Drought And Livelihoods
This study assesses livelihood framework and adaptation strategy by using pentagon livelihood capitals and sustainable livelihood framework, exploring he socio-economic, technological, geographical and natural factors on livelihood adaptation strategies. Following stratified purposive sampling techniques, four focus group discussions were conducted at four villages Of Granaries union in Pantograph district from August to October in 2014. Constraints of adapting drought were assessed by using pentagon capitals and limitations of the existing technique of the farmers in the agro- production.
The perception and knowledge of the drywall farmers in modern farming is limited and unwillingness of the farmers also causes their backwardness in terms of adaptation capacity. The findings explore that vulnerable people had little ability to adjust with the changing situation that’s why they suffer much in time of drought occurrence causing damage of crops, late crops, high irrigation cost, low fertility, unavailability of agro- information, inadequate credit.Further the findings also suggest that with the policy and its implementation, role of Noose with Goes, using drought and dry resistant crops, introducing alternative options of livelihood, poultry farming and encouraging livestock rearing and small business vulnerable farmers can adapt the adverse situation. Finally, the study tries to develop a model DAM (drought adaptation model) based on the SELF (Sustainable livelihood framework) and the idea of pentagon capitals that will help to investigate the main causes of drought vulnerability and components of livelihood adaptation constraints in the drought-prone northern Bangladesh.Keywords: Adaptation, Drought, Drywall, livelihoods, vulnerability 1 . Introduction Bangladesh is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world (Shad & Bewaring 2008). Bangladesh lies in such geographical area where various disasters have become common like floods, droughts, river bank erosion, mudslides, thunders, cyclones, northwesters and tornados etc that directly affect on peoples livelihood.
Although people and gobo. F Bangladesh are more concerned flood and cyclones as two main contributors to crop loss in the county, droughts also cause a greater damage to crops than floods or cyclones, and they affect more farmers across a wider area (Paul, 1995). High spatial and temporal climatic variability, extreme events, high population density, high incidence of poverty and social inequity, poor institutional capacity, inadequate financial resources, and poor infrastructure have made Bangladesh highly vulnerable to disaster (Aimed, 2004).Drought mostly affects the country in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods (Bangladesh, 2006). Drought damaged about 218 million tons of rice between 1 973 and 1987 in Bangladesh (Climate Change Cell, 2009). During the last 50 years, Bangladesh suffered from drought conditions about 20 times. The more severe drought-affected years were 1951, 1961, 1973, 1975, 1978, 1979, 1981, 1982, 1992, 1 994, 1 995, and 2000.
The 1 973 drought was one of the severest in the present century and was responsible for the local famine in northern Bangladesh in 1974.In the 1975 drought, 47 percent of the country was affected, causing suffering to about 53 percent (Adman, 1993). The consecutive drought of 1 978 and 1979 directly affected 42 percent of cultivated land and reduced rice production by an estimated 2 million tons (Framer, 1987). The losses due to drought in 1982 were more than double the losses caused by floods in the same year. But the most persistent drought was in 1 989 (Scaffolding, 1991 Again, the 1997 drought caused a reduction of around 1 million tons Of food grain, of which about 0. Million tons were transplanted Man. According to the climate change cell, Bangladesh has offered from 93 large-scale natural disasters that killed 0.
2 million people and caused loss of properties valued at about $59 billion in the agricultural and infrastructure sector (Climate Change Cell, 2009). According to the forecasts of Epic’s Fourth Assessment Report regarding climate change in Bangladesh, average temperature has increased by 1 g C for May and by 0. C in November. Rainfall will become heavier and more erratic while droughts will increase in frequency due to the melting of Himalayan glaciers will cause higher river flows and severe floods. As we are agricultural country we face a to of crisis for the shortage of seasonal rainfall. Again we see more dependency on the nature to the rainfall and agricultural production also another cause of vulnerability of the farmers in our country.The concept of livelihood has rapidly gained ground as an approach to rural poverty reduction in poor countries; the notions of diversity and diversification have become part and parcel of livelihood theory (Ellis, 2000).
There is also a growing appreciation of the importance of institutions-?formal and informal-?in shaping adaptation strategies and mediating the adaptive capacity of households and communities (Augural, 2008, 2010). Indeed, most social-ecological systems have undergone dramatic change in the last century due to climatic, landscape, and institutional shifts.Coping mechanisms are developed in relation to particular landscapes, livelihoods, and institutions (Augural, 2008, 201 0) and social and ecological changes have altered relations across these elements, impacting the effectiveness of particular coping strategies. Bangladesh has already shown an increased frequency Of droughts in recent years. Droughts are increasingly being reported in Rajahs, Arranger, Bogart, Dinosaur, Thousand, Pantograph, Grimace, Malaria, Cabbaging, Longhair, Serration, Nonage, Nature, Chap- Nabobs, and Austria regions.Almost every year, all areas are affected by drought, but the northwestern part of the country, however, is considered to be the most drought-prone. These regions are relatively dry, receiving much lower rainfall compared to the rest of the country (Paul, 1998).
If we institutionally and economically can’t tackle, the consequences tend to have a far-reaching effect on the given society As the economy of the country and livelihood of the farmers rely on agriculture, that’s why farmers life are being enforced to vulnerability due to the drought and aridity. They try to seek a variety of works but they can’t adapt easily. . Materials and methods 2. 1 Overview of the study area Garibaldi union Paris (smallest administrative unit) is selected as the study area which is situated in Pantograph district, the very northern district of Bangladesh lies between 260. 15 to 260. 20′ latitudes north and 880.
30′ to 880. 33 ‘ east longitudes consisting of 30 villages along with 22,292 populations nearby Indian border. Selected purposively four villages for the study (China matt, Kashmir, Monody Para and Galahad) where most of the people involve in agriculture and who involve in other occupation, their number is very low.There are some reasons to select the four villages: (1) the villages located at drywall area (2) most of the farmers are middle and tenure (3) mainly dependent on rabbi and karri production (4) economically not so stable (5) experienced a variety of drought scenario (6) vulnerable and extreme severity of occurrence (7) changing livelihood occasionally. The union is bounded by Indian border on the northwest and Marzipan union on the southwest, where Magus union is on the southeast and Tango River is on the east. 2. Sampling proceduresTo fulfill the objectives of the study a comprehensive field survey was conducted in August of 2014 regarding farmers’ livelihood and drought adaptation strategies where 202 respondents are interviewed.
A multistage sampling technique was employed for the selection of sample farmers for interview because one is selected purposively from 5 union councils after visiting the area with the consultation of Apical and union agricultural officer and key informants and in the second stage, villages are selected by stratified random sampling.I have also used purposive sampling for the qualitative data like Case studies and FIG. Farmers were the target group of the study area in order to explore how their life and livelihood is affected by drought and how they try to adjust themselves and whether they have any constraints. The questions were structured and semi-structured, where some questions were open-ended due to know the real view of the respondents from the study about the aspects. After collecting the data, open questions are coded, cleaned and refreshed by finding the weakness according to required state.When it seems clear then it has been analyzed by using SPAS where descriptive and inferential statistics are also used to assess the opacities and constraints of farmers to adapt drought, Socio-economic effect of drought on their lives and livelihoods. To analyze the qualitative data I used compilation process so that I can analyze the data formally.
There are some thematic and textual data, Verbatim statement have been used for understanding the FIG at an easy process as well as to enrich its quality, while 2 case studies have been used to develop qualitative analysis of the study as experience.Group Age Categories Villages Male Female Young 18-30 Farmers(PRI-high school) Small business Employment (HOC/Graduate) Wage earners Housewife Kashmir, China matt China matt Kashmir, Monody Para Monody Para,Galahad, Kashmir 2 3 Adult 31-50 Farmers (PRI-high school) Kashmir, China matt, Galahad Kashmir, Galahad Monody Para Galahad, Monody Para, Kashmir, China matt Monody Para, Galahad 4 6 Elderly 51+ Galahad, Monody Para Total participants 28 2. Group conversation techniques The target group of the conversation was specially farmers and how their lives and livelihood is affected by drought.The adult age people of the area are interested to the group discussion being dynamic, experienced, group discussion was based on the proportion of land and production capacity for he most vulnerable and victim of drought to explore the adaptation constraints of the farmers. The questions of the group discussions were open-ended due to know the real view of drought and livelihood, 3 key informants including 1 note taker (research assistant) were appointed who followed the flow of conversation and to complete the answer of the pre- established written script within a short time during the course of the session.Participants were asked two types of questions on the drought impacts and its adaptive capacity, a number of 15 questions were assigned to perceive the severity and changes of livelihood owing to drought in the sociality. I also used visual experiences, field observation and focus group discussion with participants that helps to develop DAM (Fig.
1 ) to explore the complexity and impacts on livelihood of the farmers in the drywall and drought-prone Granaries Union. . Data analysis Axial coding techniques were used to analyze the data so that it is easy to condense and create categories and subcategories on specific theme (Carbon and Strauss 2008). Tried to connect the expressed feelings of the participants with broader aspects to search the root cause of drought vulnerability along with the change of livelihood options largely. TO analyze the qualitative data used compilation process (total 4 focus group discussion in 1).Some thematic and textual data were used for understanding the study to assess the perceptions and awareness of farmers to drought, adaptation capacities and constraints of farmers to face drought, Socio-economic effect of drought on their lives and livelihood and how they seek alternative livelihoods with the changing nature of climate at an easy process. Again, I used some Verbatim statement in order to enrich its quality, while 2 case studies have been used to develop qualitative analysis of the study as experience.
Linking livelihood capitals to drought impacts Adaptation strategies Conceptual definitions The livelihood system consists of people and their way of life, institution, natural and social environment, resource, and economy, comprises the capabilities, assets and activities required for a means of living. A livelihood is sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets, while not undermining the natural resource base (Chambers and Conway 1992).And assets are a wide range of tangible and intangible stores of value or claims to assistance (Swift, 989) Adaptive capacity is a central concept of both vulnerability and adaptation analyses, is defined as the ability of a system to adapt to climate- related hazards by designing and implementing new strategies or by expanding coping capacity to reduce vulnerability to these hazards (Edger, 2006). Adaptive capacity depends on the suite of environmental, social, economic, and political entitlements that particular individuals, households, or communities can mobile to cope with risk.It is the Drought-coping mechanisms which amidst a backdrop of ecological and institutional change, which has increasingly restricted historical coping strategy, namely mobility. Again the new strategies enable households with the right entitlement bundle (e. G.
, access to money, new knowledge, and connections) to proactively create new opportunities for mobility in a fragmented landscape. Drought is a normal part of climate, an extreme climatic event often described as a natural hazard (Wilted, 2000).In the context of Bangladesh, Framer (1987) defines drought as a period when supply of moisture in the soil is less than that which is required for satisfactory crop growth during a season when crops re normally grown A broad definition of drought is a deficiency of precipitation over an extended period of time, usually a season or more, which results in a water shortage for some activity, group, or environmental sectors.Drywall is the area of the less soil moisture and the area of erratic rainfall with the loss of ground water level very commonly in the locality. Due to the fact of water crisis persisting for several years causes devastating effects on water supplies and agriculture sector regularly for the causing low production and damage of farming for the marginal one. Precipitation deficit also causes extended dry periods, moisture deficiency, and the duration and to a lesser extent, while surface and subsurface water resources are usually affected from extended dry periods.The drought victim and for the adjustment of drought effects, some recommendations from the study of UNDO (2000) required excavation of mini ponds, reserving water for irrigation, stocking of foods, early preparations ,planting drought resistant crops, building-up awareness among mass, taking information from Social media and workshop and seminar.
From the survey of Balloonists (2011) in Pakistan, it was founded that drought affected seriously and almost 70-72% production lost of both apple and apricot during the long abnormal period.Similarly in the present study drought seriously affects on farming; damaging and declining crops production, declining poultry production, causes of water conflict and work crisis, livestock rearing and production. Ellis (1998) studied on determinants of rural livelihood diversification based on seasonality, credit, market failure, asset and capitals and in the present study People, who have access to irrigation can produce more crops than others, the more opacity indicates the level of adaptation.To reduce drought risk (Habit and Shaw, 2010) people have to work at indigenous level giving early warning, providing the necessities to the victims, giving better suggestion, information about how to plant seed and when its best time to plant, training about hybrid crops, more production technique and utilizing leisure time by involving in alternative options of livelihood. And for diversified pattern Of agricultural strategy (Carr, 2008) showed that experience of the social and economical transitions shifts the livelihood pattern exclusively.For the policy implementation and formulation (Kiang, Gang and Xx, 201 2) showed that policy can change the vulnerability of the peoples as well as adjustment with the existing situation. 3.
1 Factors and resources affecting farmers livelihood The natural resource stocks from which resource flows useful for livelihoods are derived (e. G. Land, water, wildlife, biodiversity, environmental resources). As the aim of the study is to adapt farmers livelihood in drought-prone, natural capital is badly needed although it varies farmer to farmer based on the land ownership e. G. Landowner, tenure and landless.Another environmental resources e.
G. Trees and plants, bio-diversity also influences on the farmers livelihood systems. The financial resources (savings, supplies or credit or regular remittances or pensions) provide different livelihood options. To the farming we need savings, credit due to uncertain natural disasters even those have not credit they loan from the bank or any credit organizations to adapt the unfavorable situation. And people who have strong support in economy are less vulnerable than the poor and landless farmers while the poor bound to change their livelihood patterns.This is the um of political assets, strengths and influence like the interactions among the individual, the community, the civil society and the state that may facilitate or hinder progress towards improvement in livelihoods. The governmental activities and it’s transparency are included in political capacity by the way farmers can adapt drought by the aid and associated with the civil society who provide suggestions as well as right based action to them in the field level to create their livelihood sustainable.
The social resources (networks, social claims, social relations, affiliations, associations) upon which people draw when pursuing different livelihood strategies requiring coordinated actions. Social relation or association is necessary to develop any livelihoods and to maintain strong and deeply social relationship and association with the related authority and institutions. Farmers related with those they have to maintain relationship. Their degree of relationship and associations require the mostly adaptation strategy as well as livelihoods.The basic infrastructure (transport, shelter, water, energy and communications) and the production equipment enable people to pursue their livelihoods. These capitals also help to the way of livelihood by the development of communications, technology, transportation, being involved with the production system. As farmers depend on the agriculture they have to store their crops in the storage and that’s why the transportation system is required to favorable.
Even it is good to communicate with the traders, seed plants, businessmen, etc for their purpose.Livelihood resources require different strategy, where livelihood combination is a key step in the process of analysis on successful agricultural intensification; access to natural capital, economic capital, and social capital. Understanding in a dynamic and historical context, how different livelihood resources are sequenced and combined in the pursuit of different livelihood strategies is therefore critical and several issues are important here. It is not only the total number of livelihoods created that is important, but also the level of livelihood intensity (Chambers 1981).Livelihood resources may be combined creatively and innovative, often in complex ways, to create more livelihoods in a particular area; degraded land may be transformed with the investment of labor and skill, resulting in the accumulation of natural capital, offering the potential for ore livelihood opportunities. Socio-economic differences, of course, exist within any site, and these also have a major impact on the composition of livelihood adaptation strategies.A wide number of axes of difference are relevant, including contrasts of asset ownership, income levels, gender, age, and religious affiliation, and caste, social or political status and so on.
In relation to the analysis framework, these refer to differences in basic livelihood resources or to broader contextual factors, because institutions are the social cement which link stakeholders to access to capital of different minds to the means of exercising power and so define the gateways through which they pass on the route to positive or negative livelihood adaptation (Davies (1997: 24).A key issue in the analysis of livelihood strategies is the scale at which an assessment takes place and can be described at an individual, household and village level, as well as sat regional or even national levels. A successful agricultural intensification strategy pursued by one person can provide an opportunity for another person’s agricultural processing or petty trading by diverting such factors; land, labor, credit or arrest for livelihood diversification strategy.The combination of such activities that are pursued can be seen as a livelihood portfolio and such portfolios can be highly specialized with a concentration on one or a limited range of activities. Different livelihood pathways are evident over different time-scales and over seasons and between years, variations in options emerge (Chambers, 1 981 Over longer periods – over several generations, for example – more substantial shifts in combinations may occur, as local and external conditions change.It is this dynamic element, evident in the imposition and re-composition of livelihood strategies, which is important to examine, especially in the context of assessing the sustainability of different options. This makes an historical approach central to any analysis.
Social capital Political capital Natural capital physical capital Figure 1: Drought Adaptation Model 4. Results 4. Effects of drought on livelihoods and farming As livelihood is maintained by the numerous occupations and sources of earnings that’s why Drought as a calamity affects on the farming and livelihood options. It has much impact on farming as well as non-farming like; ate production of the crops, loss of the production, damages of the crops, more cost in the irrigation, shortage of food, migration and increase of vulnerability with the occurrence of drought in the locality.