Dostoevsky Essay Research Paper Thesis Dostoevsky

10 October 2017

Dostoevsky Essay, Research Paper

Thesis: Dostoevsky & # 8217 ; s frenzied and depressive episodes aided in his ability to

decently exemplify the workings of the human head, through his authorship.

Outline: I. Introduction II. What is Frenzied Depression and Depression? III. Other

Writers with Mental Illnesses IV. Dostoevsky & # 8217 ; s Life V. Analysis of

“ Notes & # 9496 ; ” VI. Conclusion Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky, writer

of several acclaimed books-including “ Notes From Underground ” -a

semi-autobiographical narrative, introduced a new signifier of authorship,

“ stream-of-consciousness ” , to Russia and Europe. Soon, this signifier of

composing that would go the grade of the Existentialist, spread to the

America & # 8217 ; s. Interestingly plenty, the “ stream-of-consciousness ” that

manifested itself in his authorship was really the merchandise of a temper upset,

which can be characterized by intensely emotional ideas. Caught in a rift of

contrasting ideas, the Manic-Depressive-commonly endowed with superior

artistic abilities, can be really insightful to the ways of adult male. Manic-depression

can clinically be defined as a temper upset with two contrasting provinces: passion

and depression. There must be an happening of one or more Manic or Mixed

episodes and frequently, the person has besides had one or more Major Depressive

episodes in the yesteryear. In Manic-depressive upset, besides known as Bipolar

upset, the manic and depressive episodes recur in changing grades of

strength. The DSM-IV describes Manic and Depressive episodes as: “ The

indispensable characteristic is a distinguishable period when the predominant temper is either

elevated, expansive or cranky, and when there are associated symptoms of the

frenzied syndrome. ” These symptoms include hyperactivity, force per unit area of address,

flight of thoughts, inflated self-pride, decreased demand for slumber,

distractibility, and inordinate engagement in activities that have a high

potency for painful effects, which are non recognized. The manual

describes depressive episodes as: “ The indispensable characteristic is either a

distressed temper, normally depression, or loss of involvement or pleasance in most

usual activities and pass-times. This perturbation is outstanding, comparatively

persistent, and associated with other symptoms of the depressive syndrome. ”

These symptoms include appetite perturbation, alteration in weight, slumber

perturbation, psychomotor agitation or deceleration, decreased energy, feelings of

ineptitude or guilt, trouble concentrating or thought, and ideas of

decease or self-destruction, or self-destructive efforts. Manic Depression is besides due to a

biochemical instability in the encephalon. These biochemical reactions include the

“ increasing and diminishing of intra- and extracellular Na, chloride,

and K ( Beck 65 ) . ” The inclination and worsening of these maps

support the contrasting manic and depressive tempers. “ The spirit of mastermind

no free-floating, absolute power, but is purely bound to the Torahs of

biochemistry and the endocrinal secretory organs. ” This once more credits the thought that

manic-depression can excite prowess. Though it is hard to turn out

Manic-depressive upset among those who have passed off, the happening of

this behaviour and has been traced through letters written to friends and household,

and personal histories. Creative people, such as Keats, Woolf, and Dostoevsky,

have been named among those who had this unwellness. Keats & # 8217 ; s notes and letters were

grounds of his violent temper swings ; his surgery talk notes, embellished with

many impromptu studies in the borders were grounds of his wide-ranging

involvements, and besides of his erratic nature. Woolf became violent and delusional

in her frenzied episodes, and when she was in a depressive province, she hardly spoke

or Ate, and attempted self-destruction. Born in the infirmary for the hapless, Dostoevsky was

the second of seven kids. He led a happy and peaceable childhood where he

held peculiar warm feelings towards his household. “ It is non unnatural for

one with the Manic-depressive syndrome to populate a life of normalcy & # 9496 ; that

is, of class, until an component of unpleasantry enters his life ( Ostow

82 ) . ” His male parent, murdered by his ain helot, had a hot tempered and

cranky province of head. His female parent, described as stamp and sensitive with a

literary and musical endowment, died when Fyodor was fifteen-years-old. After

graduating from St. Petersburg & # 8217 ; s Academy of Military Engineers as lieutenant, he

was assigned to a military section. Dostoevsky worked there for one twelvemonth

before he realized that working in a section gave him no satisfaction, and

that he wanted to compose and work as an writer. Subsequently, he became acquainted with

the Utopian socialist group, for which he seemed to hold become strongman. This

association got him four old ages in Siberian prison. After a four-year stay at the

Siberian prison, he married a widow and subsequently regained his rights as a Lord.

Time periods of comparative prosperity and felicity stopped suddenly Dostoevsky & # 8217 ; s married woman

and brother died. He was left entirely with his brother & # 8217 ; s debts, and was resorted

to chancing as a manner out from economic troubles. Except for the last 10

old ages, the Dostoevsky household suffered from economi

cal troubles caused by

brother & # 8217 ; s debts, an always-begging stepson and Fyodor & # 8217 ; s chancing fling. They

besides were highly luckless sing their three kids. Like Dostoevsky & # 8217 ; s

life, his composing contained many avenues down which 1 could lose his- or

herself. He begins his bipartite “ Notes From Underground ” with a watercourse

of sarcasms, a premonition to the reader of what lies in front. Apparently unfocussed

and equivocal, it is possible to see through his authorship, and observe his

manic-depression in his manner. An obvious illustration of this is the terminus

confusion in his authorship: “ I am a ill adult male & # 8230 ; I am a hebdomad adult male. An

unattractive adult male. I think my liver hurts. However, I don & # 8217 ; Ts know a fig about my

illness, and am non certain what it is that hurts me. I am non being treated and

ne’er have been, though I respect medicine and physicians. What & # 8217 ; s more, I am besides

superstitious in the extreme ; good, at least adequate to esteem medical specialty. ( I & # 8217 ; m

sufficiently educated non to be superstitious, but I am. ) No, sir, I refuse to

be treated out of failing. ” This terminal confusion is evocative of

human nature, and its ceaseless rhythm. Throughout catastrophe and affirmatory

events in human life, we, as human existences have the inclination to trail our

ideas, analysing and dissecting them. Like those in the depressive province,

Dostoevsky, who wrote in the same pacing as his idea forms, fundamentally

illustrated the manner our idea processes work. As though in the thick of

conversation, Dostoevsky assumes the reader & # 8217 ; s crossness, “ what exactly

am I? & # 8212 ; so I will reply you: I am one Collegiate assessor ” . He refers

to himself as his station. Dostoevsky & # 8217 ; s depressive episode comes into drama.

“ During a depressive episode, feelings of withdrawal may be exhibited by

the patient, as he may mention to himself in the 3rd individual or as an object ( Ostow

128 ) . ” Probably, it is really much so similar worlds to mention to themselves as

what they are capable of lending to society. Detached and forlorn,

depressives get lost in their ain universes. Madly hold oning for what is solid

before them is, at times, the lone thing that will maintain them together. In this

illustration, Dostoevsky mentioning to himself as his station is his manner of confirming his

humanity. Dostoevsky was evidently really cognizant of his Manic-depressive upset,

He repeatedly points out that he is “ excessively witting ” , and that it is

his illness and a existent illness. Like some manic-depressives-those being few in

figure, he was someway able to foretell his temper alterations and was able to do usage

of them consequently. An illustration of a frenzied watercourse of consciousness is as

follows: “ To populate beyond 40 is indecorous, commonplace, immoral! Who does beyond

40 & # 8212 ; reply me unfeignedly, candidly? I & # 8217 ; ll state you who does: saps and

villains do. I & # 8217 ; ll state it in the faces of the seniors, all these venerable

seniors, all the silver-haired and odoriferous seniors citation marks! I & # 8217 ; ll

state it in the whole universe & # 8217 ; s face! I have the right to talk this manner, because I

myself live to be sixty. A unrecorded to be 70! I & # 8217 ; ll live to be

80! & # 8230 ; weights! Let me catch my breath & # 8230 ; ” Highly energetic and

feisty, feature of a frenzied episode, Dostoevsky one time once more chases his

tail, and we see into the head of a human being. We have a front row place of his

hyperactivity rise to the point of exhaustion. He begins with tuning 40, and

goes on to explicate how ageing beyond this would be indecent-a morbid idea. We

see him rapidly rise to the point of pure babbling. Excessive address is besides

feature of the passion syndrome. Woolf was known to talk on terminal, dark and

twenty-four hours for three whole yearss, endlessly ( Jamison 56 ) . Dostoevsky refers to himself

a “ normal ” human being & # 8212 ; one who is non excessively witting, as an

insect. There should be no daze that one would believe so lowly of himself.

Behind the mask of “ the Underground Man ” , he examines his emotional

staying power, mentioning to himself as an insect, or a low species of the life ( Murry

3 ) . Harmonizing to Dostoevsky, non believing and non being witting, both

internally and externally, is a luxury. In “ Notes From Underground ” ,

Dostoevsky takes on a guided circuit of the maps of the head. Enfeebling

psychological unwellnesss can be held accountable for one compulsively

inquiring, and burthening themselves with experiential ideas. Dostoevsky & # 8217 ; s

Manic-depression gave him, ironically, this ability.

Burke, James. “ High Point, Low Point ” . Excite, 1997.

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Positions. Berkley and Los Angeles: University Press, 1970 Murry, J.

Middleton. Fyodor Dostoevsky: A Critical Study. London, 1916 Ostow, Mortimer,

M.D.. The Psychology of the Melancholy. New York, Evanston, and London: Harpist

& A ; Row, Publishers, 1970 Wasiolek, Edward. Dostoyevsky: The Major Fiction.

Cambridge: The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 1964

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