahibi and Indrani are two important seasonal streams of the district. 1. 5 Drainage Pattern The drainage of the district is typical of the arid and semi arid areas.
It comprises of large depressions and streams. The drainage is peculiarly complex owing to most of the streams tending to converge towards inland depressions instead of flowing into Yamuna. In fact there are four important depressions in the level of the district in this region, known as the khalipur, Chandaini, Sangel-Ujina and Kotla Dahar Jheels. The greater part of the Gurgaon district is occupied by vast alluvial and sandy tracts of recent to sub recent age, out of which protrudes widely scattered isolated strike ridges of old rocks. 1. 6 Geology Gurgaon district is occupied by quaternary alluvium and pre-cambrian metasediments of Delhi System.
Delhi super-group is represented by Alwar quartizites, mica schists and pegmatite intrusives of the Alwar series and slates of phyllites and quartzites of the subrecent alluvium and sand dunes. The soils are sand to loamy sand in sandy plain areas. Sandy loam to clay loam/silty clay loam in alluvial plains, loam sand to loam & calcareous in salt affected plains; silty loam to loam in low lands and loamy sand to loam & calcareous in hills. Taxonomically these soils may be classified as Typic Ustipsamments, Typic Ustorthents, Typic/Udic/Aquic Ustochrepts, Typic Haplaquepts and skeletal/Lithic Ustorthents. Alwar series is represented by quartzites and mica schists with pegmatite intrusives. The quartzites are white, pale -5- rey or pale pinkish, purple in colour with red and brown shades depending upon the weathering of the iron oxide present in them. These are in general vitreous, close textured, thickly bedded and highly jointed. The quartzite predominate in the district and form high north-south trending hill range in the west and north-east, southwest trending ridge in the northern part of the district. The quartzites generally strike in the north-north-east to south-south-west direction and have easterly dips. Bedding, dip and strike joints dipping against the dip of the beds are prominent and give rise to rectangular blocks. These quartzites are used for building & road materials. The quartzites are compact & devoid of interstial spaces.
Ground water occurs in joints and fracture planes in them under favourable conditions. The Ajabgarh series constitute the upper member of the Delhi System and is represented by slate, phyllite, quartzite with pegmatite intrusives. The Ajabgarh series along with Alwar are folded. The north-north-east to south-south-west running ridge and its other offshoots in the south western part of the area are formed of these rocks. The core of the ridge is formed of quartzites and slates. The phyllites occur at the base of the hills and below the adjacent alluvium. The quartzite shows false bedding at places and are less close textured than Alwar quartzites.
These quartzites form low small hillocks and long narrow interrupted ridges striking north-north-east to south-southwest directions in the east of Sohna ridge. The slate and phyllite are calcerous and ferruginous. The rocks of the series are compact and devoid of interstial spaces. The phyllites and slates are highly jointed whereas quartzites sparingly jointed. The ground water occurs in the open joints and fractured planes and in the weathered zones. The phyllite and slates are better water bearing formations than quartzites. 1. 7 Soil The alluvium in the area comprises silt, sand, gravel, clay and kankar. It has been divided into older alluvium and newer alluvium. The old alluvium occurs in the most part of the district. It comprises of generally poorly sorted silt, sand, gravel and clay.
The silt constitutes fine wind blown variety along with kankar. These are compact, hard and composed essentially of calcium carbonate and is very common in northern parts of the area between Farukhnagar and Garhi Harsru. Ground water in the older alluvium occurs in the interstices of constituent grains of sand and silt. The presence of kankar in the formation reduces the pore spaces, which in turn reduces the capacity to store and transmit water thus making them poor water bearing formations. The newer or recent alluvium covers the eastern part of the area, east of -6- the Sohna ridge. It comprises mainly stream laid silt, sand clay and calcareous modules. These deposits are lenticular in shape.
It is also found in the west of Sohna ridge where streams have deposited in the form of discontinuous bands and at the foothill slopes where ephemeral streams have brought down the weathered materials from the hills. The newer alluvium being less impregnated with calcareous material are good water bearing horizons. 1. 8 Sand Dunes The disintegration of rock material has ultimately given rise to various grades of sand and silt. The strong winds carry them from place of origin and deposit in the form of large humps called sand dunes. These sediments forming dunes have been brought from adjacent Rajasthan to this area with the prevailing wind conditions.
These sand dunes are seen in the whole of the area but are more conspicuous in the area between Pataudi, Farukhnagar and Garhi Harsru and attain heights of 3-6m in general. The dune sand is generally well sorted, found fine to medium grained and comprises quartz, ferromagnesian minerals, tiny flakes of mica with small particles of kankar. The sand is loose and dunes keep shifting their positions depending upon the prevailing wind condition. The sand dunes being accumulation of loose sand and silt are good water bearing horizons but their limited aerial extent limits the reservoir capacity. 1. 9 Bad Rock Topography The boreholes drilled in the area give an idea of the thickness of the alluvium and the bedrock topography.
From the data of exploratory drilling, it is observed that rocks of Ajabgarh series of the Delhi system, form the basement in the middle part of the district between north-south running high ridge and NNE-SSW running ridge. The maximum running thickness of alluvium encountered in this part of the area is 238 meters. It is observed from the map showing depth to bedrock in the area that the thickness of alluvium increases toward north and north-eastern parts of the area, where it is more than 238 metres below ground level. Alluvial thickness varies from almost insignificant to above 203 m, in the western side of the Sohna ridge and around Pataudi, as revealed by boreholes drilled at Rajpura, Bohra Kalan and Didhara.
The Haryana State Minor Irrigation Tube-well Corporation and Ground Water Cell, Agricultural Department has also drilled boreholes for irrigation purpose. But in no borehole, bedrock has been encountered. -7- 1. 10 Climate 1. 10. 1 Temperature: The temperature data at the meteorological observatory, Gurgaon reveals that from the end of February, temperature begins to increase rapidly till May. May and June are the hottest months with mean daily temperature at Gurgaon about 400 C and the mean minimum daily temperature of about 250 C. The daily mean maximum temperature varies from 21. 4o C in January to 400 C in May. Days are little hotter in May than in June whereas nights are cooler in May than in June.
From April onwards, hot westerly dust ladden winds causes heat wave conditions and the weather of the district becomes intensely hot and unpleasant. Maximum daily temperature in May often reaches above 450 C. Occasional dust and thunder storms bring some relief from heat. With the advancement of monsoon currents into the district by the end of June, there is appreciable drop in day temperature and the weather becomes comparatively cool in the day. After the withdrawal of the monsoon by about the middle of the September, the day temperatures are still high as in monsoon months but night temperatures begin to drop progressively. The fall in temperature both day and night are rapid from October to January.
Generally January is the coldest month. The mean daily maximum and minimum temperatures are about 21oC and 5oC respectively. During the cold weather season, the district is affected by cold waves in association with the western disturbances and on such occasions, the minimum temperature may drop to the freezing point. Table: 3 The climate of the district can be divided into following distinct seasons S. N. Seasons 1 Winter seasons 2 Summer season 3 Rainy season 4 Autumn Source: IMD 1. 10. 2. Humidity: The relative humidity in the air is generally high during the period of south west monsoon from July to September. It is about 77% during morning hours and 65% during evening hours.
The minimum humidity of 43% is recorded in May during morning hours and the maximum relative humidity of 82% is experienced in August during morning hours. May is the driest month of the year when humidity is less than -8Time period Late November to February March to June July to mid September Mid September to late November 30%. Winds: Winds are comparatively high in the district with some strengthening in speed during the summer and monsoon months. During the monsoon season, winds are mostly from the east or south-east directions. During rest of the year, winds are predominantly from the west or north-west directions. The winds have maximum speed of about 7. 0 kms/hr during May to June and have a minimum average speed of about 3. 2 kms/hr from November to December(Table-1).
Table: 4 Temperature, Relative Humidity and Wind Speed in the District (197497) Months January February March April May June July August September October November December Source: IMD 1. 10. 3 Rainfall: The normal rainfall in the district is about 578 mm spread over 28 days. The southwest monsoon sets in the last week of June and withdraws towards the end of the September and contributes about 80% of the annual rainfall. July and August are the wettest months. 20% of the annual rainfall occurs during the non-monsoon months in the wake of thunder storms and western disturbances. Rainfall distribution in the district is quite uneven which increases from 450 mm in the south at Farukhnagar to 750 mm in the east.
The annual rainfall data from 1974 to 2002 have been analysed by Central Ground Water Board, Chandigarh to understand the rainfall trend in the district. The data indicates that variation in annual rainfall is significant and large. This is summarized under the following Table: 5 Annual Rainfall Analysis of Gurgaon District Year 1974 1975 Rainfall (MM) 500 574 % Deviation from normal -14 -1 -9Status Normal Normal Drought Condition Temperature (Mean daily in 0C) Max. Min. 21. 4 5. 1 23. 5 7. 5 29. 8 12. 4 37. 1 19. 1 40. 0 23. 7 39. 5 26. 7 35. 0 26. 1 33. 3 25. 1 34. 3 22. 8 33. 8 17. 6 28. 9 10. 7 23. 4 6. 1 Relative Humidity in % Max. 75 69 60 45 43 56 77 82 72 59 64 71 Min 48 42 35 25 28 39 66 71 58 40 43 46 Wind Speed in km/hr 3. 7 4. 5 5. 5 5. 8 6. 7 7. 6 6. 3 3. 9 4. 3 3. 6 3. 2 3. 2 976 654 1977 613 1978 727 1979 365 1980 464 1981 546 1982 514 1983 1022 1984 604 1985 836 1986 267 1987 404 1988 715 1989 413 1990 694 1991 536 1992 548 1993 703 1994 643 1995 990 1996 1128 1997 630 1998 654 1999 549 2000 437 2001 523 2002 359 * Data not analysis Source: IMD District Gurgaon Jan 12. 2 Feb 9. 3 Mar 4. 9 Apr 0. 9 13 6 27 -36 -20 -6 -11 77 5 45 -54 -30 24 -29 20 -7 -5 22 11 71 95 9 * * * * * Normal Normal Excess Deficient Deficient Normal Normal Excess Normal Excess Deficient Deficient Excess Deficient Excess Normal Normal Excess Normal Excess Excess Normal * * * * * Moderate Drought Severe Drought Moderate Drought Moderate Drought Table: 6 The monthly normal rainfall (Average of five years from 1994-98) May 6. 2 Monthly Rainfall (in mm) Jun July Aug Sept 82. 8 181. 0 258. 0 121. 9 Oct. 5. 4 Nov. 3. 4 Dec. 0. 4 Total 686. 4 Source: IMD 1. 1 Wasteland Wasteland is a degraded and under-utilised class of land that has deteriorated on account of natural causes or due to lack of appropriate water and soil management. Wasteland can result from inherent/imposed constraints such as location, environment, chemical and physical properties of the soil or financial or other management constraints (NWDB, 1987). Analysis of the data reveals that the total area of wasteland in the study area is 438. 80 Km2 (15. 88%); out of which the area of salt affected land is 210. 56 km2 (7. 62%), the area of barren rocky land is 204. 03 Km2 (7. 39%) and gullied land covers 24. 21 km2 (0. 87%). 1. 12 Land holding pattern -10- Gurgaon district has predominantly a commercial based land use.
It is known for industrial activities all over India. The increasing population is resulting in more and more land to be put under industrial and commercial use. Table:7 Gurgaon: Land Use Pattern S. N. Land use 1 Residential 2 Industrial 3 Commercial 4 Circulation 5 Public semi public Source: HUDA, Gurgaon. (Year 1. 13 Population Gurgaon is considered as a highly dense populated district of Haryana. According to the census report 2001 the total population of Gurgaon district is 8, 70,539 out of which 4, 70,504 are males and 4, 00, 343 females. The rural population of Gurgaon district is 4,00,343(45. 98%) and the urban population is 4,70,196 (54. 2%) the density of rural population is 495 persons per sq km and the density of urban population is 3,438 persons per sq km. 1. 14 Economy Gurgaon district is the most important district in Haryana as far as the industrial and commercial sector as concerned. The last two decades have witnessed continued and accelerated industrial progress with the expansion of infrastructural network and provision for attractive incentive including large flow of institutional credit to entrepreneurs. The people of both sexes are participating in the economic activities so as to augment the household income in order to improve their standard of living. 1. 15 Occupation The occupational structure of the people reveals their social, cultural and educational levels.
The higher work participation rate may reflect the larger opportunities of jobs available in the region and vice-versa. 1. 16 Education In education sector Gurgaon is not lagging behind as it has emerged as an education hub in Haryana. Gurgaon is home to one of India s top business schools, Management Development Institute (MDI) and other educational institutions. Total -11Area (Ha. ) 6243 1349 421 865 302 ) Percentage 63. 18 13. 65 4. 25 8. 75 3. 05 no of colleges in Gurgaon district is 21, out of which three colleges are exclusively for women. There are 219 high schools/senior schools, 148 middle schools and 602 pre-primary and primary schools.
Education for women at all levels has advanced at a much faster pace than it has for man. 1. 17 Industries There are 1,615 factories registered under the Indian factories act and approximately 2, 06, 064 lac. persons are employed in these factories. There are Automobile and garment manufacturing units, whereas world class real estate and shopping malls are the other main industries. 1. 18 Means of Transportation The total metallic Road link of the Gurgaon district is 751 km and the road length per lac of population is 86 km. There are 237 villages which are connected with metallic roads. It shows the 100% metalled roads connectivity in Gurgaon district. The total fleet strength of Haryana Roadways is 179 in number.
The traffic circulation pattern within the town was designed for a smaller population and became heavily overburdened due to Gurgaon explosive growth. Improvement to the road system such as flyover, adding overpass, underpasses and metro have alleviated the worst traffic congestion. 1. 19 Probable Disasters: By now, we have realized that Gurgaon district is of immense importance in the state of Haryana. GDMP is more urgently needed when we look at the probable treats of Hazards. Table: 8 Probable Disasters Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Natural Earthquakes Flood Drought Hail storm Environmental Sr. No. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Man Made Fire Industrial hazard Bomb blast Terrorism Epidemics -12- Degradation 11. 12. 13. 14.
Road accidents Rail accidents Air accidents CBRN -13- CHAPTER 2 HAZARD, VULNERABILITY AND RISK ANALYSIS 2. 1 Introduction The increased vulnerability of many urban areas especially in developing countries is a major reason of concern. Therefore, to analyze the Multi Hazard Risk and Vulnerability of Gurgaon city, and as such assessment shall provide the necessary data base for prioritizing action in emergency, preparedness, response and community based disaster mitigation. The district faces a number of hazards, like Earthquake, Hailstorm, Flood, Fire, Accidents, LPG cylinder blast, Chemical and Industrial Accidents, Terrorism and Epidemics, which pose the threat of disaster.
The threat (Risk) and possible impact (Vulnerability) which can be actualized from these hazards ranges from minor impacts affecting one village to events impacting larger than the state alone. During last two decade, Gurgaon has undergone major changes and has now developed into Modern Township. Over the years, Disasters have caused threat to life and property and have adversely impacted economic development. 2. 2 Earthquake Hazard: The entire region of Gurgaon falls in high risk seismic zone IV and corresponds to MSK intensity VIII making it highly vulnerable to Earthquakes. The major tectonics features affecting Gurgaon are as follows: I. II. III. IV. V.
The Sohna Fault Junction of Aravali and Alluvium near Delhi Moradabad Fault Delhi Moradabad Fault Delhi-Haridwar Fault Although no major earthquake have occurred in Gurgaon in recent year, yet tremors have been felt whenever there is an earthquake in the Himalayan foothills. The NCR has fairly high seismicity with general occurrence of earthquakes of 5-6 magnetude, a few of magnitude 6-7 and occasional incident of 7. 5-8. 0 magnitude shocks. -14- Subsequent traumatic events have occurred in 1803, 1819, 1905, 1924, 1937, 1945, 1949, 1958, 1960, 1966, 1975, 1980 and 1994 during which the intensities level on Richter scale between VII and IX are believed to have been experienced as indicated by the damage pattern.
The most important earthquake which affected Gurgaon was on 27th August, 1960 with the magnitude of 6. 0. The epicentre of this earthquake was between Delhi cantonment and Gurgaon. Earthquake risk assessment is all the more difficult in Gurgaon district because of the lack of seismic instrumentation in large parts of the district. In addition to the nature of earthquake and the sice (such as the magnitude, duration, soil type), there is big? Whether the high rise buildings in Gurgaon are Earthquake resistant? Whether the latest technology was used for establishing these multi storey buildings? If used then, were the mason trained enough to use the technology for the construction of the infrastructure?
Are the buildings being constructed by following national building code? Is the standard material used for the construction? Is technolegal frame work of building by-laws is in place ? 2. 3 Drought: Drought has been described as creeping Disaster in the United Nations publications. Thus emphasizing that a situation of drought develops gradually by giving sufficient warning of its coverage, extent and intensity unlike a flood, cyclone or earthquake which offers little time and opportunity for immediate planning and preparedness. Rapid industrialization, urbanization and withdrawal of huge ground water are leading factors for the occurrence of Drought in Gurgaon district.
The droughts in 1987 & 2001 were worst droughts in the state of Haryana. Gurgaon receives most of its rainfall from the summer monsoon and continuous up to the middle of August. The summer monsoon sets during the month of July and starts withdrawling from the end of August or first week of September. Due to this uncertain rainfall pattern the entire district receive less than one month of rainy session. Hence the department of agriculture and cooperation, ministry of agriculture and government of India has categorized Gurgaon in chronically in drought affected area. -15- 2. 4 Flood: The main cause of flood in the Gurgaon district can be attributed to the heterogeneous topography.
As such there is no perennial river in the district, on the other hand a number of Barsati Nallahs/Hills Torrent can be found here which criss cross the entire region and become the cause of floods during rainy season. Besides this, rapid urbanization in the district also leads to floods because heavy pressure of the existing infrastructure development over the natural drainage system. Low lying areas of Gurgaon are under the threat of water logging even if there is a minor rain. The whole district can divided into the following three district catchments which can also be considered the reason of flood: Areas affected by Sabi and Indori River, fall on the western side of Gurgaon tehsils.
Sabi river is notorious for flash flood as it flows on ground level and keeps on changing its course every year. However, since 1978 is no major flood event has been experienced in river Sabi. There are a series of Bandhs over the rivulet in Rajasthan area which ultimately falls in the Sabi River during heavy rainfall in the catchment area. There is always a danger of breach of such Bandhs which further aggravates the might of Sabi Nadi. A barrage namely Massani Barrage has been constructed on Sabi Nadi by H. N. A. Irrigation Department near village Dharuhera on Delhi Jaipur National Highway in district Rewari, for the storage of water for irrigation purpose besides moderation of caused by it.
Sabi Nadi also affects and undates a number of villages of Gurgaon tehsils falling near Najafgarh Jheel area. There is a difference in the extent of damage caused by Sabi in Pataudi and Gurgaon tehsils whereas flood in Pataudi area lasts for a fortnight only. Sabi River carries out heavy amount of siltation and disposes between Khalilpur and Pataudi railway station which become the cause of flood in this area. Another source of flood in this area is Indori River. This is also a hill torrent which originates in the hilly track of Rajasthan falling between Tauru and Tijara. This rivulet enters Haryana near Tauru and after crossing Delhi Jaipur national highway, it ultimately joins Sabi River beyond Pataudi.
Due to a series of moderate bandhs over this rivulet, both in Alwar district of Rajasthan and Gurgaon district of Haryana during the season of heavy rainfall in the catchment area there is always a danger of breach of these bandhs which may result in flooding of about twenty villages of Pataudi tehsils. -16- 2. 5 Epidemics: In the district of Gurgaon, preventive, and curative health is being looked after by health department. There are also dispensaries, referral hospitals and community hospitals supplementing the task. With a view of detecting epidemics at the earliest an epidemiological cell has been established under the Directorate of Health Services.
The following epidemic are monitored in Gurgaon: cholera, Gastroenteritis, acute Diarrhea/dysentery, infective hepatitis, encephalitis, poliomyelitis, typhoid, In addition to these Food Poisoning, Viral Fever, Dengue Fever and Meningitis outbreaks are also monitored: 2. 6 Fire: The short circuits, LPG blasts and chemical industrial fire are the major reasons to worry in the district. Most of the reported accidents are in the city of Gurgaon, mainly due to the inadequate safety measures in the electrical installation and chemical and LPG blasts, as well as careless practices while handling and storage of inflammable materials. Unlike in the case of hazards such as floods or road accidents, identification of specific vulnerable spots is not possible. However, a broad identification of the types of locations where there is a positional threat of fire is possible.
These are: O Storage area of flammable/explosive material in the vicinity of populated area; O Hotels and restaurants in crowded area using improper practices of storage of cooking fuel such as LPG, kerosene etc; O Multi storey buildings especially in the cities, with inadequate fire safety measures; O Narrow lanes, congested and overcrowded buildings, and old building with poor internal wiring. The facilities in each fire station are appropriate to the municipality s financial position. However, due to the paucity of funds in most municipalities, except in Gurgaon city in the district, the fire-stations are poorly equipped. In addition to combating fire related hazards, fire frightening services are also required during building collapse, road accidents, and industrial hazards and earthquake etc. -17-
Therefore, the need for a well equipped, well maintained, and adequate fire station cannot be under estimated. Fire services are also required in smaller districts and Tahsils and there is a need for government regulation to simplify bureaucratic procedure to enable fire services to travel across municipal limits. Stream lining of fire services operations across the state is required. Need for immediate communication after fire accidents, granting of blanket permission during emergency, and up- gradation by providing wireless and computer system, mapping of areas prone to fire accidents based on the frequency of occurrence of these hazards is necessary. 2. Chemical Biological Radiation & Nuclear Disaster (CBRN) : All nuclear facilities have specialized Crisis Management Groups (CMGs) for on site response under the aegis of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). For the offsite incident response at those locations, the RO / District Magistrate / DC will act as the IC and ensure that the stakeholders and communities are properly sensitized in advance through regular mock exercises. Support from local experts for such purpose may be obtained wherever available. The State Government should train and equip its own HDRF for this purpose. The help of NDRF may be taken for immediate response and for training the SDRF.
For the purpose of specialised response to a threatening disaster situation or disasters/emergencies both natural and man-made such as those of CBRN origin, the DM Act, 2005 has mandated the constitution of a NDRF. The general superintendence, direction and control of this force is vested in and exercised by the NDMA and the command and supervision of the Force will vest in an officer to be appointed by the Central Government as the Director General of NDRF. Presently, the NDRF comprises eight battalions. Two additional battalions have been sanctioned by the Government and are in the process of being formed. These battalions are located at strategic locations and will be deployed proactively as required.
NDRF units will maintain close liaison with the designated State Governments/ UTs and will be available to them in the event of any serious threatening disaster situation. Presently four out of eight of them have been equipped and trained to respond to situations arising out of CBRN emergencies. In future plans exist to train rest of the battalions also for CBRN response. The NDRF units will also impart basic training to all the stakeholders identified by the State Governments in their respective locations. Further, a National Academy will be set -18- up to provide training for trainers in DM and to meet related national and international commitments.
Presently the location and area of responsibility of the various NDRF battalion in the country are as follows: Location Guwahati Kolkata Mundali Area of responsibility for natural disaster N. E. States West Bengal, Bihar, Sikkim, Jharkhand Orissa, Chhatisgarh, North Andhra Pradesh (Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, Visakhapatnam) Tamil Nadu, Kerala, South Andhra Pradesh, Puduchery, A & N Islands, Lakshadweep Maharashtra, Karnataka, Goa Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu Chandigarh, Punjab, J&K, Gaziabad battalion (Grater Himachal Pradesh Noida) U. P. , Uttar Khand, Haryana, Delhi Area of responsibility for CBRN emergencies Kolkata battalion Arakkonam battalion Arakkonam Pune Pune battalion Gandhi Nagar Bhatinda Ghaziabad
Patna* Vijayawada* * Patna (Bihar) and Vijaywada (Andhra Pradesh) have also been approved in principle to locate NDRF battalions for natural disaster, and therefore, the area of responsibility will be readjusted once these two NDRF battalionsare made functional. 2. 8 Industrial Hazard Industrial accidents are most likely during chemical processing, manufacturing, storage, transport and disposal of toxic waste. The types of industries prone to accidents are those involved in the manufacture of: · · · Chemicals and chemical products Non metallic mineral petroleum Fire -19- The causes of accidents in these industries are: · · · Explosion resulting from electricity, fire, excessive pressure of steam and air, gas, vapour etc. Fires including back fire in boilers and others; and gassing
Apart from district plans, emergency response centers (ERCs) have been established in some of the industrial area in the state of Haryana. There is a need to identify district wise the possible industrial and chemical hazards, the agencies presently dealing with the management of these hazards, resources available and present level of preparedness. Based on this information Standard operating procedure may be formulated to respond to these hazards. Detailed district level information towards this is being collected from the Deputy Commissioner. 2. 9 Terrorist Attack: Gurgaon is also at risk from the view point of terrorism as it is considered one of the India is major outsourcing hubs.
Public- private sector partnership model in real estate development has been the major force behind Gurgaon emerging as the corporate capital. The growth prospect, increasing employment opportunities and a cleaner environment has propelled the growth forwards. It is Gurgaon that initiated organized retail boom in Delhi and NCR in the form of over half a dozen operational malls. All these factors are partly responsible to make Gurgaon prone to terrorist attack. 2. 10 Vulnerability analysis for the district of Gurgaon: Gurgaon District is located at south of Haryana. The threat (risk) and possible impact (vulnerability) which can be actualized from these hazards (Table1),ranges from minor impact affecting one area to event impacting larger than the state alone.
The analysis of hazard, risk and disaster impact in Gurgaon, it indicates that disaster planning at the Gurgaon district level should first focus on the functional response to Earthquake & Air Accident. The functional responsed to these events have links to the response to Earthquake, Flood, Hail Storms & Drought. Typical response to these disaster events also can apply to fire, industrial Accidents, failure of critical infrastructure and building collapse (Table 1). -20- Table 1 Gurgaon: Hazard Risk and Vulnerability Analysis ProbabImpact ility rating rating Earthquake 4 Catastrophic Hazards Vulnerability rating 16 (high) Potential Impact Loss of lives, buildings, roads, infrastructure ,public property
Vulnerability · Loss of Road and telecommunic ation network, · Loss of livestock & vulnerable people, · Loss of infrastructure, buildings, economic loss · Loss of Road and telecommunic ation network, · Loss of agriculture/ horticulture, and drinking water sourcetube wells, wells. · Loss of drinking water food s scarcity. · Loss of property and life · Vulnerable people · Vulnerable people Vulnerable areas All Area of the District Flood 3 Moderate 15 Loss of crop, human and bovine life, infrastructure , houses, livelihood system etc. Low lying area of District Drought 3 Moderate 15 Loss of crop, livelihood All Area of the District Hailstorms 3 Moderate 8 Epidemics 1 Low 1 Fire 4 Catastrophic 16
Industrial accidents Road accidents 4 Catastrophic 16 Loss of property and life Loss of human and bovine life Loss of lives (human and animal) Loss of crops Loss of property, livelihood All Area of the District All Area of the District All Area of the District · Loss of crops Industrial and livelihood area of the 4 Catastrophic 16 District · Loss of lives, congested road of the property (social & district Terrorism 3 Moderate 15 Loss of environment -21- economic disruption) · Loss of All area of the district environment Heat Wave Cold Wave Rail Accidents Air Accidents 2 Insignificant Low Loss of Lives Loss of Lives Loss of Lives · · · All area of the district
Source : Based on Annexure XI. -22- CHAPTER 3 MITIGATION AND PREPAREDNESS PLAN Disasters often disrupt progress and destroy the hard-earned fruits of painstaking developmental efforts, often pushing nations, in quest for progress, back by several decades. Thus, efficient management of disasters, rather than mere response to their occurrence, has in recent times, received increased attention both within India and abroad. This is as much a result of the recognition of the increasing frequency and intensity of disasters, as it is an acknowledgement that good governance in a caring and civilized society, needs to deal effectively with the devastating impact of disasters.
On 23 December 2005, the Government of India (GOI) took a defining step by enacting the Disaster Management Act, 2005, (hereinafter referred to as the Act) which envisaged the creation of the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), headed by the Prime Minister, State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs) headed by the Chief Ministers, and District Disaster Management Authorities (DDMAs) headed by the District Collector or District Magistrate or Deputy Commissioner as the case may be, to spearhead and adopt a holistic and integrated approach to DM. There will be a paradigm shift, from the erstwhile relief-centric response to a proactive prevention, mitigation and preparedness-driven approach for conserving developmental gains and to minimize loss of life, livelihood and property.
Unlike man-made disasters, natural hazards like floods, earthquakes, and cyclones cannot be avoided. However, with mitigation measures along with proper planning of developmental work in the risk prone area, these hazards can be prevented from turning into disasters. A multi-pronged approach needs to be adopted to undertake mitigation measures: Building mitigation measures into all development projects. Initiating District level mitigation projects by the GDMA, in high priority areas, with the help of the NDMA, HSDMA, Central Ministries and concerned Departments of State Government. Indigenous knowledge on disaster and coping mechanisms will be given due weightage with special focus on protection of heritage structures. -23- 3. Risk Assessment and Vulnerability Mapping Hazard zonation, mapping and vulnerability analysis in a multi-hazard framework will be carried out utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) based databases such as Gurgaon Database for Emergency Management (GDEM) and Gurgaon Spatial Data Infrastructure (GSDI) and developing a GIS based Decision Support System (DSS). As a first step towards addressing disaster vulnerabilities, the Gurgaon disaster Management Authority (GDMA) need to carry out risk and vulnerability assessment of all disaster prone areas of the District Gurgaon. Hazard zonation mapping and vulnerability analysis based on GIS and remote sensing data, needs to mandatorily include a ground check component.
Hazard and Consequence Mapping on GIS platforms shall be prepared for all chemical accident prone areas of districts Gurgaon. The increasing use of GIS, remote sensing and applications of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) in DM, has made it imperative to set up a mechanism for sharing thematic and spatial data through a designated electronic clearing house. The NSDI has been set up by the Survey of India (SOI), to collect, compile, analyse and prepare value-added maps for use by various agencies in the field of DM for management of natural resources, industrial applications etc. The GDEM under the District Informatics Officer (DIO) Gurgaon may drive data sets through NSDI for addressing some of the needs of input data for developing GIS based DSS. 3. Increasing Trend of Disasters in Urban Areas Disasters in Gurgaon urban areas are distinct in many ways and the intensity of damage will be very high. Search and rescue efforts in the urban areas also require specialised training. Action plans for checking unplanned urbanization and ensuring safer human habitat against all forms of disasters, will be recognised as the high priority by GDMA. The Gurgaon Administration should accord priority for improving urban drainage systems with special focus on non-obstruction of natural drainage systems. Urban mapping of infrastructure of spatial resolution will be taken up for development of Decision Support System (DSS) for management of urban risks in Gurgaon 3. 3 Critical Infrastructure It is of utmost importance that critical infrastructures of
Gurgaon District like roads, bridges, flyovers, railway lines, power stations, water storage towers, irrigation -24- canals and other civic utilities should be constantly monitored for safety standards in consonance with worldwide safety benchmarks and strengthened where deficient. The building standards for critical infrastructure need to be aligned to the safety norms and Departments/PWD/HUDA/GDMAs etc. concerned would ensure the requisite actions and measures to ensure this. 3. 4 Environmentally Sustainable Development The Haryana Pollution Control Board Gurgaon need to go hand in hand for ensuring sustainability with environmental and developmental efforts.
Restoration of ecological balance in Aravali regions and raising Plantations need to be incorporated by the forest department, Development & Panchayat Departments. Eco systems of forests, agricultural, urban and industrial environment are also to be considered for restoration of ecological balances and sustainable development. Department of Pollution & Forest must ensure the preservation of natural habitats. 3. 5 Climate Change Adaptation Climate change is impacting our glacial reserves, water balance, agriculture, forestry, coastal ecology, bio-diversity and human and animal health. There are definite indications that climate change would increase the frequency and intensity of natural disasters like floods, droughts, hailstorm, Cloud burst, wind storm etc. in the coming years.
In order to meet these challenges in a sustained and effective manner, synergies in our approach and strategies for climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction shall be encouraged and promoted. 3. 6 Forecasting and Early Warning Systems It is most essential to establish, upgrade and modernise the forecasting and earlywarning systems for all types of disasters. The nodal agencies responsible for monitoring and carrying out surveillance, for specific natural disasters, will identify technological gaps and formulate projects for their upgradation, in a time-bound manner. GDMA should establish proper communication with IMD and other regional institutions for data receptions, forecasting and timely dissemination. -25- 3. Communications Communication and sharing of up-to-date information using state-of-the-art IT infrastructure remain at the heart of effective implementation of the disaster management strategy. Reliable, up-todate and faster sharing of geo-spatial information acquired from the field or the affected areas is a pre-requisite for effective implementation of disaster management strategies. Efforts should be made for setting up IT infrastructures consisting of required IT processes, architecture and skills for quick upgradation and updation of data sets from the PRIs or the ULBs. The DIO Gurgaon will insure the above said work with the help of Govt. of India. 3. 8 Strengthening of the Emergency Operation Centre The Gurgaon Disaster Management Authority has established Emergency
Operation Centre (EOC) however the GDMA has to equip EOC with contemporary technologies and communication facilities and their periodic upgradation, shall be accorded with high priority. The Authority shall create last mile connectivity and control of the operations at the disaster hit areas. The integration of Ham radios and such other innovative facilities, into the DM communication system shall be advantageous for EOC Gurgaon. 3. 9 Medical Preparedness and Mass Casualty Management The Medical preparedness is a crucial component of GDMP. The DM contingency plan shall be formulated by Gurgaon health department and will include developing and training of medical teams and paramedics, capacity building, trauma and psycho-social care, mass casualty management and triage.
The surge and casualty handling capacity of Civil Hospital Gurgaon at the time of disasters shall be worked out and recorded through a consultative process, by the Hospital Administration in the pre-disaster phase. The Gurgaon Disaster Management authority Shall be encouraged to formulate appropriate procedures for treatment of casualties by private hospitals during disasters. This plan will also address post-disaster disease surveillance systems, networking with other hospitals, referral institutions and accessing services and facilities such as availability of ambulances and blood banks. Creation of mobile surgical teams, mobile hospitals and heli-ambulances (if possible) for evacuation of patients is a crucial component of DM efforts of GDMA.
The address of the nearest Accident Relief Medical Vans (ARMVs) of the Ministry of Railways, shall be mentioned in the Gurgaon Disaster Management Plan for medical -26- emergency. Proper and speedy disposal of dead bodies, creation of mortuary facilities and animal carcasses deserves due weightage and attention. 3. 10 Training, Simulation and Mock Drills Efficacy of plans and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) are tested and refined through training, seminars and mock drills. The GDMA with the help of NDMA had conducted several mock drills in Gurgaon. The GDMA shall be encouraged to generate a culture of preparedness and quick response by periodically organising training simulation and mock-drills in future. 3. 1 Community Based Disaster Preparedness During any disaster, communities are not only the first to be affected but also the first and foremost responders. Community participation ensures local ownership, addresses local needs, and promotes volunteerism and mutual help to prevent and minimise damage. Therefore, the efforts of GDMA in this regard need to be encourage so that envisaged vision can be achieved. The needs of the elderly, women, children and differently abled persons require special attention. Women, Youth club, NCC & NSS shall be encouraged to participate in decision making committees and action groups for management of disasters.
As first responders to any disaster, communities will be trained in the various aspects of response such as first aid, search and rescue, management of community shelters, psycho-social counselling, distribution of relief and accessing support from government/agencies etc. Community plans will be dovetailed into District plans. 3. 12 Stakeholders Participation The participation of civil society stakeholders shall be coordinated by the GDMA. Civil Defence, NCC, NYKS, NSS and Local Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) will be encouraged to empower the community and generate awareness through their respective institutional mechanisms. Efforts to promote voluntary involvement will be actively encouraged by the GDMA -27- 3. 13
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Historically, the corporate sector has been supporting disaster relief and rehabilitation activities. However, the involvement of corporate entities in disaster risk reduction activities is not upto desired significance. Corporate entities should redefine their business continuity plan to factor in hazards, risks and vulnerabilities. They should also create value in innovative social investments in the community. PPP between the Civil Administration, GDMA and private sector Gurgaon would also be encouraged to leverage the strengths of the latter in disaster management.
The HDMA and GDMA need to network with the corporate entities to strengthen and formalize their role in the DM process for ensuring safety of the communities. 3. 14 Media Partnership The media plays a critical role in information and knowledge dissemination in all phases of DM. The versatile potential of both electronic and print media needs to be fully utilised. Effective partnership with the media will be worked out in the field of community awareness, early warning and dissemination, and education regarding various disasters. The District Pubic Relation Officer (DPRO) as media and Information officer of GDMA shall ensure the mainstreaming of media partnership of Gurgaon. 3. 16.
Departmental Preparedness and site operations Department Police · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Preparedness and site operations Standby and Alert Cordoning of area Rumour Control Law and order Preventive Evacuation Rescue Corpse Disposal Traffic Management Standby Alert Preventive Evacuation Emergency water and food Salvage Corpse Disposal Clearance of debris Emergency repairs Coordination of transport Temporary Shelters -28- GMC /Power/ other Technical Departments Fire Brigade Health Department, Govt. & Private Hospitals Transport, HR Roadways Revenue & Disaster Management Civil Defence & Home Guards Railways (Northern) · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
Standby and Alert Preventive Evacuation Fire Fighting Evacuation Rescue Salvage Standby and Alert Preventive Evacuation Transport seriously injured Emergency treatment Corpse Disposal Preventive Measures Health Monitoring Stand by Transport Transfer to stranded Persons Standby Preventive Evacuation Transit Camps Arrangements for food Gratuitous Relief Standby Preventive Evacuation Rescue Standby transport Preventive Evacuation Transport Rescue Salvage 3. 16 Activities Vis-a-vis Department Involved. Activitie s Departments involved 1. Search and Rescue 2. Medical Aid (treatment and transfer) 3. Disposal of dead (retrieval, panchama, autoposy) 4. Temporary shelters Revenue Revenue Police & HDRF Health Health
Irrigation PWD (B&R) Fire Services Army NGOs Private Ambulan NGOs Hospit- -ce als Services Health Forest NGOs Revenue Police Revenue Police ZP/PS PWD (B&R) Distt. Red Cross Society NGOs -29- 5. Relief Activities (Cooked food, water, gratituous relief) 6. Health and Sanitation (preventive measures, waste disposal) 7. Carcass disposal 8. Infrastructure restoration (water, electricity, roads) 9. Cattle Camps Revenue Food & Supply Office Public Health DIstt. Red Cross Society NGOs Revenue Health ZP/MC NGOs Revenue ZP/MC Health NGOs PWD (B&R) Pubic Health Electricity BSNL Health Revenue ZP/MC Animal Husbandry -30- CHAPTER 4 Institutional and Legal Arrangements 4. The Disaster Management Act, 2005 The DM Act 2005 and the National Policy on Disaster Management lay down stitutional mechanisms at the National, State, District and Local levels. Though these institutions are at different levels, they will work in close harmony. The new institutional frameworks are expected to usher in a paradigm shift in DM from relief centric approach to a proactive regime that lays greater emphasis on preparedness, prevention and mitigation. The States which have not already put in place the appropriate institutional mechanism like SDMAs and DDMAs have to take necessary steps in that direction at the earliest. A. Institutional Framework under the DM Act,2005 4. National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) NDMA, as the apex body for DM, is headed by the Prime Minister and has the responsibility for laying down policies, plans and Guidelines for DM and coordinating their enforcement and implementation for ensuring timely and effective response to disasters. The Guidelines will assist the Central ministries, departments and States to formulate their respective DM plans. It will approve the National Disaster Management Plan and DM Plans of the Central ministries/departments. It will take such other measures, as it may consider necessary, for the prevention of disasters, or mitigation, or preparedness and capacity building, for dealing with a threatening disaster situation or disaster. Central ministries/ departments and State
Governments will extend necessary cooperation and assistance to NDMA for carrying out its mandate. It will oversee the provision and application of funds for mitigation and preparedness measures. NDMA has the power to authorise the departments or authorities concerned, to make emergency procurement of provisions or materials for rescue and relief in a threatening disaster situation or disaster. The general superintendence, direction and control of the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) is vested in and will be exercised by the NDMA. The National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) works within the framework of broad policies and Guidelines laid down by the NDMA. -31-
The NDMA is mandated to deal with all types of disasters, natural or manmade, whereas such other emergencies including those requiring close involvement of the security forces and/ or intelligence agencies such as terrorism (counter-insurgency), Law and Order Situations, Serial Bomb Blasts, Hijacking, Air Accidents, Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Weapon Systems, Mine Disasters, Ports and Harbour emergencies, Forest Fires, Oilfield Fires and Oil Spills will continue to be handled by the extant mechanism i. e. National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC). NDMA may, however, formulate Guidelines and facilitate training and preparedness activities in respect of CBRN emergencies. Cross-cutting themes like Medical Preparedness, Psycho-Social Care and Trauma, Community Based Disaster Preparedness, Information & Communication Technology, Training, Preparedness, Awareness Generation etc. , for natural and man-made disasters in partnership with the stakeholders concerned.
Resources available with the DM authorities at all levels, which are capable of discharging emergency support functions, will be made available to the nodal ministries and agencies concerned during times of such disaster(s) / impending disaster(s) . 4. 3 National Executive Committee (NEC) The NEC comprises the Union Home Secretary as the Chairperson, and the Secretaries tothe GoI in the Ministries/Departments of Agriculture, Atomic Energy, Defence, Drinking Water Supply, Environment and Forests, Finance (Expenditure), Health, Power, Rural Development, Science and Technology, Space, Telecommunications, Urban Development, Water Resources and the Chief of the Integrated Defence Staff of the Chiefs of Staff Committee as members.
Secretaries in the Ministry of External Affairs, Earth Sciences, Human Resource Development, Mines, Shipping, Road Transport and Highways and the Secretary, NDMA will be special invitee to the meetings of the NEC. The NEC is the executive committee of the NDMA and is mandated to assist the NDMA in the discharge of its functions and also ensure compliance of the directions issued by the Central Government. The NEC is to coordinate the response in the event of any threatening disaster situation or disaster. The NEC will prepare the National Plan for DM based on the National Policy on DM. The NEC will monitor the implementation of Guidelines issued by NDMA. It will also perform such other -32- functions as may be prescribed by the Central Government in consultation with the NDMA. . 4 Haryana State Disaster Management Authority (HSDMA) As per section 14(1) of the DM, Act 2005, the Haryana State Disaster Management Authority headed by the Hon ble Chief Minister has been formed and notified and will lay down policies and plans for DM in the Haryana State. It will, inter alia, approve the State Plan in accordance with the Guidelines laid down by the NDMA, coordinate the implementation of the State Plan, recommend provision of funds for mitigation and preparedness measures and review the developmental plans of the different departments of the State to ensure integration of prevention, preparedness and mitigation measures.
The other members of the HSDMA are as under : 1. Chief Minister, Haryana 2. Finance Minister, Haryana 3. Health Minister, Haryana 4. Rural Development & Panchayats Minister, Haryana 5. Minister of state for Revenue 6. Chief Secretary Haryana Chairperson, Ex-officio Member Member Member Member Member and chief Executive Officer, Ex-officio 7. Financial Commissioner, Revenue and Disaster Management, Haryana 8. Home Secretary, Haryana 9. Representative of National Disaster Management Authority Member Member Member The State Government Haryana has also constituted a State Executive Committee (SEC) to assist the HSDMA in the performance of its functions.
The SEC will be headed by the Chief Secretary (CS) to the State Government and coordinate and monitor the implementation of the National Policy, the National Plan and the State Plan. The SEC will also provide information to the NDMA relating to different aspects of DM. 4. 5 District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA) Each DDMA of Haryana will be headed by the Dy. Commissioner with the Chairman of Zila Parihad as the Co-Chairperson. DDMA will act as the planning, coordinating -33- and implementing body for DM at District level and take all necessary measures for the purposes of DM in accordance with the Guidelines laid down by the NDMA and HSDMA.
It will, inter alia, prepare the District DM plan for the District and monitor the implementation of the National Policy, the State Policy, the National Plan, the State Plan concerning its own District and prepare the District Plan. The DDMA will also ensure that the Guidelines for prevention, mitigation, preparedness and response measures laid down by NDMA and HSDMA are followed by all Departments of the State Government, at the District level and the Local Authorities in the District. 4. 6 Local Authorities Local Authorities would include Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs), Municipal Corporations,Municipalities, District and Cantonment Boards and Town Planning Authorities which control and manage civic services.
These bodies will prepare DM Plans in consonance with the Guidelines of NDMA, SDMAs and DDMAs and will ensure capacity building of their officers and employees for managing disasters, carry out relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction activities in the affected areas. 4. 7 National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) NIDM, in partnership with other research institutions has capacity development as one of its major responsibilities, along with training, research, documentation and development of a national level information base. It will network with other knowledge based institutions and function within the broad Policies and Guidelines laid down by NDMA. It will organise training of trainers, DM officials and other stakeholders. NIDM will strive to emerge as a Centre of Excellence in the field of DM. 4. National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) For the purpose of specialised response to a threatening disaster situation or disasters/ emergencies both natural and man-made such as those of CBRN origin, the DM Act, 2005 has mandated the constitution of a NDRF. The general superintendence, direction and control of this force is vested in and exercised by the NDMA and the command and supervision of the Force will vest in an officer to be appointed by the Central Government as the Director General of NDRF. Presently, the NDRF comprises eight battalions. Two additional battalions have been sanctioned by the Government and are in the process of being formed. These battalions are located at strategic locations and will be deployed proactively as required. NDRF units will -34- aintain close liaison with the designated State Governments/ UTs and will be available to them in the event of any serious threatening disaster situation. While the handling of all natural disasters rests with all the NDRF battalions, presently four of them have been equipped and trained to respond to situations arising out of CBRN emergencies. In future plans exist to train rest of the battalions also for CBRN response. The NDRF units will also impart basic training to all the stakeholders identified by the State Governments in their respective locations. Further, a National Academy will be set up to provide training for trainers in DM and to meet related national and international commitments.
Presently the location and area of responsibility of the various NDRF battalion in the country are as follows: Location Guwahati Kolkata Mundali Area of responsibility for natural disaster N. E. States West Bengal, Bihar, Sikkim, Jharkhand Orissa, Chhatisgarh, North Andhra Pradesh (Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, Visakhapatnam) Tamil Nadu, Kerala, South Andhra Pradesh, Puduchery, A & N Islands, Lakshadweep Maharashtra, Karnataka, Goa Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu Chandigarh, Punjab, J&K, Gaziabad battalion (Grater Himachal Pradesh Noida) U. P. , Uttar Khand, Haryana, Delhi Area of responsibility for CBRN emergencies Kolkata battalion Arakkonam battalion Arakkonam Pune Pune battalion Gandhi Nagar Bhatinda Ghaziabad Patna* Vijayawada* Patna (Bihar) and Vijaywada (Andhra Pradesh) have also been approved in principle to locate NDRF battalions for natural disaster, and therefore, the area of responsibility will be readjusted once these two NDRF battalionsare made functional. -35- 4. 9 Haryana Disaster Response Force (HDRF) The Haryana Disaster Response Force has been constituted to create response capabilities from within their existing resources. To start with, Haryana may aim at equipping and training a company of Haryana Armed Force. The SDRF will also include women members for looking after the needs of women and children. NDRF battalions and their training institutions will assist the States/UTs in this effort.
In addition the Haryana Police will also be encouraged to include DM training in the basic and in-service courses of their respective Police Training Colleges for gazetted and non-gazetted police officers. 4. 10 Disaster Mitigation Reserves Experience in major disasters in India in the last decade has clearly established the need for pre-positioning some essential relief and response reserves at crucial locations, including some for the high altitude areas. These reserves are intended to augment the resources at the State level. Mitigation reserves will be placed at the disposal of NDRF for enhancing their emergency response capabilities for assisting the State Governments during a disaster or disaster-like situation. B. Existing Institutional Arrangements 4. 1 Cabinet Committee on Management of Natural Calamities (CCMNC) and the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) CCMNC was constituted to oversee all aspects relating to the management of natural calamities including assessment of the situation and identification of measures and programmes considered necessary to reduce its impact, monitor and suggest long term measures for prevention of such calamities, formulate and recommend programmes for public awareness for building up society s resilience to them. The Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) deals with issues related to the defence of the country, law & order and internal security, policy matters concerning foreign affairs that have internal or external security implications, and economic and political issues impinging on National security. 4. 2 High Level Committee (HLC) In the case of calamities of severe nature, Inter-Ministerial Central Teams are deputed to the affected States for assessment of damage caused by the calamity and the amount of relief assistance required. The Inter Ministerial Group (IMG), headed by the Union Home Secretary, scrutinises the assessment made by the Central teams and recommends the quantum of assistance to be provided to the -36- States from the National Calamity Contingency Fund (NCCF). However, assessment of damages by IMG in respect of drought, hail-storms, and pest attacks continue to be carried out by the Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperation. The recommendations of the IMG are considered and approved by the High Level Committee chaired by the Union Agriculture Minister.
The HLC comprises the Finance Minister, Home Minister, Agriculture Minister and Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission as members. The constitution and composition of HLC may vary from time to time. The Vice Chairperson, NDMA will be a special invitee to the HLC. 4. 13 Central Government In accordance with the provisions of the DM Act 2005, the Central Government will take all such measures, as it deems necessary or expedient, for the purpose of DM and will coordinate actions of all agencies. The Central Ministries and Departments will take into consideration the recommendations of the State Governments while deciding upon the various pre-disaster requirements and for deciding upon the measures for the prevention and mitigation of disasters.
It will ensure that the Central Ministries and departments integrate measures for the prevention and mitigation of disasters into their developmental plans and projects, make appropriate allocation of funds for pre-disaster requirements and take necessary measures for preparedness and to effectively respond to any disaster situation or disaster. It will have the power to issue directions to NEC, State Governments/SDMAs, SECs or any of their officers or employees, to facilitate or assist in DM, and these bodies and officials will be bound to comply with such directions. The Central Government will extend cooperation and assistance to the State Governments as required by them or otherwise deemed appropriate by it. It will take measures for the deployment of the Armed Forces for DM if required. The role of the Armed Forces will be governed by the instructions laid out in Instructions on Aid to Civil Authorities 1970.
The Central Government will also facilitate coordination with the UN Agencies, other International organisations and Governments of foreign countries in the field of DM. Ministry of External Affairs, in co-ordination with MHA, will facilitate external co-ordination and cooperation. 4. 14 Role of Central Ministries and Departments As DM is a multi-disciplinary process, all Central Ministries and departments will have a key role in the field of DM. The Secretaries of the Nodal Ministries and Departments of GoI i. e. the Ministries of Home Affairs (MHA), Agriculture, Civil -37- Aviation, Environment and Forests, Health, Atomic Energy, Space, Earth Sciences, Water Resources, Mines, Railways etc. re all members of the NEC and will continue to function as nodal agencies for specific disasters based on their core competencies or as assigned to them. 4. 15 National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC) NCMC, comprising high level officials of the GoI headed by the Cabinet Secretary, will continue to deal with major crises which have serious ramifications. It will be supported by the Crisis Management Groups (CMG) of the Central Nodal Ministries and assisted by NEC as may be necessary. The Secretary, NDMA will be a permanent invitee to this Committee. 4. 16 Haryana Governments The primary responsibility for DM rests with the Haryana Government. The institutional mechanisms put in place at the Centre, State and District levels will help the States manage disasters in an effective manner.
The DM Act, 2005 mandates the Haryana Governments, inter alia, to take measures for preparation of state DM plans, integration of measures for prevention of disasters or mitigation into state development plans, allocation of funds, establishment of early warning systems and to assist the Central Government and other agencies in various aspects of DM. 4. 17 Centre for Disaster Management , Haryana Institute of Public Administration, Gurgaon CDM, HIPA in partnership with NIDM and other research institutions has capacity development as one of its major responsibilities, along with training, research, documentation and development of state level information base. It will network with other knowledge based institutions and function within the broad Policies and Guidelines laid down by HSDMA. It will organise training of trainers, DM officials and other stakeholders. NIDM will strive to emerge as a Centre of Excellence in the field of DM in Haryana. 4. 8 District Administration At the District level in Haryana, DDMAs will act as the planning, coordinating and implementing body for DM and will take all measures for the purposes of DM in the respective Districts in accordance with the Guidelines laid down by NDMA and HDMA. -38- 4. 19 Management of Disasters Impacting more than one State At times, the impact of disasters occurring in one State may spread over to the areas of neighbouring States. Similarly, preventive measures in respect of certain disasters, such as floods, etc may be required to be taken in one State, though the impact of their occurrence may affect another. The administrative hierarchy of the country is organised into the National, State and District level administrations. This presents some difficulties in respect of disasters impacting more than one State.
Management of such situations call for a coordinated approach which can respond to a range of issues quite different from those that normally, present themselves, before, during and after the event. NDMA will encourage identification of such situations and promote the establishment of mechanisms on the lines of Mutual Aid Agreements, for coordinated strategies, for dealing with them by the States, Central Ministries and Departments and other agencies concerned. C. Other Important Institutional Arrangements 4. 20 Armed Forces Traditionally, the Armed Forces are called upon to assist the civil administration only when the situation is beyond their coping capacity.
In practice, however, the Armed Forces form an important part of the Government s response capacity and are immediate responders in all serious disaster situations. On account of their vast potential to meet any adverse challenge, speed of operational response, and the resources and capabilities at their disposal, the Armed Forces have historically played a major role in emergency support functions. These include providing services for communications, search and rescue operations, health and medical facilities and transportation, especially in the immediate aftermath of a disaster. Airlift, helilift and movement of relief assistance and emergency response to neighbouring countries primarily fall within the expertise and domain of the Armed Forces.
The Armed Forces will participate in imparting training to trainers and DM managers, especially in CBRN aspects, heli-insertion, high-altitude rescue, watermanship and training of paramedics. At the National level, the Chief of the Integrated Defence Staff to the Chairman Chiefs of Staff Committee is a member of the NEC. Similarly, at the State and District levels, the local representatives of the Armed Forces may be included in their executive committees to ensure closer coordination and cohesion. -39- 4. 21 Central Para Military Forces (CPMFs) The CPMFs which are also the Armed Forces of the Union, play a key role at the time of immediate response to disasters.
Besides contributing to the NDRF, they will develop dequate DM capabilities within their own forces and respond to disasters which may occur in the areas where they are deployed. The local representatives of the CPMFs wherever they are located may be co-opted or invited to attend the meetings of the executive committee at the State and District level. 4. 22 Haryana Police Force, Home Guard and Fire Services The Haryana Police Forces, the Fire and Emergency Services and Home Guards are crucial and most immediate responders to disasters. The Police will be trained and the Fire and Emergency Services upgraded to acquire multi-hazard rescue capability.
Home Guards volunteers will be trained in disaster preparedness, emergency response, community mobilisation, etc. The Haryana Government may take the help of NDMA for capacity building and sensitisation of their forces. 4. 23 Civil Defence (CD) and Home Guards The mandate of the Civil Defence (CD) and the Home Guards will be redefined to assign an effective role in the field of disaster management. They will be deployed for community preparedness and public awareness. A culture of voluntary reporting to duty stations in the event of any disaster will be promoted. A proper CD set up in every District will be a boon for disaster response as the neighbourhood community is always the first responder in any disaster.
The proposal to make CD District centric and be involved in disaster response has already been approved by the GoI. Its phase wise implementation has also begun. Haryana Government will ensure their operationalisation in their respective districts. 4. 24 Role of National Cadet Corps (NCC), National Service Scheme (NSS) and Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan (NYKS) Potential of these youth based organisations will be optimised to support all community based initiatives and DM training would be included in their programmes. 4. 25 International Cooperation Disasters do not recognise geographical boundaries. Major disasters may often simultaneously affect several countries.
It will be the National endeavour to develop close cooperation and coordination at the International level in all spheres of DM. -40- CHAPTER 5 Emergency Operation Centre 5. 1 Introduction A well coordinated and unified response of various department and agencies appropriate to the demand of the district administration in the management of disaster will minimize the hardships and improve the process of recovery. The process of confidence building and self Reliance at the district level can best be promoted through supportive and well thought- of intervention by the administration. Response Plan had been prepared to a strengthen and assist departments and district authority to mange disasters.
The roles and responsibilities of various department along with the standards of the service expected, the information and monitoring tools and modes of communication, and the monitoring and evaluation department had been identified. The in addition following manuals should also be referred: · Gurgaon Disaster Response plan · District Resources inventory. · Manual on Warning and Evaluation · Manual for Emergency Operation Center. The EOC is an institutional mechanism set-up as a part of District Disaster Response Plan. The EOC, its system, and procedure are designated in such a way that information can be promptly assessed and relayed to concerned parties. Rapid dissemination contributes to appropriate and quick response backed up by effective decision making during the emergency.
As the master coordination and control point for all counter disaster efforts, the EOC is the place for decision-making under a unified command. The Deputy Commissioner office has an adjoining meeting Room, which can accommodate approximately 30-40 people. Hence, this will be used in conference room. The Communication room will be located next to the Deputy Commissioner s office. 5. 2 Emergency Operation Centre(EOC) The EOC under the control of Responsible officer is nerve center to monitor, Coordinate and implement the actions of disaster management. In a disaster situation -41- the Responsible Officer Gurgaon is the central authority exercising emergency power to issue directives to all departments to provide Emergency Response services through IRS of Gurgaon.
The Emergency Operation Centre is an offsite facilities which will be functioning from the Mini Secretariat and which is actually an augmented control room having communication facilities and space to accommodate the various Emergency Support Function. It is a combination of all concerned line department of Gurgaon Administration and other agencies whose services are generally required during incident response. The all concerned heads of the department and other agencies heads will be able to take the decision on the spot under the guidance of Dy. Commissioner (RO) and will be able to assist the Dy. Commissioner (RO) in achieving the incident objectives. The Dy. Commissioner (RO) will also ensure that the line department s do not issue parallel and contradictory instructions to their field level officers. The EOC Gurgaon will take stock of the emergency situation and assist the Dy.
Commissioner (RO) Gurgaon in mobilizing the respective line department resources, manpower and expertise along with the appropriate delegated authorities for the onscene IRT(s). The EOC Gurgaon will keep the e Dy. Commissioner informed of the changing situation and support extended. The DIO would be responsible for the maintenance and update all the facilities whereas EOC responsibility would be discharged most effectively only if it has required information through fail safe communication facility and an ideal information technology solution with decision support system (DSS). Web based technology solution will further help in assessing situational awareness, decision support and multi agency coordination.
It will also allow all collaborating agencies and departments inside and outside EOC environment to share information, make decision, activate plans and deploy IRTs, perform and log all necessary response and relief activities and make the EOC Gurgaon effective. The Dy. Commissioner of Gurgaon (RO) is responsible to the above capabilities in place. 5. 3 Institutional Arrangements I. Under this Response Plan, all disaster specific mechanism would come under a single umbrella allowing for attending to all level of disasters with the objective of having a simplified and uncluttered system of response in a disaster situation. The Dy. Commissioner Gurgaon as RO will be supported -42- by the Additional Dy. Commissioner as IC through Operation Section, Logistic Section and Planning Section Chiefs at the Gurgaon EOC. II.
The Area Command is activated when span of controls become very large because of large number geographical reasons or because of large number of incidents occurring at different places at the same time. The Area Command would also be activated when a number of administrative jurisdictions are affected. It provides close supervision, support to the IRTS and resolution of conflict locally. When a number of districts gets affected involving more than one Revenue Division, the Area Command may be introduced Revenue Division wise by the Chief Secretary, Haryana as State RO. In such cases the Dy. Commissioner Gurgaon shall function as the IC and Commissioner of Gurgaon shall work as RO. 5. 3. The roles and responsibilities of AC are as follows: a) Ensure that incident management objectives are met and do not conflict with each other; b) Allocate critical resources according to identified priorities; c) Ensure proper coordination in the management of incidents; d) Ensure resolution of all conflicts in his jurisdiction; e) Ensure effective communications; f) Identify critical resource needs and liaise with the EOC for their supply; g) Provide for accountability of personnel and ensure a safe operating environment; and h) Perform any other tasks as assigned by the RO. Unified Command: In an incident involving multiple agencies, there is a critical need for integrating resources (men, materials and machines) into a single operational organisation that is managed and supported by one command structure.
This is best established through an integrated, multi-disciplinary organisation. In IRS this critical need is addressed by the UC. The UC is a framework headed by the CM Haryana and assisted by the CS Haryana that allows all agencies with jurisdictional responsibilities for an incident, either geographical or functional, to participate in the management of the incident. This participation is demonstrated by developing and implementing a common set of incident objectives and strategies that all can subscribe to, without losing or abdicating specific agency authority, responsibilities and accountability. -43- III. Unified Command (UC) incorporates the following components: a. A set of objectives for the entire incident; b.
A collective approach for developing strategies to achieve incident goals; c. Improved information flow and inter-agency coordination; d. Familiarity with responsibilities and constraints of other agencies; e. Respect for the authority or legal responsibilities of all agencies; f. Optimal synergy of all agencies for the smooth implementation of the IAP; and g. Elimination of duplication of efforts. IV. Public Private Partnership in Gurgaon Disaster Response Plan: In Gurgaon, a number of community based organisations like NGOs, Self Help Groups (SHGs) Youth Organisation, Volunteers of NYK, Civil Defence (CD) and Home Guard, Cooperate Sectors etc and workers of different projects funded by Govt. f India and State Government like Natinal Rural Health Mission (NRHM), Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) etc shall volunteer their services in the aftermath of any disaster. In the Gurgaon Disaster Response Plan, these organisations are placed in the OS through service and support Branch of the LS where the skills and services of the community shall be utilized systematically in the forms of single resource, strike team and Task Force. The Deputy Commissioner with the help of DRO, DDPO, SDMs, BDPOs, PRIs etc. will ensure that such resources at village, ward or Gram Panchayat are organized and trained to be a part of the IRT. The Public Private Partnership Team should be appropriately integrated in the Gurgaon IRTs. V.
EOC Norms a) Deputy Commissioner (RO) Gurgaon shall be the EOC-in-charge, Additional Deputy Commissioner; IC in the absence of Deputy Commissioner shall be the In-charge of EOC Gurgaon. The DIO will be responsible for facilities and maintenance of the EOC Norms. b) All HODs of the departments have their chair to quickly mobilize their resources. c) The Deputy Commissioner shall ensure proper infrastructure to accommodate the other participating agencies etc. d) Following communication facilities are required: Landline, Hotline, Mobile Phone, GSM and CDMA, HAM, VHF, Wireless Coferency, Satallite Phone. e) The EOC Gurgaon have a vehicle mounted with HF, VHF and Satellite telephone for deployment in the affected site to provide immediate connectivity with the EOC and ICP. -44- f) g) h) · · · · i) · · · · · j) k)
The EOC Gurgaon shall have a Map depicting affected site, resources deployed, facilities established like ICP, Staging Area, Incident Base, Relief Camp, Helipad etc. The EOC Gurgaon shall have DM Plans of all line departments. The EOC Gurgaon shall have following details: Directories with contact details of all emergency services and nodal officers; Connectivity with all sub-divisions, police stations, other district headquarters etc; Database of NGOs working in different geographical area; Demographic details of the state and district. The EOC Gurgaon will have online/Web based DSS with the availability of at least the following components. Standardization of
Command Structure with the details of the earmarked and trained personnel in Gurgaon Disaster Response Plan; Proactive Planning Facilities. Comprehensive resources management system; GIS for decision support. Modeling capability for predicting causalities and resources for large scale incidents. The EOC Gurgaon will have a copy of updated socio-economic, demographic and land use planning. The EOC Gurgaon will have resource inventories of all live departments and connectivity with database of India Disaster Resource Network (IDRN) India Disaster Knowledge Network(IDKN) and corporate Disaster Resource Network (CDRN). VI. Normal Time Activities of EOC Gurgaon The Normal time activities of the EOC Gurgaon under the Dy.
Commissioner is to : · · · Ensure that all warning and communication systems, instruments are in working condition Receive information on a routine basis from the district departments on the vulnerability of the various Blocks and Villages to disaster. Receive reports on preparedness from the relevant district level departments and other departments based on these reports, the EOC will forward to the EOC, Haryana State and Divisional Commissioner. · · Upgrade and update Gurgaon Disaster Response Plan according to changing scenarios in the district. Update data bank and inventory of resources. -45- · · Update all information in the GIS. Inform any changes including updating of data banks etc. to EOC, Haryana State under FCR and center for Disaster Management HIPA, Gurgaon. · · · · · · Monitor preparedness measures including simulation exercise undertaken by various departments.
Ensure proper dissemination of Gurgaon Disaster Response Plan at the district level, Local level and disaster prone areas. Identify appropriate NGOs/Private Sector Organizations. Which can be assigned the task of community level preparedness. Encourage formation of Mutual Aid and Response Group (MARG). Organize post-disaster evaluation and update Gurgaon Disaster Response Plan accordingly. Prepare reports and documentation on district level disaster events and submit the same to EOC Haryana State. VII. Dissemination of Gurgaon Disaster Response Plan. The responsibility for dissemination of the plan is vested with DCR, at the Dy. Commissioner office.
In order for the GDRP to be effective it must be disseminated at two levels; · To the district authorities, Government Department, NGOs and other agencies and institutions within the district and · To general public. Effective dissemination of plan requires a well designed and focused training. Training activities are carried out under the guidance and direction of Centre for DM. The training programmes are organized for different levels of functionaries from district level officials, identified NGOs/Private Sector organizations in order to equip them to extend training facilities to functionaries at block and village level as well as organize simulation exercise within the community.
The EOC Gurgaon should involve NGOs in preparing suitable public awareness material to be distributed to the public. The materials for awareness programmes at community level should be prepared in the local language to ensure widespread dissemination. Media should be extensively used for public awareness programmes. These will include -46- · · · · · Newspapers including local ones TV Local cable networks Radio Folk Media Publicity material Schools, Collages and other public institutional should be specifically targeted. It is also desirable to include mutual aid organizations and public emergency response organizations in disaster preparedness drills.
The objectives of full scale drill include evaluation of the following; · Practicality of the plan (structure and organization) · Adequacy of communications and interactions among agencies and the public · Emergency equipment effectiveness · Adequacy of first aid and rescue procedures · Adequacy of emergency personnel response and training · Public relations skills · Evacuation and count procedures III. PLAN EVALUATION The purpose of evaluation of the Gurgaon Disaster Response Plan (GDRP) is to determine · The adequacy of resources · Effective IRS implementation · Co-ordination between various agencies · Community participation · Partnership with NGOs · Partnership with Corporate Sector The case of undertaking and using the plan will also be important considerations.
The plan will be updated when shortcomings are observed in · Organizational Structures · Available technology · Response mechanism following reports on drills or exercise IV. POST DISASTER EVALUATION A post-disaster evaluation should be done after the withdrawal or relief and rehabilitation activities in order to asses · · · · The nature of state intervention and support. Suitability of the organization structure Institutional arrangements. Adequacy of operating procedures -47- · · · · Monitoring mechanism Information tools. Equipment Communication system, etc. The impact studies on the above operations for long term preventive and mitigation efforts are to be undertaken. Evaluation exercise may be undertaken to understand the perceptions about disaster response in term of