Does AmerVirtue ethics…

7 July 2016

Ethical and Moral Perspectives This is an essay comparing the similarities and differences between virtue theory, utilitarianism, and deontological ethics. All theory address ethics and morality somewhat differently. I will use a personal experience to explain virtue, values, and moral concepts related to one of the theories. . Similarities Between Virtue Theory, Utilitarianism, and Deontological Ethics. Doing what is right being the basic similarity common to virtue theory, utilitarianism, and deontological ethics.

All the theories identify to uphold justice and responsibility. Morality is a consideration of all three. There is a general agreement among the public or citizens as to what is best. They are similar in wanting what is right. They all focus on a good outcome. For any moral to work, the citizens have to be in agreement of what is best. Differences Between Theories. There are some differences between ethical theories. In virtue ethics, the practitioner is more flexible than the rigid “decision based” practitioners of utilitarianism and deontology.

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Utilitarianism differs from virtue ethics as it is a theory that suggests that an action is morally right if the action produces more total utility for the group. They believe in pain and pleasure unlike the other two theories. Motives are not often addressed in utilitarianism, but consequences are, depending on the motivation. Deontological theory is on personal freedom and rights pertaining to his well-being. Boylan (2009) stated “Virtue ethics promotes community orientation that works in the opposite direction of the expression and protecting of individual liberties and rights” (p.

156). Virtue ethics believe that favoring some over others is natural. Deontologists base their decisions on conventional reasons. The basis of deontology is related to types of goods, rights, and duties. Virtue ethics lead to contradictions when deontology bases it’s foundation on the principle of noncontradiction. In utilitarianism good is defined as that which maximizes pleasure and base man’s freedom struggle on a behavioral process of avoidance or escape, pain or pleasure.

These are some of the differences between the theories. Differences in Each Theory and How They Addresses Ethics and Morality. There are also differences between the theories of virtue ethics, utilitarianism, and deontological theory and how they address ethics and morality. Utilitarians determine what we ought to do from what we will do as their basis for right and wrong. Utilitarian are practitioners of general hedonism depicted by “the greatest pleasure/happiness for the greatest number and consider no ethical dimensions.

Deontologist might argue that there are no moral reasons for choosing one track over another. The two forms of categorical imperatives provide justification of actions of perfect and imperfect duties and give a concrete picture of how society is to treat each other and behave toward them. Virtue ethics encourage homogeneous communities and do not nurture diversity and discourage conflict in favor of unity and peace. The problem with homogeneous communities is they do not nurture diversity and they discourage conflict in favor of unity and peace.

The Utilitarianism suggests action is morally right when the action produces more utility for the group than any alternative. Deontologists consider humans as ends and always recognize a human’s personal, goals, values, and aspirations. They believe in treating people as an ends but, not as a means and in symmetry of one’s attitude about his self and others’. It is different from other theories who consider emotion. In deontology, Kant understood the ethical enterprise of an individual who is contemplating acting in a certain way is decided in a way that leads to good will.

Deontologist’s principle of contradiction that believes human thoughts accord with logic which means it is illogical to be immoral, irrational, or ­­inhuman. They abide by moral maxims that give us advice for life. Two prominent criticisms of utilitarianism are the rights of minorities and the connection between pleasure and good which means the majority is always wrong and is driven by expediency that gives pleasure. Personal Experience Explaining the Relationship Between Virtue, Values, and Moral Concepts as They Relate to One of the Theories.

When I worked in home improvement sales, I had to employ the utilitarian approach. I had to fire employees without warning and without emotion because it was my job and the company benefited. Sometimes the discharged employees were not producing to the company’s benefit. I had no paycheck to hand them as they didn’t earn a commission, then I had to let them know they were not beneficial to me or the company. I did not have to give any further considerations and I went against my instincts and morals to treat them like humans.

I knew that the challenges they sometimes face were of no fault of their own and they were not fair reasons to let them go. I had a lot of responsibility and many other employees to train and provide routes for. I took little time and used an emotionless face to do my job. It is not how I would like to have been treated and it was unkind as well as immoral and against common values of man to treat other’s harmfully. Conclusion While there are few similarities, there are many differences between the virtue theory, utilitiarism, and deontology.

Virtue ethics reflect the best interest of individuals with the backing of community orientation. Utilitarians focus on the greater good of the group as a whole while believing in the pain and pleasure standard They decide what they ought to do from what they shall do to determine right from wrong and consider cause and effects of actions. Deontology theory has emphasis on individual freedom relating to the rights and well being of humans. The differences of theories have a different result on individuals pertaining to ethics and morality.

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