DOS And Unix Essay Research Paper Compare

9 September 2017

DOS And Unix Essay, Research Paper

Compare and Contrast Microsoft DOS with UNIX


is implicative of its name, an operating system ( OS ) is a aggregation of plans

that operate the personal computing machine ( Personal computer ) . Its primary intent is to back up

plans that really do the work one is interested in, and to let viing

plans to portion the resources of the computing machine. However, the OS besides controls

the interior workings of the computing machine, moving as a traffic director which controls

the flow of informations through the system and initiates the starting and fillet

procedures, and as a agency through which package can entree the hardware and

system package. In add-on, it provides modus operandis for device control, provides

for the direction, programming and interaction of undertakings, and maintains system

unity. It besides provides a installation called the user interface which issues

bids to the system package. Utilities are provided for pull offing files and

paperss created by users, development of plans and package, pass oning

between users with other computing machine systems and pull offing user demands for

plans, storage infinite and precedence. There are a figure of different types of

runing systems with changing grades of complexness. A system such as DOS can

be comparatively simple and minimalistic, while others, like UNIX, can be slightly

more complicated. Some systems run merely a individual procedure at a clip ( DOS ) , while

other systems run multiple procedures at one time ( UNIX ) . In world, it is non

possible for a individual processor to run multiple procedures at the same time. The

processor of the computing machine runs one procedure for a short period of clip, so is

switched to the following procedure and so on. As the processor executes 1000000s of

instructions per second, this gives the visual aspect of many procedures running at

one time. User plans are normally stored on a difficult disc and demand to be loaded into

memory before being executed. This presents the demand for memory direction, as

the memory of the computing machine would necessitate to be searched for a free country in which to

burden a users plan. When the user was finished running the plan, the memory

consumed by it would necessitate to be freed up and made available for another user

when required ( CIT ) . Procedure programming and direction is besides necessary, so

that all plans can be executed and run without struggle. Some plans might

demand to be executed more often than others, for illustration, printing.

Conversely, some plans may necessitate to be temporarily halted, so restarted

once more, so this introduces the demand for inter-program communicating. In modern

runing systems, we speak more of a procedure ( a part of a plan in some

phase of executing ( CIT, 3 ) ) than a plan. This is because merely a part of

the plan is loaded at any one clip. The remainder of the plan sits waiting on

the disc until it is needed, thereby salvaging memory infinite. UNIX users speak of

the operating system as holding three chief parts: the meat, the shell and the

file system. While DOS users tend non to utilize the term meat and merely sometimes

use the term shell, the footings remain relevant. The meat, besides known as the

? Real Time Executive? , is the low-level nucleus of the OS and is loaded into

memory right after the burden of the BIOS whenever the system is started. The

meats handles the transportation of informations among the assorted parts of the system, such

as from difficult disc to RAM to CPU. It besides assigns memory to the assorted

system-level procedures that occur whenever the computing machine does anything. The

meat is besides responsible for scheduling the CPU? s operations and for allowing

the shell entree the CPU ( PC Mag, 1 ) . The shell is the seeable user interface to

the OS and is a plan that loads on top of the operating system and offers

users commands that lets them entree the OS. Strictly talking, the shell is an

input public-service corporation that offers entree to the operating system. Technically talking,

the shell, being a separate plan, is non a portion of the OS at all. In the UNIX

universe a figure of shells are available, among them the Korn shell, the C-shell,

the Bourne shell and the Bourne Again shell ( yes, truly ) . In DOS, the criterion

shell is COMMAND.COM, once more nil more than a plan. As different versions

of came with different versions of DOS, each added new bids and

new things that could be done by the user. For illustration, DOS 4? s COMMAND.COM

added the /P switch to DEL to verify each omission, and DOS 5? s COMMAND.COM

provided the ability to screen the end product of the DIR bid. HISTORY An acronym

for disc operating system, the term DOS can mention to any operating system, but

is most frequently used as stenography for MS-DOS. Originally developed by Microsoft

for IBM, MS-DOS was the criterion operating system for IBM-compatible computing machines.

The initial version of DOS was slightly unsophisticated and resembled another

operating system called CP/M. Subsequent versions have become progressively

sophisticated, nevertheless DOS remains a 16-bit operating system without support for

multiple users or multitasking. The earliest signifiers of DOS were rough and

utilized merely a few bids, but as computing machines became more advanced, so did DOS.

By maintaining up with engineering, DOS was implemented into more? user friendly?

runing systems. However, as more sophisticated runing systems were

released, DOS became less of import. ? Today, hackers involved with the

latest OS trends gag that DOS stands for? Dad? s Operating System? ? ( Comerford,

23 ) . In 1980, IBM asked the Microsoft Corporation to bring forth the operating

system for its first personal computing machine, the IBM Personal computer. Prior to this, a company

called Seattle Computer Products had sold an operating system called 86-DOS to

Microsoft. Microsoft hired the writer of 86-DOS, Tim Paterson, in April of 1981

to modify the system, and renaming it MS-DOS ( Microsoft Disk Operating System ) ,

it was released with the IBM Personal computer. Thereafter, most makers of personal

computing machines licensed MS-DOS as their operating system ( Brittanica, 1 ) . Restrictions

of the early Personal computer? s hardware were a large influence on MS-DOS. Although the 8088

theoretical account computing machine had a 1Mb reference infinite, IBM decided to apportion the first 640K

of this to RAM, and the remainder to ROMs, picture boards and other things.

Consequently, MS-DOS was set up to back up plans whose maximal size was 640K.

Version 1.0 of DOS was released along with the IBM Personal computer in August 1981. It

occupied 12K of the systems 640K of memory, was slightly compatible with CP/M

and, much like CP/M, supported merely a individual directory. By contrast, even the

first version of UNIX had a full hierarchical file system. In add-on, Version

1.0 supported merely a 160K individual sided 51/4-inch floppy floppy. Version 1.1

was released by Microsoft in October 1982 and supported double sided 320K

floppies. Aside from repairing some bugs, this release was similar to Version 1.0.

Releases such as 1.1, in which the figure to the left of the denary point is

the same as the old version depict comparatively minor alterations from the

old release. By contrast, Version 2.0 was mostly a new system. In March

1983, IBM introduced the PC/XT, its first personal computing machine with a difficult disc. It

came with a new discrepancy of MS-DOS, Version 2.0. In this version, Microsoft

incorporated many thoughts from the UNIX system for which it was besides a seller. For

illustration, integrating minor alterations, the MS-DOS file system was taken mostly

from UNIX. In add-on, the shell was improved, and Version 2.0 supported a new

floppy floppy format, the 360K every bit good as user installable device drivers,

print spooling, system constellation and memory direction. At this point,

Microsoft disk operating system was established as the dominant operating system in Personal computer market. In August

1984, IBM released its first 286 bit based Personal computer, the PC/AT. The PC/AT supported

memory up to 16 Mb and had the ability to run multiple plans at one time.

However, the version of MS-DOS that shipped with the PC/AT was 3.0, which

supported neither of these. Rather, it ran the PC/AT in a manner that simulated

the 8088, merely faster. Since the PC/AT came with a 1.2Mb disc thrust, battery

backup clock, and constellation information in the CMOS, support for these

devices was added. What & # 8217 ; s more, difficult discs larger that 10Mb were now supported.

In add-on, the bid processor ( shell ) was removed from the operating system

and made into a separate plan. In November 1984, 3.0 was replace by 3.1 which

provided the first support for networking. In 1987, IBM came out with the PS/2

line of Personal computer which shipped with MS-DOS 3.3, supplying support for both 720K and

1.44Mb 31/3 floppy disc thrusts. With Version 4.0, Microsoft added the DOS shell,

a bill of fare driven shell instead than the old keyboard driven 1s. In add-on,

it now provided support for difficult thrusts larger than 32 Mb. A major new release,

MS-DOS Version 5.0 was shipped in April 1991. Although this was the first

version that made any serious usage of the drawn-out memory, it still had the

limitations that plans could non transcend 640K. However, it had the ability to

locate most of MS-DOS itself in drawn-out memory, so about 600K of the lower 640K

was now available for user plans. Version 5.0 besides came with a utile Aid

public-service corporation, to help new users. For the first clip, MS-DOS was sold in shops to the

populace ( old versions were merely sold to computing machine sellers who delivered them

with their machines ) ( CIT, 1-3 ) . The MS-DOS 6 household provided more memory

direction for applications such as Microsoft Windows. In add-on, newer

public-service corporations were provided for disk-defragmentation, file compaction, file backups

and anti-virus checking. Other fluctuations of MS-DOS exist, such as PC-DOS by

IBM, DOS-V, Dr. DOS and others. There is even a FREE DOS available on the

Internet as an MS-DOS ringer. Although it can still be found on many computing machines,

MS-DOS is technically an disused operating system, being replaced by Microsoft

Windows. For personal computing machines, MS-DOS is a individual user, individual tasking

operating system. Single user means merely one individual uses the computing machine at a clip.

Single tasking means that it basically runs one application plan at a clip,

and has no built-in support for running more than one application plan

at the same time ( CIT, 2 ) . If we want to look at the basic DOS operating system

itself, there is no demand to look further than three system files,,

Io.sys and ( in DOS6.x and before ) Msdos.sys. These files are important in DOS

versions up to 6.22. Io.sys represents the lowest degree of the interface and

contains the modus operandis necessary for interfacing the OS with the system? s BIOS.

It implements MS-DOS as seen by the hardware and has default drivers for console

show and keyboard, pressman, consecutive communications, clock, and a boot disc

thrust. Msdos.sys handles the higher-level modus operandis such as change overing bids

from applications into instructions for Io.sys. It implements MS-DOS as seen by

application plans. It supports file and record direction, memory direction,

character device input and end product, executing of other plans, and entree to a

real-time clock ( CIT, 3 ) . Both of these files are in the root directory, and

both are hidden from position by default. The thought is that you are non suppose to

see them, so that you wear? Ts do anything destructive to them ( such as canceling

them ) . They are besides read-only so that they can? t be deleted by chance. is the shell plan which interprets user bids, presents the

shell prompt, and conta

Immigration and Naturalization Services a set of internal bids. The remainder of MS-DOS

consists of a figure of public-service corporation plans. Although DOS had cornered the Personal computer

market, UNIX was still dominant on the larger workstations. The birth of UNIX in

1969 provided the universe with its first modern operating system. An synergistic

multi-user operating system, UNIX was ab initio developed by coders for

their ain usage. Working for Bell Laboratories, Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie

created UNIX as an operating system for the PDP-7 computing machine. Designed as a

simplification of an operating system named Multics, UNIX was developed in

Assembly linguistic communication, a crude computing machine linguistic communication specific to one type of machine

( Osiris, 1 ) . However, Thompson developed a new scheduling linguistic communication? B?

which Ritchie enhanced to? C? , and in 1973 this was used to rewrite UNIX

which lended the OS portability ( Linux Intl. , 1 ) . The original design doctrine

for UNIX was to administer functionality into little parts, the plans ( Theochem,

1 ) . In this manner, functionality could be achieved by uniting the little parts

( plans ) in new ways. Furthermore, if a new plan were to look, it could be

integrated into the system. UNIX was slow to catch on exterior of academic

establishments but shortly was popular with concerns every bit good. The first five

versions were portion of an internal research attempt of Bell Labs, and it was non

until the 6th version, called UNIX Timesharing Sixth Edition V, that UNIX was

widely distributed ( Osiris, 1 ) . Relatively recent developments are graphical

interfaces ( GUI ) such as MOTIF, X Windows and Open View. UNIX has two major

versions. One, jointly developed by UNIX Systems Laboratories ( USL ) and by

AT & A ; T research workers together with Bell Labs, generically known as System V, is

the commercial version and is the most widely distributed by major

makers. The 2nd, developed by the University of Berkley and Berkley

Software Distribution ( BSD ) , is the educational version and is wholly

focused on research. The USL version is now on its 4th release, or SVR4,

while BSD? s latest version is 4.4. However, there are many different versions

of UNIX besides these two. The operating system has been licensed to several

makers who in bend developed their ain versions of UNIX, based on System

V or BSD, but adding new features. Most versions of UNIX developed by

package companies are derived from one of the two groupings and, recent

versions of UNIX really incorporate characteristics from both of them. However, UNIX

has had an unregulated history with over 200 versions ( Berson, 16 ) bing

today. The UNIX system is made up of three primary constituents, the meat, the

shell, and the public-service corporations ( which includes the file system ) . The cardinal portion of

the OS, the meat is the first plan to get down when the system is turned on

and the last plan to make anything when the system is halted. In add-on to

scheduling undertakings, it manages data/file entree and storage, enforces security

mechanisms and performs all hardware entree. The name? KERNEL? represents

the fact that it is a plan designed as a cardinal karyon, around which other

maps of the system were added. The bosom of the operating system, it non

merely interacts straight with the system? s hardware, but presents each user

with a prompt, interprets bids typed by a user, executes user bids and

supports a usage environment for each user. The two most common shells are the

Bourne shell, default for the System V, and the C-shell used chiefly with the BSD

version ( Osiris, 1 ) . The utilities consist of file direction ( rm, cat, cubic decimeter,

rmdir, mkdir ) , user direction ( passwd, chmod, chgrp ) , process direction ( kill,

PS ) and printing ( LP, troff, Pr ) . In order to obtain a basic apprehension of

the UNIX operating system, it is necessary to touch upon several of the

chief features that have permitted it to stay competitory through

the old ages. 1. Advanced Administration of Processes UNIX has a procedure director

known as Process Scheduler, which handles the allocation of clip to each of the

procedures harmonizing to the precedence it was assigned. 2. Multiprocessing Many

UNIX discrepancies allow the usage of assorted processors to put to death user undertakings. This

agencies that UNIX has support for symmetric processing, with which it can take

advantage of the fact that there are two or more Central processing units in the machine. 3. File

Management The hierarchal files system that UNIX runs, every bit good as file entree

control and directory control have served as theoretical accounts for the bulk of modern

runing systems such as MS-DOS, OS/2 and even Windows NT. 4. Utilities Access

For the UNIX operating system, each of the machines devices, whether it be a

difficult thrust, pressman, modem, etc. is seen as a file. Thus, entree to any device

is carried out as entree to a file. This is possible through the fact that UNIX

differentiates between sorts of files. In fact, the procedures themselves are

seen as files, which permits the constitution of another of import Unix

characteristic, interprocess communicating. 5. Virtual Memory The fact that UNIX

has practical memory allows the figure of procedures being executed to necessitate more

memory than exists in the machine. 6. Graphic Interface Although non precisely a

fresh feature of UNIX, most versions now have a in writing interface. 7.

Interplatform Support This is another characteristic that was added to UNIX

which lends the capableness to put to death plans from other platforms ( DOS and

Windows ) , within the UNIX environment. 8. Network The usual UNIX communications

protocol is TCP/IP. This allows discrepancies of UNIX based runing systems to

communicate between themselves or with other platforms ( Osiris, 1-2 ) . Contrast

Both DOS and UNIX present a figure of similarities, several of which shall be

addressed here. First, both systems are synergistic, intending that the shell

nowadayss a prompt and delaies for the user to come in a bid. After the return or

enter key is pressed, the shell processes the bid and when the bid is

finished, the shell re-displays the prompt. Second, DOS batch files and UNIX

book files can be used which can hive away normally used bids in a file, which

when executed, runs each bid as though it has been typed from the bid

line. A sequence of bids can be executed by put to deathing the file which

contains the bid ( s ) . Third, the handling of files in both DOS and UNIX is

simplified by utilizing wild-card characters to fit files which match specific

forms. Besides, with both runing systems, users can custom-make and command the

behaviour of the shell by utilizing particular variables that the shell supports, such

as the prompt ( 20,1 ) . In add-on, both systems make usage of? pipes? whose

symbol is a perpendicular saloon ( | ) . With this convention, the end product from one

bid becomes the input for another bid. Several unsimilarities are deserving

observing. As was antecedently mentioned, DOS is a individual user, individual undertaking operating

system. Its user interface is non instance sensitive, which means that bids may

be typed in either upper instance, lower instance or a combination of the two. UNIX

nevertheless, is a multi-user, multi-task OS. Non-interactive undertakings which do non

necessitate keyboard input can be run in the background as a separate undertaking while the

user continues working with other synergistic plans ( 20,1 ) . Differing from

DOS, its user interface is instance sensitive, intending that merely upper or lower instance

bids must be used. APPLICATIONS & A ; COMPUTER TYPES Whereas DOS has been

used chiefly on Personal computers and standalone computing machines, UNIX can be run on single- or

multi-user computing machines of all sizes with a broad scope of microprocessors ( Flynn

& A ; McHoes 319 ) . UNIX is the widely supported operating system in the field of

computing machine scientific discipline, used extensively in concern every bit good as educational

establishments. Conversely, DOS is used chiefly in concerns with older computing machine

systems. BENEFITS & A ; DISADVANTAGES The major advantage that DOS has over UNIX

is its basic simpleness. Between this and the unsophisticated bids presented

by the user interface, it is a comparatively simple OS to larn. DOS besides has the

advantage of leting the user to make an environment tailored purely for

the peculiar undertaking they wish to carry through. In add-on, one can custom-make DOS

to accommodate the current hardware. This can be accomplished with bids such as

day of the month, clip, prompt, way, set, assign and subst. Unlike DOS, UNIX? s chief

characteristic is that it is a multi-user system, intending more than one user can utilize

the machine at a clip when supported via terminuss provided by a series or

web connexion. Offering true pre-emptive multi-tasking, UNIX can run more

than one plan at a clip with a CPU that services all applications every bit. In

add-on, it has a hierarchal directory construction which supports the

organisation and care of files. Other advantages are that it has been in

the market for a figure of old ages, and is hence considered a stable merchandise.

Besides, due to the fact that the meat is in? C? , UNIX works in merely about

every machine in the market, one time once more, doing it a portable system with a

aggregation of really powerful public-service corporations. Besides, there are many applications

developed for DOS and UNIX which fall into the class of? shareware?

available via the Internet ( 8,1 ) . As with advantages, both DOS and UNIX have

their portion of disadvantages. It can be said that DOS has two chief drawbacks.

Since MS-DOS was originally written for a peculiar household of microprocessors,

it displays an unbelievable deficiency of flexibleness and limited ability to run into the

demands of coders and experient users ( Flynn & A ; McHoes, 265 ) . UNIX besides

has several really distinguishable disadvantages. First, novitiate users find its bids

are about deep which is interpreted as being non- ? user-friendly? .

Second, the fact that there exist so many versions of the operating system means

that package manufacturers must do several versions of their applications to

cover the greatest figure of possible users. Third, UNIX is a big operating

system, and depending on the figure of services installed and the maps

used, infinite used on a difficult thrust may change from 20 Mb to 300 Mb ( Osiris, 1 ) .

Benson, Alex. Client/Server Architecture. Gainesville: U P of Florida, 1992.

Comelford, Richard. ? Operating Systems go Head to Head? , IEEE Spectrum. Dec

1993, pp 23-25. Flynn, Ida M. , and Ann M. McHoes. Understanding Operating

Systems. Second erectile dysfunction. Boston: PWS, 1997. Greenfield, Larry. Unix: The User? s

Guide. University of Deuselldorf. [ Accessed 3 September 1998 ] . *http: //www.* Introduction to UNIX. University of

Guadalajara. [ Accessed 3 September 1998 ] . hypertext transfer protocol: //

? Microsoft Corporation? Brittanica Online [ Accessed 20 September 1998 ] .

*http: // DocF=micro/711/22.html* Operating Systems

Introduction, 5 3.2. Central Institute of Technology. [ Accessed 5 September

1998 ] . *http: //* Randall, Neil. ? So,

What? s an Operating System, Anyhow? ? PC Magazine 5 May 1998. *http: //*

[ Accessed 6 September 1998 ] . STScI UNIX Users Guide. Space Telescope Science

Institute. 24 September 1998. [ Accessed 3 September 1998 ] . *http: //*

UNIX History. Linux International. 14 November 1997. [ Accessed 3 September

1998 ] . *http: //*

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