Dried fruit is fruit that has been dried, either naturally or through use of a machine, such as a dehydrator. Vine fruits make up over three-quarters of the total global dried fruit volume. Prunes (also referred to as plums) and dates are other examples of popular dried fruits in the EU. Dried fruit has a long shelf life and can therefore provide a good alternate to fresh fruit, allowing out of season fruits to be available. Drying is a good way to preserve fruit in the absence of refrigeration. Dried fruit and vegetables are whole, cut, sliced, broken or powdered, but not prepared further.
In addition to drying, certain preservatives may be added to maintain the equality. For instance, sulphur dioxide is added to prevent fruit discolouring. The use and content of preservatives in food is regulated by the EU (see also paragraph 10 on legislative requirements in the CBI market survey ‘The preserved fruit and vegetable market in the EU’ and chapter 5 of this Survey). Organic dried fruit is produced without sulphur which results in dark fruit and the flavour is much more characteristic. Vine fruits Vine fruits are essentially dried grapes and comprise sultanas, raisins and currants.
Dry Fruits Essay Example
The sultana is a soft, juicy, amber coloured fruit with a very sweet flavour. It is largely produced from a seedless white grape and varies in shape from round to oval according to variety. The majority is produced from the Thompson seedless grape. The sultana has its own distinctive sun-drying treatment which varies depending on origin, but which differentiates it from a raisin. One method is to spray the grape with a vegetable-based drying oil, prior to sun-drying. The actual sun-drying process can also vary, depending on country of origin.
One method is to sun-dry the clusters of fruit on racks in partial shade. Another method is to place the fruit in the open sun on specially shaped drying areas. Drying can take from a week to ten days until the moisture content has been reduced sufficiently (to around 16%) to produce succulent sultanas. The fruit is then washed and cleaned and given a fine coating of vegetable oil. This keeps the fruit moist and prevents the berries from sticking together. Raisins, dark brown and wrinkled with a sweet mellow flavour, are produced from unseeded or seeded, white or black grapes.
The vast majority is, however, produced from the seedless white Thompson grape. A grape becomes a raisin when its moisture content has been reduced through sun-drying, to around 16%. The grape is harvested when ripened to its fullest and is picked in clusters. At this stage the methods implemented for sun-drying vary greatly in accordance with the different countries of origin. Methods used include drying the grapes on clean paper trays between the vines, or placing the grapes on special concrete drying areas.
The fruit lies in the full blaze of the sun, as opposed to partial shade, for 2-3 weeks until the grape’s moisture content has been reduced to around 16% into the caramel brown raisin we are familiar with. The raisins, as with sultanas, are packed into storage bins to keep the fruit moist, and are washed and oiled before export. Currants are dried, black, seedless grapes. All currants derive from the same variety of grape known as the Corinth and this is from where the word “currant” originated.
The methods for sun-drying currants vary according to the climate and soil of the region, but keeping the grape in the shade for the first part of the drying period is said to produce the best quality currants. Dried tropical fruits such as mangoes, papayas, and bananas are becoming a more common item in European health food stores and supermarkets, where they are sold pre-packed in cellophane bags as well as in bulk (by weight). Usually, these products are sold with sugar added for sweetness and sulphur added for color retention, although “all natural” product is preferred by the health food stores.
Other major developed markets, such as Japan, purchase dried tropical fruits, but in much smaller quantities. Customers The major customers of dried tropical fruits are (a) the dried fruit and nut industry (selling mixed retail packs consisting of dried tropical fruits and other dried fruits and nut, also selling retail packs consisting solely of one dried tropical fruit); (2) breakfast cereal industry (mostly in musli); and (3) the confectionary industry (in fruit and health bars, ingredients to chocolate bars).
In most countries, importers or agents act as intermediaries, although some of the packers and food processors also import directly. Health risk: Infestation of dried apricot in bags under laboratory conditions. 185 Mites were found on the exterior of the packing during inspection, which indicates 186 that they migrated from the inside of the infested packing to the surface. The packing differed in its protection to the mite infestation and decreased from polypropylene 188 back with aluminum foil, cellophane sac, polypropylene bag to plastic bag.
However, 189 after six months, the mites penetrated into all types of packing. The highest numbers 190 of mites were observed in plastic bags packing. Our field data from supermarkets showed a contamination density with a 231 maximum of 650 individuals per g of dried food. The simulation model indicates that 232 such levels of contamination can be reached quickly during storage of contaminated 233 dried fruit in supermarkets or consumers’ kitchens.
From a hypothetical initial mite 234 population of 10 individuals, the risk level observed in supermarkets (650 individuals) 235 is reached very quickly: 42 days of population multiplication on dried figs, 49 days on dried pineapple and 63 days on dried apricots, dates and plums (Figure 2) in 237 hypothetical temperature 25 ? C. The labeled time for consumption is half a year or longer; however, mites are not 239 detected by buyers, consumers, or inspectors in this time frame because the mites 240 are not visible to the human eye due to their small size.
Similar observations have 241 been made in grain stores, in which farmers seriously underrated the risk of 242 infestation by mites and psocids (Stejskal and Hubert 2008) because mite 243 contamination was not visible due to the microscopic size of the mites. Exploitation of dried fruit as a carrier of functional ingredients is a relatively new concept, although the functional properties of such products originated from the nature of drying process, where the removal of water leads to a natural concentration of healthy fruit components.
Even taking into consideration the fact that traditional drying technology leads to serious losses of bioactive compounds, dried fruit can still be a valuable source not only of energy, dietary fibre and minerals, but also of anti-oxidant activity. Natives in Canada used to dry berries in order to have enough vitamin C during the off-season to protect them against scurvy (Turner, 1997). Due to the application of modern technology, the matrix of fruits and vegetables can be fortified with healthpromoting compounds such as prebiotics, vitamins, or minerals.
This is considered to be an important area for future research into the development of functional food markets (Alzamora et al. , 2005; Fito et al. , 2001). Based on the natural potential of fruit, and the opportunities offered by modern technology, the idea arose within the ISAFRUIT Integrated Project to develop novel, convenient, dried fruit products with functional properties that could contribute to the increased consumption of healthy products. New food product development, especially those with functional properties, represents a high risk for any company (van Trijp and Steenkamp, 2005; van Kleef et al. 2002; 2005). Statistics show that many functional food products, even when developed from a sound scientific point of view, encounter poor market acceptance (Hilliam, 1998). Approx. 75% of newly launched food products are withdrawn from the food market during their first 2 years (Menrad, 2003). Consumer acceptance of a specific functional ingredient is linked to consumer knowledge of its health effects, thus, the first essential step in product development is to explore which diseases consumers are actually concerned about (van Kleef et al. 2005; Menrad, 2003). To consume functional foods, consumers also need to know what benefit they will get from consuming a particular food, and why (Wansink et al. , 2005). For many years, in the European Union, using disease-related information on packages or in product advertisements for a functional food was forbidden (Menrad, 2003). In July 2007, regulations on the nutritional and health claims that can be made for a food were introduced (EC Reg. No. 1924/2006).
This provides the food industry with new legislation opportunities to design innovative products with added nutritional value (Schaafsma and Kok, 2005). Apart from the proper formulation of health claims, the product should also be presented in an attractive form so that consumers can accept easily it (van Kleef et al. , 2005). . Statistics show that many functional food products, even when developed from a sound scientific point of view, encounter poor market acceptance (Hilliam, 1998). Approx. 75% of newly launched food products are withdrawn from the food market during their first 2 years (Menrad, 2003).
Consumer acceptance of a specific functional ingredient is linked to consumer knowledge of its health effects, thus, the first essential step in product development is to explore which diseases consumers are actually concerned about (van Kleef et al. , 2005; Menrad, 2003). To consume functional foods, consumers also need to know what benefit they will get from consuming a particular food, and why (Wansink et al. , 2005). For many years, in the European Union, using disease-related information on packages or in product advertisements for a functional food was forbidden (Menrad, 2003).
In July 2007, regulations on the nutritional and health claims that can be made for a food were introduced (EC Reg. No. 1924/2006). This provides the food industry with new legislation opportunities to design innovative products with added nutritional value (Schaafsma and Kok, 2005). Apart from the proper formulation of health claims, the product should also be presented in an attractive form so that consumers can accept easily it (van Kleef et al. , 2005). Conclusion: In this study, a tendency was observed that consumers appreciated candies and muesli bars with dried fruit and with natural fruit sugars.
It seems that this type of product could benefit from adding dried fruit with natural fruit sugars. Similarly, Bech-Larsen et al. (2001) noticed that consumers do not increase the healthiness of yoghurts and juices with functional ingredients because these products are already perceived as being healthy per se. In contrast, spreads could benefit from functional enrichment, because this product is perceived as inherently unhealthy. Risks: Surveys of European and US dried tropical fruit importers, conducted in March 1998, found that importers are less interested in sun-dried product and very competitive overall.
The perception is that the product will have too many foreign products (insect fragments, defects, spoilage, microbiological problems, bacteria) and will not pass food safety regulations. Some would be willing to look at the sun dried product and see whether it meets specifications however, all stressed that the market is well supplied and that new entrants must have some comparative advantage in terms of price or presentation. http://www. foodnet. cgiar. org/market/Uganda/reports/Driedfruits. PDF Nutrition: * “Soft” dry fruit (apricots, raisins, dates, figs, prunes…) are rich in arbohydrates and low in fat. They are sources of fibre, vitamins and minerals (vitamin A in the form of beta-carotene, vitamins E and niacin (PP), iron, magnesium…). The fragility of vitamin C means that there is virtually none in dried fruit. The richness of the carbohydrates contained within their small volume makes dry fruit a favourite food of sports people during or after physical exertion (mountain biking, hiking, walking, marathon running, etc… ). The most calorie-rich of these foods are raisins (1340 kJ/100 g or 320 kcal/100 g) followed by dates (1255 kJ/100g or 300 kcal/100 g).
The richest in potassium and sodium are dried apricots. Dried banana has the highest magnesium content. Figs have the most calcium. * Nuts (walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds) are rich in oil: they provide energy in the form of lipids (fatty acids, especially mono- and polyunsaturated ones), and therefore have a very high calorie content (2510 kJ/100g or 600 kcal/100 g). They are rich in fibre, minerals (magnesium, calcium, iron, phosphorus…) and vitamins (B1, B2, B5, B6, B9, E, PP). http://www. eufic. org/page/en/page/faq/faqid/fruit-dry-nutritional-benefits/ sulphur dioxide Allergic reaction ~ Asthma