Down Syndrome Essay Research Paper Down

9 September 2017

Down Syndrome Essay, Research Paper

Down Syndrome Essay Research Paper Down Essay Example

Down & # 8217 ; s syndrome is a familial status affecting an excess chromosome, this alteration occurs around the clip of construct. A individual with Down & # 8217 ; s syndrome has 47 chromosomes alternatively of the usual forty-six. A comparatively common familial upset, Down & # 8217 ; s work stoppages 1 out of 600 babes. In 95 per centum of all instances, the upset originates with the egg, non the sperm, and the lone known hazard factor is advanced maternal age-at age 35, a adult female has 1 opportunity in 117 of holding a babe with Down & # 8217 ; s ; at 40, her odds are 1 in 34.

( Graves, 1990 )

Peoples with Down & # 8217 ; s syndrome all have a certain grade of larning disablement. This means that they develop and learn more easy than other kids. However, most kids with Down & # 8217 ; s syndrome today will walk and speak, many will read and compose, travel to ordinary school, and look frontward to a semi-independent grownup life. ( Platt and Carlson, 1992 )

Facts on Down Syndrome

*Down syndrome is non a deadly anomalousness. One to two per centum of individuals born with this upset have uncontrollable bosom defects at birth. The mean life anticipation for all others is now beyond age 55 old ages.

*Today less than 5 % of individuals with Down syndrome have severe-to-profound mental deceleration. The bulk are on the boundary line of mild-to-moderate mental deceleration, and some are exhibiting normal IQ tonss today.

*The mean reading degree for individuals with Down syndrome is 3rd class, with many reading at 6th-12th class degrees today.

*The huge bulk of grownups with Down syndrome today can be expected to populate semi- or wholly independently and many enter the work force with today & # 8217 ; s supported employment plans and some are competitively employed.

Some medical conditions that demand particular attending for people with Down syndrome include:

*Congenital Heart Disease: normally in the signifier of endocardial shock absorber defects, affects 40 % of babes and should be screened for by echocardiography shortly after birth as it may good be hard to observe.

* Gastrointestinal upsets: the most common inborn abnormalcy of the GI piece of land associated with Down syndrome is duodenal atresia, although pyloric stricture, Hirschsprung & # 8217 ; s disease and tracheo-oesophageal fistulous witherss have all been reported.

* Vision: Three per centum of neonates with Down syndrome will hold heavy congenital cataracts which should be removed early. Glaucoma is besides common.

* Congenital Hypothyroidism: This status is somewhat more prevailing in babes with Down syndrome. It should be detected by the everyday heelprick screen performed on all babes.

*Congenital disruption of the hips: Joint laxness and hypotonus can unite to increase the incidence of hip disruption, although true inborn disruption is rather rare.

* Sensory shortages: Significant hearing damages occur in the bulk of kids with Down syndrome. Annual audiology and specialist audience is recommended.

* Atlantoaxial instability: Up to 15 % of kids with Down syndrome will hold grounds of instability of the atlantoaxial articulation but in merely a smattering of instances will this instability consequence in an encroachment on the spinal cord with attendant neurological marks.

* Physical growing: Physical development is constantly delayed in kids with Down syndrome. A inclination towards fleshiness requires particular attending to healthy diet and exercising wonts in this group.

* Dental attention: The dentition of kids with Down syndrome tend to be little, irregularly spaced and misshapen. Early and frequent alveolar consonant attention is required to guarantee equal teething for big life.

* Psychiatric upsets: Psychiatric unwellnesss occur in people with Down syndrome with much the same frequence as in the remainder of the population.

*Dementia: Much recent attending has been focused on the association between Down syndrome and Alzheimer & # 8217 ; s disease. There appears to be a gene-dose consequence where holding an excess chromosome 21 gives an person a higher opportunity of developing Alzheimer & # 8217 ; s disease. ( Newton, 1992 )

A important sum of research has been conducted on Down syndrome, in peculiar many methods to observe Down syndrome in foetuss have been developed. This is a controversial issue for research workers and for households who have Down syndrome kids and grownups. The followers is a treatment of some of the sensing methods for Down syndrome, and the installations in which they were developed.

Jones Institute

Scientists at Norfolk & # 8217 ; s Jones Institute for Reproductive Medicine say they have overcome most proficient hurdlings to testing embryos for Down syndrome and many other chromosomal defects before the embryos are implanted in a adult female & # 8217 ; s womb.

The institute, portion of Eastern Virginia Medical School, hopes to seek out the technique with a smattering of bad twosomes who come to the institute for in-vitro fertilisation, in the close hereafter. ( www # 1 )

Finally, all twosomes who go through the Jones Institute may hold the option to screen for Down and most of the other conditions caused by an excess chromosome on one of 23 braces that make up the normal complement. The technique has been developed in portion to assist parents avoid a hard moral determination & # 8211 ; what to make if the birthrate techniques cause the female parent to go pregnant with many kids at one time. At the same clip, it opens up a host of other ethical inquiries for parents and society as a whole, say people who have kids with Down. ( www # 1 )

Harmonizing to Kingsley and Levitz ( 1994 ) , in-vitro fertilisation ( IVF ) , is a technique in which eggs are removed from a adult female & # 8217 ; s ovaries and combined with sperm in a dish. The ensuing embryos are transplanted into the adult female & # 8217 ; s uterus. Before graft, a individual cell will be removed and exposed to investigations made up of familial stuff treated with fluorescent dye. Each investigation has been designed to attach to a specific chromosome in the karyon. Using a particular microscope, a scientist can number the points of assorted colourss. Three of a specific colour means that there is one excess chromosome of that type.

The institute will prove five braces that account for most chromosomal defects. The first instances will be done for free. When the process becomes common, the process will add about $ 2,000 to the cost of IVF, approximately $ 7,500. The Chairman of generative endocrinology at the Jones Institute said the process was developed chiefly to avoid the multiple births that sometimes go on with IVF. ( www # 1 )

Most transplanted embryos, and many of course conceived 1s, ne’er take root and grow because they have the incorrect figure of chromosomes. In IVF, physicians try to better the odds by engrafting three or more, presuming that some will be lost. But sometimes, many or all of the embryos are feasible. The parents so must make up one’s mind & # 8211 ; do they selectively abort some, or do they take on the enormously demanding undertaking of holding many babes at one time? If physicians could test the embryos, he said, they could restrict themselves to engrafting two and still bask a high chance that the embryos will last.

However, the ability to test out embryos with Down syndrome still worries households of people with the status. ( www # 1 )

The option non to hold a kid with Down already exists. Trials during gestation can observe the status. Parents may take an abortion. Parents of kids with Down syndrome, say that other parents who choose to fling an embryo in a research lab are farther removed from the deductions of their determination. Doctors at the medical centre say that they want really much for people facing the determination to understand that holding a kid with Down syndrome can be really carry throughing. They says the Jones Institute isn & # 8217 ; t seeking to devaluate people with Down syndrome by offering the trial. But they say this information has such of import branchings for the household, if we have that information, we would give it to them and they make the pick.

Polar Body Analysis

Doctors at Illinois Masonic Medical centre have discovered that they can find if a adult female will hold a babe with Down & # 8217 ; s syndrome before she gets pregnant, provided she is willing to undergo in-vitro fertilisation. Using an experimental technique called polar organic structure analysis, the familial stuff of an egg can be checked before laboratory fertilisation, assisting some adult females avoid abortions.

Chicago research workers at Masonic reported on a yearlong survey affecting 100 adult females who underwent the polar organic structure process, they say that several adult females already have delivered healthy babes, and more than 20 are pregnant with no mark of Down & # 8217 ; s.

But the possibility exists that the Masonic patients could hold achieved the same consequences without familial testing. The

bulk of adult females who have conventional in-vitro fertilisation are older and have normal gestations. Dr. Charles Strom, manager of medical genetic sciences at the infirmary said that, polar organic structure work gives a 35-year-old female the same opportunity of gestating a chromosomally normal babe that a 21-year-old has. He said at least half the adult females in the in-vitro fertilisation plan are 35 or older. ( www # 2 )

Polar organic structure analysis flexible joints on basic biological science. During normal development, the human egg contains a pouch of extra chromosomes called the polar organic structure before it gets ready to be fertilized by a male & # 8217 ; s sperm. Since this pouch, is a mirror image of the egg, the familial content of the egg itself can be determined through this process. ( www # 3 )

Without such testing, approximately 30 per centum of the Down & # 8217 ; s gestations ensuing from in-vitro fertilisation would hold miscarried of course, and others could hold been picked up by the standard antenatal proving techniques, chorionic villi sampling and amniocentesis.

In-vitro fertilisation is expensive, labour intensive and frequently dissatisfactory. The polar organic structure trial would add another $ 2,000 to $ 2,500 to its costs. ( www # 2 )

The Triple Screen

The & # 8220 ; ternary screen for Down syndrome & # 8221 ; has been in being for over five old ages. However, merely this past twelvemonth, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists officially recommended that this trial be offered to all pregnant patients of all ages. This implies a legal authorization to practising doctors who can non afford the liability of non offering such a trial after a national recommendation has been made. This & # 8220 ; mandate & # 8221 ; has been met with great contention. ( www # 3 )

The & # 8220 ; ternary screen & # 8221 ; really involves pulling maternal blood to prove for serum degrees of three endocrines: human chorionic gonadotrophin ( HCG ) , alphafetoprotein ( AFP ) , and estriol ( E3 ) . The form of the degrees of these endocrines predicts the presence of Down syndrome in the foetuss in up to 60-70 % of gestations affected. By utilizing computing machine expressions, the hormonal degrees can be found that are prognostic for a hazard of Down syndrome in the foetus that approximates 1 in 190 & # 8211 ; which is the same hazard that a pregnant adult female has at age 35. Therefore, the trial has been recommended now for adult females at all ages. If it is & # 8220 ; positive & # 8221 ; , it should be followed by echography and so amniocentesis to do a unequivocal diagnosing. ( www # 3 )

Some utilizations of the three-base hit screen are seen as positive by all. If the trial is negative, these consequences can forestall farther unneeded echography, or amniocentesis, or chorionic villus trying & # 8211 ; for adult females 35 or over ; or for the adult female with a old foetus with Down syndrome. Normally these more expensive and invasive trials would hold been recommended in those scenes.

It is the usage of the trial for all pregnant adult females that begins to stir contention.

Merely one such serum trial has of all time been recommended so widely before & # 8211 ; the serum ( AFP ) alphafetoprotein screen. It is a screening trial for multiple types of foetal defects that affect the & # 8220 ; nervous tubing & # 8221 ; in the foetus. These defects include such jobs as anencephalia, holoprosencephaly, or einencephaly, every bit good as many degrees of spina bifida. Down syndrome is surely non the same as the broad scope of anomalousnesss termed & # 8220 ; nervous tubing defects, & # 8221 ; but the Triple Screen makes it look an equal to many deadly defects.

The ternary screen really detects many more foetal anomalousnesss than Down syndrome, including the AFP-related anomalousnesss mentioned above and several deadly trisomies, such as Trisomy 18. The Triple Screen is called a screen & # 8220 ; for Down syndrome & # 8221 ; for selling grounds, every bit much as for scientific truth.

The Triple Screen is, in fact, a really hapless screen, placing merely approximately 65 % of foetuss with Down syndrome in utero. No other screen with such low cogency has been universally recommended for all pregnant adult females. Such a recommendation means one million millions of dollars for the genetic sciences industry and the research workers involved. ( www # 3 )

The showing trials set up the chance of pregnant adult females holding kids with Down Syndrome or Spina Bifida and other nervous tubing defects. It is possible the widespread usage of familial showing for the intent of designation and abortion of foetuss with Down Syndrome may adversely impact the quality of life for all individuals with Down Syndrome in the community.

Many groups stand foring people with Down syndrome have expressed their feelings about this issue, the followers is a sum-up of some of the wants they have expressed.

1. The primary end of antenatal familial testing should non be to cut down the

birth prevalence of Down Syndrome in the population. Its usage should be

directed towards the proviso of improved wellness attention. 2.Prenatal familial

proving should be voluntary. The adult female or twosome should have guidance

that is comprehensive and provided in a linguistic communication that is easy understood by

them. Prior to reexamining written consent for antenatal testing, the twosome

should be given accurate and up-to-date information on all relevant issues

environing antenatal familial testing and Down Syndrome. This information

should be provided in a balanced mode. Each adult female or twosome should

be allowed to make up one’s mind whether antenatal familial testing is appropriate for

them based on informed pick. An appropriate period of clip should be

allowed between having information and decision making, with written

consent whether or non to continue with the trial. 3. Following a trial consequence

which implies that the foetus may hold a chance of a chromosone

abnormalcy such as Down Syndrome, the adult female or twosome should be

provided with elaborate, balanced information sing the options

available to them. This information should be provided by a

knowing and qualified wellness attention supplier such as those found

in accredited familial Centres. Balanced information should be so

recorded for the adult female or twosome to reexamine at their leisure.

Opportunities to hold the adult female or twosome speak to parents of

kids with Down Syndrome should be offered. ( www # 4 )

It is apparent that the argument over showing for Down syndrome is far from settled. It is besides apparent that people with Down syndrome can do an of import part to our society. I think if parents are non prepared to take on the challenges of a kid with Down syndrome they should hold options, should one of these options be abortion?

I would hold a difficult clip back uping person? s determination to abort, particularly holding spent some clip with a immature male child who has Down syndrome.

There are many support groups for households who have kids with Down syndrome, there are besides many households willing to follow. The plans at school for these kids are really adaptable to the demands of the person. Most kids with Down syndrome can travel to school and acquire along good, they make a valuable part to the schoolroom and their fellow pupils. The determination is a hard one and I think that there are many options that need to be explored before anyone can do an informed determination.


Cooley, W. and Graham, J. ( 1991 ) . Down syndrome & # 8211 ; an update and reappraisal for the primary baby doctor. Clin Paed 30 ( 4 ) : 233-253.

Graves, P. ( 1990 ) . The intellectually handicapped kid in Robinson MJ practical pediatricss 2nd erectile dysfunction. Melboune: Churchill Livingstone.

Kingsley, J. and Levitz, M. ( 1994 ) . Count us in: Turning up with down syndrome.

New York: Harcourt Brace & A ; Company.

Newton, R. ( 1992 ) . Down & # 8217 ; s syndrome. London: Optima.

Platt, L. and Carlson, D. ( 1992 ) . Prenatal diagnosing & # 8211 ; when and how? NEJM 327 ( 9 ) :636-638.

Pueschel, S. ( 1990 ) . Clinical facets of down syndrome from babyhood to adulthood. Am J Med Gen Supp 7: 52-56

Pueschel, S. and Pueschel, J. ( Eds ) ( 1992 ) . Biomedical concerns in individuals with down syndrome. Baltimore: Paul H Brookes Co.

Pueschel, S. ( 1992 ) . A longitudinal survey of atlanto-dens relationships in symptomless persons with Down syndrome. Pediatricss 89 ( 6 ) pg. 1194-1198.

Selikowitz, M. ( 1990 ) . Down Syndrome & # 8211 ; the facts. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Stray-Gundersen, K. ( Ed. ) ( 1995 ) . Babies with down syndrome: A new parents? usher ( 2nd edition ) . Rockville, MD: Woodbine House.

Tingey, C. ( Ed. ) ( 1988 ) . Down syndrome: A resource enchiridion. Boston, MA: College-Hill Press.

www # 1. hypertext transfer protocol: //

www # 2. hypertext transfer protocol: //

www # 3. hypertext transfer protocol: //wwwpino/ds/prenata/nsdcapf.html

A limited
time offer!
Save Time On Research and Writing. Hire a Professional to Get Your 100% Plagiarism Free Paper