Doryphorus Of Polyclitus Essay Research Paper FA
Doryphorus Of Polyclitus Essay, Research Paper
FA 48 ART OF THE WESTERN WORLD ESSAY QUESTIONS 1 THROUGH 4Michael J. Wiggin 6/8/98Program One: Classical IDEALQuestion figure oneArchaic illustration: KOUROS c. 540 BC ( page 12 of text ) Classical illustration: THE DORYPHORUS OF POLYCLITUS c. 440 BC ( page 13 of text ) The antediluvian piece is stiff, formal and yet, faintly smiling, giving the spectator a sense of joy in life and of victory. These were modeled after Egyptian sculptures and followed an established canon. One pes in forepart of the other, weaponries at the sides, caput vertical and confronting frontward, the wide square shoulders, and in the stiffly symmetrical organisation. The piece represents sculpture based on standard cognition instead than an intense ocular analysis. The piece has the visual aspect of being a representation of a generic young person instead than stand foring a peculiar individual. The name of the creative person is non known. The classical piece shows that the creative person was now more concerned with the ocular representation of the natural male signifier. Though still commemorating, as the kouroi had been, the sculptures reflected persons. Although they were less generalized, they were still controlled by an established canon of geometric order. The weight is shifted to one leg. The figure turns, caput jousts to one side, the weaponries are held off from the organic structure, and the symmetricalness of the antediluvian period is all but gone. The face is an look of badness, melancholy, and thought. The name of the creative person is known.Question figure two The construct and usage of the arch was non new to the Romans. Concrete was non new to the Romans. It was the Romans that put the two edifice stuffs together. Identify to this brotherhood was the find of adding of a volcanic sand called Potsolla ( ? ) . The add-on of this sand to the composing of the concrete slowed the hardening. The advantages of the slower drying mixture are increased strength, and the ability to formed into forms. Leting the builder to blend the full construction from underside to exceed. With this new and radical edifice stuff, the Romans were able to integrate the arch in ways that transformed the edifice of big constructions. This was to go known as domed architecture. The arch can back up more weight and span greater infinite than the Grecian station and lentil. With formed concrete the Romans could build, utilizing the basic arch, constructions such as barrel vaults, inguen vaults, and domes. Uniting these building techniques the consequence were the big structures we know today. The Pantheon? s topographic point in the history of Roman architecture is that it is the clearest statement of the rules through which Roman architecture enclosed infinite and created its ain interior existence. It was the largest vaulted construction for about 18 centuries. Dimensionally its tallness and diameter are equal at 142 ft. which implies that the infinite created is enveloping a domain. The accent was on the interior infinite of the edifice alternatively of the exterior signifier. It? s design can still be seen today. Take a trip to the Vanderbilt Museum and analyze the exterior construction of the Planetarium. Program two: THE WHITE GARMENT OF CHURCHESQuestion figure three The two cardinal grounds are pilgrim’s journey and monasticism.During the eleventh and 12th centuries the cult of saints came to be an of import religious force in western Europe. These resulted in 100s of 1000s of people doing pilgrim’s journeies to holy rel
igious shrines. These churches were constructed to not only house the shrine, but also to accommodate the large number people that would visit. The more cherished the relic enclosed in these shrines the more people that would visit and make monetary donations. The monastic movement spurred the growth of large monasteries. These structures were the key to the self-contained, self-sufficient communities that cut themselves off from the outside world. The most successful of these monastic orders would receive large donations of land and money from the more affluent citizens as a way to guaranteed salvation.Question number four For the Romanesque churches the answer is yes. Builders of the Romanesque churches were faced with three major problems: obtaining adequate space and circulation; building solid, fireproof structures; and admitting the light of day to the interiors. The Romanesque style of construction satisfies these requirements. With their high vaulted ceilings and vast interior space they could accommodate the large crowds that would converge on the church. The vaulted construction allowed the use of fireproof stone enclosures instead of the roof made of timber. The high walls were broken up into galleries to handle the overflow of people and into windows. The primary function was to facilitate the viewing of holy relics. A classic example of the arrangement of the interior space is ST. SERNIN, Toulouse. The congregation enters though a porch at the open end of the vault. They are guided along a sacred way of arches, the nave, that leads to a distant and luminous choir and high alter where the holy relic is housed. To manage the traffic of the hundreds of noisy pilgrims, an ambulatory was formed around the high alter. The vaulted design also offers very good acoustics. Even the sculptures that adorn the exterior of the structure serve a purpose. The general population was still very illiterate and by using sculpture the church was able to convey its message. For example the LAST JUDGEMENT at Saint-Lazare Cathedral. For the Gothic style the answer is also yes. By the end of the twelfth century Europe?s population had almost tripled. The church had moved from a destination for a pilgrimage to a focus of civic pride. The rituals of peoples lives now were focused in the church. In order to accommodate the larger congregations the churches had to built even larger than the Romanesque buildings. With the incorporation of the flying buttress, the buildings could now be wider and taller. With their slender support columns, divisions are played down. With their pointed arches and ribbed vaults, open space is even more pronounced. This new style allowed the thick heavy walls of the Romanesque church to be replaced with walls of beautifully decorated stained glass windows. A splendid example is the CHARTRES CATHEDRAL. The visionary for this dramatic change is Abbot Suger. He believed that the light now becomes a divine light, a revelation of the spirit. The light creates a strange region, suspended between earth and the heavenly universe. The sculpture of the Gothic churches also usher in a new relationship between sculpture and architecture. The images, like the ones found at the west portal of the CHARTRES CATHEDRAL, although dictated by the architecture, are no longer remote. They now appear very human and convey the promise of salvation which is the embodiment of the twelfth century?s humanism.